10th grade World History Final Exam

10th grade World History Final Exam

Capitalism/Democracy
To have the right to vote for your country’s leaders and have a free market.
Communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Containment
the US trying to “contain” Communism
Truman Doctrine
President Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism
Berlin Airlift
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
NATO/Warsaw Pact
NATO is North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which consists of the Neterlands, France, Italy, Canada, and Great Britain, and they formed a military alliance to protect each other from the Soviet aggression in 1949. In 1955, a similar military alliance was formed by Soviet Union with countries such as Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary and is known as the Warsaw Treaty Organization, or the Warsaw Pact.
Iron Curtain
the barrier straight down europe, seperating Captialist (the West) and Communist (the East). This was said by Winston Churchill
Mao Zedong
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
Chaing kai-Shek
leader of nationalist, anti communist, forces in China
Korean War
…, a war between North and South Korea
38th Parallel
…, line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
U-2 Incident
…, The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Sputnik
…, The world’s first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Berlin Wall
…, A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Bay of Pigs/Fidel Castro
. Castro got assistance from Soviets, Soviets set up presence near America. America invaded Cuba’s bay of pigs to stop this communist take over by Castro and USSR. This invasion failed.
Sig: Soviets were able to establish their presence in the Western hemisphere through Cuba and Fidel Castro. The US’ effort to stop this was the invasion at the bay of pigs. Soviets had given Cuba nuclear missiles to prevent more invasions/conflicts– this threat scared everyone.
Cuban Missile Crisis
…, Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter’s placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.
John F. Kennedy
…, president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the Cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on TV and told the public about the crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet union to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the Berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
-he also was the president to say “I am a jelly-filled doughnut”
Ronald Reagan
…, 40th president from 1981-1989. Tearing down of the Berlin Wall and Ending the Cold War after spending millions of dollars on arms. Iran-Contra Affair.
Nikita Khrushchev
…, The leader of the Soviet Union following Stalin ruling from 1953-1964. He created the Cuban Missile Crisis, and favored a peaceful co-existence with the west.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Nuremburg
…, the place at which the trials against the Nazis were held after the war to determine thier punishments for the war crimes that they had committed
Battle of Midway
…, U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Pearl Harbor
…, United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Okinawa
…, The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an “island-hopping” campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Guadalcanal
…, Site of the US’s first invasion of Japanese-held territory. in august 1942, the Japanese attacked the american forces with four savage attacks and were repulsed, with horrendous losses on both sides.
Lend-Lease
…, allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered “vital to the defense of the U.S.”
Doolittle Raid
…, counterattack after Pearl Harbor that bomb Japan, did little but boosted moral because it was the US was bombing home-land Japan, which had not occurred before
Blitzkreig
…, German word meaning “lightning war” which describes the swift attacks launched by the Germans in WWII
V-E Day
… “Victory in Europe Day”, the day Germany surrendered and WWII ended in Europe
V-J Day
…”Victory in Japan Day” they day Japan surrendered and WWII ended
Hiroshima/Nagasaki
…, Two Japanese cities on which the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs to end World War II.
Appeasement
…giving in to. The European leaders did this to Hitler, thinking that if they just let him have one more country, he would be satisfied
Holocaust
…, A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
D-Day
…, June 6, 1944 – Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Operation Overlord
…, the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
Battle of the Bulge
…, WWII battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west
Battle of the Atlantic
…, Germany’s naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the US to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war. 1939-1945
Winston Churchill
…, A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an Iron Curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
…, 32nd US President – He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation’s leader during most of WWII
Josef Stalin
…, was general secretary of the Communist party, became the leader and dictator of Russia after Lenin’s death. He brought Russia out of recession and made Russia the second leading industrial superpower during the Second World War
Operation Barbarossa
…, codename for Nazi Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
Stalingrad
…, City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union.
Battle of Britain
…, An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German air force, and the British Royal Air Force,. The British were able to push back the German air force
Vichy France
…, Southern Pro-Nazi French; govern themselves as loyal to nazis; traitors to the Free French in N. France
Island Hopping
…, stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing Japanese-held islands and going around others
Manhattan Project
…, code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Emperor Hirohito
…, Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II
Hideki Tojo
…, Japan’s prime minister. ordered attack on pearl harbor
Kamikaze
…, Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Bolsheviks
…, Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin’s leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
Karl Marz
…, wrote “The Communist Manifesto” and is considered to be the father of Communism
Proletariat
…, This was the working class in that was constantly battling against the bourgeois factory owners
Bourgeoisie
…, class owning the means for producing wealth
Czar Nicholas II
…, The last czar of Russia. He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution’s leadership.
March Revolution
As a result of this revolution the 300 years of autocratic rule was replaced with the provisional government
November Revolution
…, Nov. 1917 when Lenin and the Bolshevik followers over threw provisional government and took over the Russian government, making it communist
Vladimir Lenin
First Communist leader of Russia, who had over thrown the provisional government
Red Army
made up of the Bolsheviks and those support Communism
White Army
…, made up of different groups who supported the return of the czar; wanted democratic government; socialists who opposed Lenin’s style of socialism; against Bolsheviks
Totalitarianism
…, a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Great Purge
…, The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
Amritsar Massacre
…, To protest British rule over India, Indians gathered in Amritsar, where British troops fired on the crowd killing several hundred. This sparked further protests
Salt March
…, The British told the Indians that they could only buy salt from them. To rebel against this, Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the coast, collected water, let it evaporate, and made their own salt.
Mahatma Gandhi
…, Great revolutionary who led India to independence from Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience
Mein Kampf
…, ‘My Struggle’ by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession
Lebensraum
…, Hitler’s expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire “living space” for the German people
Third Reich
…, The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler’s rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
Sudetenland
…, Land that Germany thought was rightfully theirs due to the large German speaking population
Rhineland
…, A region in Germany designated a demilitarized zone by the Treaty of Versailles; Hitler violated the treaty and sent German troops there in 1936
Munich Conference
…, 1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany’s territory any further.
Non-Aggression Pact
…, 1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
Neville Chamberlain
…, Prime Minister of Great Britain from -1940. Famous for appeasing Hitler at the Munich Conference.
M.A.I.N
…,The main causes of WWI; Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism.
Triple Alliance
…, an alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
Triple Entente
…, An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
The Allies
…, France, Italy, Great Britain, & Russia
The Central Powers
…, Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Germany
Gavrilo Princip
…, The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
The Black Hand
…, A Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom. Responsible for the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
Franz Ferdinand
…, archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I
Western Front
Capitalist countries
Easter Front
Communist countries
Schlieffen Plan
…, Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Trench Warfare
…, war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas
Propaganda
…, ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Alvin York
…, Tennessee-born soldier whose action in the Argonne Forest made him an american hero, killed 25 machine-gunners and captured 132 German soldiers when his soldiers took cover; won Congressional Medal of Freedom
George M. Cohan
…Composer of the calling card song ‘Over There’
Over There
…the “calling card” in the US propaganda during the WWI
Armistice Day
…, November 11, 1918; Germany signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting); this US holiday is now known as Veterans Day
Treaty of Versailles
…, the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Woodrow Wilson
…, U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the Treaty of Versailles
Fourteen Points
…, the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
League of Nations
…, International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Trenchfoot
…, A condition which caused soldiers’ feet to swell and turn black. Because of water in the trenches.
No Man’s Land
…, Area between opposing trenches
Poison Gas
…, technology used in trench warfare (WWI) first by Germans, then British and French that caused burning in the eyes and throat and a slow death
1st battle of the Marne
…,, the 1st major battle on the Western Front, Germans used the Schlieffan Plan: France vs. Germany. France won
2nd Battle of the Marne
…, with the American’s help, the allies were able to push back the Germans in the 2nd Battle of the Marne. Germans plan was to attack Paris again. They were within 50 miles of Paris when they were stopped at the Marne by French, Moroccan, and American troops. Supported by 100’s of tanks they threw the Germans back over the Marne.
Battle of the Somme
…, At Somme River.where the soldiers went over the top of the trenches and tried to take to enemy’s trench(the Germans). Not effective and most died.
Doughboys
… nickname for American soldiers in World War I
King Leopold II
…, the Belgian king who opened up the African interior to European trade along the Congo River and by 1884 controlled the area known as the Congo Free State
Menelik II
…, Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.
Social Darwinism
…, Applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection and “survival of the fittest” to human society — the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Berlin Conference
…Conference in which European countries met to decide who gets what country in Africa, No African representative were present or mentioned
Natural Selection
…, process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest -Charles Darwin came up with the idea
Paternalism
…, the attitude (of a person or a government) that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good(this occurred when they European countries tired to control African countries)
Sepoy Mutiny
…, (1857) Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; killed British officers, and proclaimed restoration of the Mughal authority; had different interests, and were crushed by the British
Dreyfus Affair
…, Incident in France where a Jewish captain was tried for treason because they military was anti-Semitic, and it divided the country
Spanish-American War
…, An 1898 conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the United States supported Cubans’ fight for independence
U.S.S. Maine
…, “start” of the Span-Amer war; exploded off the coast of cuba and it was blamed on spanish torpedoes; heightened by yellow journalists
Raj Period
…, British dominion over India (1757-1947)
Indochina
…, a peninsula of southeastern Asia that includes Myanmar and Cambodia and Laos and Malaysia and Thailand and Vietnam
Emilio Aguinaldo
…, Filipino General – helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war -but then helped Philippines gain freedom from US
Monroe Doctrine
…, President James Monroe’s statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Extraterritorial Rights
…When europeans entered China, the Extraterritorial Rights stated that they did not have to abide by the Chinese laws, but yet they still had to abide by the country’s laws from which they came from
Boxer Rebellion
…, A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Qing Dynasty
…, the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Panama Canal
…, a ship canal cut through panama connecting the caribbean sea with the pacific ocean
4 Factors of Prodcution
1) Land
2) Capitol
3)Labor
4)Entrepreneurship
Adam Smith
…, Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism(also known as ‘the invisible hand”
Horizontal Integration
When a company buys out their competition
Vertical Integration
When a company buys out their suppliers
Progressive Ear
…, after 1900 under president Theodor Roosevelt federal government started to regulate corrupt industrial practices
Andrew Carnegie
…, controlled the steel industry
John D. Rockefeller
…, Established the Standard Oil Company
Communist Manifesto
…, This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
Anti-Semitism
…, Prejudice against Jews
Zionism
…, A movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Michael Collins
…, A revolutionary leader who helped to form the Irish Republican Army. This leader developed guerilla war tactics during the War of Independence, and fought for the Free State during the Civil War.
Manifest Destiny
…, This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
The Alamo
…, Santa Anna’s army succeeded in late 1836. His force of 4000 men laid siege to San Antonio, whose 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After repeated attacks, the remaining 187 Texans including Davy Crockett were wiped out and a few weeks later Mexican troops massacred some 350 Teas prisoners. (the texas independence movement)
Mexican-American War
…, 1846 – 1848 – President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico’s land.
Election of 1860
…, The election in which Abraham Lincoln was first elected President . Caused a chain reaction of southern states to secede from the Union since they were afraid of Lincoln’s policies.
American Civil War
…, civil war in the United States between the North and the South
Emancipation Proclamation
…, Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Gettysburg Address
…, a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Reconstruction Era
…, the time after the Civil War between 1866 and 1877 when the institutions and infrastructure of the South were rebuilt
Ivan Pavlov
…, discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell
Sigmund Freud
…, Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
Napoleon Bonaparte
…, general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d’état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba
Coup D’Etat
…, A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
Peninsular War
…, a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
Scorched-Earth Policy
…, Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land
Waterloo
…, the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Elba
…, This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
100 Days
…, March 20, 1814 Napoleon escapes from Elba at reinstates his rule which were known as the ______.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Peninsulares
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
Creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
Mulattos
persons of mixed European and African ancestry
Toussaint L’Ouverture
…, Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
Unification
the state of being joined or united or linked
Seperation
culturally distinct group breaks away
Camillo Cavour
The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia’s unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian nationalist and revolutionary who conquered Sicily and Naples and added them to a unified Italy in 1860.
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
Apollo 11
made the first lunar landing, July 20, 1969 – Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin with Mike Collins in orbit.
IRA- Irish Republican Army
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
Wake Island
Japan attacked on December 7, 1941, but American marines held them off until island fell on Desember 23rd and 1,600 Americans surrendered and became POWs. Referred to as “The Alamo of Pacific” in honor of heroic defense.