6 Examples of Current Legislation in Relation to Safeguarding

6 Examples of Current Legislation in Relation to Safeguarding

TDA 2. 2SAFEGUARDING THE WELFARE OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE Assessment Criteria 1. 1Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e-safety. School Child Protection Policy A sample policy is included in the “Policies” section of this student’s binder; it is called “XYZ SCHOOL CHILD PROTECTION POLICY”. At the end of it other of the school’s policies are cited which can also be referenced. Further, within this policy, documents such as “Children Act 1989” and “Working Together” are referred to.

The policy states, “[t]he procedures have been developed in co-operation with the North Yorkshire Area Child Protection Committee (NYACPAC) and the Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB). ” I was not able to locate my local school’s “E-Safety Policy”, however I did locate a “School E-Safety Policy Template” by the Southwest Grid for Learning Trust, which is to work in conjunction with other school policies like the Anti-Bullying Policy, and which covers items such as those in the following lists. It embraces the use of ICT as learning changes with technological advancements but works for best practices to ensure safety.

Also read: Legal and Organisational Requirements For Dealing With Complaints in Care

Also read: Identify When Children and Young People Require Urgent Medical Attention

Policy Statements • Education – Students / Pupils • Education – Parents / Carers • Education – Extended Schools • Education and training – Staff • Training – Governors • Technical – infrastructure / equipment, filtering and monitoring • Curriculum • Use of digital and video images • Data protection • Communications • Unsuitable / inappropriate activities • Responding to incidents of misuse Appendices: • Student / Pupil Acceptable Use Policy Agreement Template • Staff and Volunteers Acceptable Use Policy Agreement Template • Parents / Carers Acceptable Use Policy Agreement Template • School Filtering Policy template School Password Security Policy template • School Personal Data Policy template • School E-Safety Charter • Ideas for schools to consider[i] Current Legislation According to the NSPCC, “There is no single piece of legislation that covers child protection in the UK, but rather a myriad of laws and guidance that are continually being amended, updated and revoked. Laws are amended by new legislation passed by Westminster, the Welsh Assembly Government, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the Scottish Parliament. This is known as statutory law, but laws also have to be interpreted by the courts.

The way in which courts interpret laws is known as case law, and this can also have the effect of amending statutory law. ” Some of the pertinent pieces of legislation are as follows. The material is quoted from an NSPCC factsheet called “An introduction to child protection legislation in the UK” unless otherwise cited. [ii] The Children Act 1989 The current child protection system is based on the Children Act 1989, which was introduced in an effort to reform and clarify the existing plethora of laws affecting children. [I]t enshrined a number of principles.

The paramountcy principle means that a child’s welfare is paramount when making any decisions about a child’s upbringing. The court must also ascertain the wishes and feelings of the child and shall not make an Order unless this is “better for the child than making no Order at all” (section 1). Every effort should be made to preserve the child’s home and family links. It introduced the concept of parental responsibility which is defined as “the rights, duties, powers and responsibilities which by law a parent of a child has in relation to the child and his property” (section 3).

The Children Act 1989 … charges local authorities with the “duty to investigate … if they have reasonable cause to suspect that a child who lives, or is found, in their area is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm” (section 47). Local authorities are also charged with a duty to provide “services for children in need, their families and others” (section 17). It is section 31 of the Children Act 1989 that sets out the NSPCC’s “authorised person status” which means the NSPCC has the power to apply directly for a court order if it believes a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm.

Two key guidance documents exist to help professionals to identify children at risk and to work together to protect them: [1] Guidance on interagency cooperation under the Children Act 1989 was first published in 1991. The current guidance, Working together to safeguard children: a guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children (HM Government, 2010), is currently under review. [2] The Framework for the assessment of children in need and their families (DH, 2000) is non-statutory guidance that provides professionals with a systematic way of identifying children in need and ascertaining the best way of helping those children and their families. A simple guide for anyone working with children, What to do if you’re worried a child is being abused. (HM Government, 2006), outlines the child protection processes and systems contained in the Working Together and Framework for Assessment documents.

Whilst local authorities have a mandatory duty to investigate if they are informed a child may be at risk, there are no specific mandatory child abuse reporting laws in the UK that require professionals to report their suspicions to the authorities. However in Northern Ireland, it is an offence not to report an arrestable crime to the police. Since the Children Act 1989, many new laws have been passed to strengthen the ways children are protected. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (UN, 1989) … includes the right to protection from abuse, the right to express their iews and have them listened to and the right to care and services for disabled children or children living away from home. The Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law. … [C]hildren are covered by this legislation as they are persons in the eyes of the law, just as adults are (Bainham, 2005 p82). The Act makes it unlawful for public authorities to act in a manner which is incompatible with the rights and freedoms contained in the Act. It also requires the Government and the courts to ensure that court rulings and new Bills are compatible with the Act wherever possible.

These rights include the right to respect for private and family life. The Education Act 2002 includes a provision (section 175 [“Protecting and involving young people”) requiring school governing bodies, local education authorities and further education institutions to make arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Children Act 2004 Following the death of eight-year old Victoria Climbie in 2000, the Government asked Lord Laming to conduct an inquiry to help decide whether it needed to introduce new legislation and guidance to improve the child protection system in England.

The … Victoria Climbie Inquiry report (Laming, 2003) [resulted in] the Keeping children safe report (DfES, 2003) and the Every child matters green paper (DfES, 2003), which in turn led to the Children Act 2004. Although much of this legislation still applies, the election of a Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition government in May 2010 has led to a shift in thinking on child protection, and a number of changes in approach are currently under discussion.

In June 2010 the new government invited Professor Eileen Munro to conduct an independent review of children’s social work and child protection practice in England. Children and Families Minister, Tim Loughton said that it would provide an opportunity to counteract a culture in child protection, “which places too much emphasis on bureaucratic box ticking above close personal attention to the circumstances of individual children”.

The Munro review of child protection: final report (Munro, May 2011) called for a more child-focused system and a reduction in prescriptive timescales and targets from central government. A child centred system: the government’s response to the Munro review (DfE, July 2011) accepted all but one of Munro’s recommendations, and laid out a programme of proposed changes over the following years. Pending alterations have been noted throughout this briefing.

The Children Act 2004 does not replace or even amend much of the Children Act 1989. Instead it sets out the process for integrating services to children [emphasis by person quoting this material]. It covers England and Wales in separate sections. Besides creating the post of Children’s Commissioner for England, the Children Act 2004 places a duty on local authorities to appoint a director of children’s services and an elected lead member for children’s services, who is ultimately accountable for the delivery of services.

The coalition government published revised statutory guidance relating to the two posts in April 2012 (DfE, 2012). The Act places a duty on local authorities and their partners (including the police, health service providers and the youth justice system) to co-operate in promoting the wellbeing of children and young people and to make arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.

The Act also puts Local Safeguarding Children Boards on a statutory footing (replacing the non-statutory Area Child Protection Committees) and gives them functions of investigation and review (section 14), which they use to review all child deaths in their area. Section 58 of the Children Act 2004 updates the legislation on physical punishment. It limits the use of the defence of reasonable punishment so that it can no longer be used when people are charged with the offences against a child of wounding, actual or grievous bodily harm or cruelty … (DCSF, 2007).

After the Children Act 2004 … The Education Act 2011 makes changes to provisions on school discipline and will place restrictions on the public reporting of allegations made against teachers. The intention is for most of the sections of the Act to have commenced by the start of the 2012 academic year. Assessment Criteria 1. 2Describe the roles of different agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people. On the website safeguardingchildren. co. k, in the Section entitled “Agency Roles and Responsibilities”, the following information is provided re Children’s Social Care, an Emergency Duty Team, Schools and Governing Bodies, Senior Members of Staff with Designated Responsibility for Child Protection and Further Education Institutions and Governing Bodies (the later for children under eighteen years of age). Children’s Social Care The agency with lead responsibility for child protection within North Yorkshire is the Local Authority Children and Young People’s Service, Children’s Social Care. Children’s Social Care has the following responsibilities: Assess, plan and provide support to children in need, particularly those suffering or likely to suffer significant harm; • Make enquiries under Section 47 of the Children Act 1989 wherever there is reason to suspect that a child in its area is at risk of significant harm; • Convene and chair Child Protection Conferences under LSCB procedures; • Maintain the Electronic Social Care Record (ESCR) known as ICS; • Provide a Key Worker for every child subject to a Child Protection Plan; • Ensure that the agencies who are party to the protection plan coordinate their activities to protect the child; • Undertake a Core Assessment where required ensuring they comply with the standards set out in LSCB Procedures, Appendix 4; • Convene regular reviews of the progress of any child subject to a Child Protection Plan through both Core Group and Child Protection Conference Review meetings; • Instigate legal proceedings where required. Additionally Children’s Social Care are a responsible authority in North Yorkshire within the Licensing Act (2003) and Gambling Act (2005) for the protection of children criterion. The primary duty of all staff, whatever their nominated role, is to protect children from significant harm. Emergency Duty Team (EDT) Staff working in EDTs must distinguish carefully, often on the basis of inadequate and/or incomplete information: • What immediate action may be required to ensure the immediate and longer term safety of a child; and • What further responses may be best left to day time services.

EDT staff should ensure that all relevant information obtained and actions taken out of office hours are transmitted without delay to the relevant sections within Adult & Community Services and Children’s Social Care and other agencies as appropriate. Children and Young People’s Service: Education The duty of local authorities, schools of all kinds and FE colleges to have arrangements for carrying out their functions with a view to safeguarding & promoting the welfare of children is under sections 175 & 157 of the Education Act 2002. Education staff have a crucial role to play in helping identify welfare concerns and indicators of possible abuse or neglect at an early stage. The local authority has a nominated a lead officer with responsibly for safeguarding and promoting the welfare of all children at three levels.

These responsibilities are: • Strategic – coordinating and planning service delivery; • Support – ensuring schools are aware of their responsibilities, monitoring their performance and ensuring training, model policies and procedures and advice and support is available; • Operational – taking responsibility for safeguarding children who are excluded from school or who have not obtained a school place, for example children and pupil referral units or being educated by the authority’s home tutor service; involvement in dealing with allegations against staff and volunteers; and ensuring arrangements are in place to prevent unsuitable staff and volunteers from working with children. Schools and Governing Bodies Governing Body should ensure that: • the school has a child protection policy and procedures in place that are in accordance with local authority guidance and locally agreed inter-agency procedures, and the policy is made available to parents on request; • the school operates safe recruitment procedures and makes sure that all appropriate checks are carried out on staff and volunteers who ork with children; • the school has procedures for dealing with allegations of abuse against staff and volunteers that comply with guidance from the local authority and locally agreed inter-agency procedures; • a senior member of the school’s leadership team is designated to take lead responsibility for child protection (and deputy); • staff undertake appropriate child protection training; • they remedy, without delay, any deficiencies or weaknesses regarding child protection arrangements; • a governor is nominated to be responsible for liaising with the local authority and /or partner agencies in the event of allegations of abuse being made against the head teacher; • where services or activities are provided on the school premises by another body, the body concerned has appropriate policies and procedures in place in regard to safeguarding children and child protection and liaises with the school on these matters where appropriate; • they review their policies and procedures annually and provide information to the local authority about them and about how the above duties have been discharged The Headteacher should ensure that: the policies and procedures adopted by the Governing Body or Proprietor are fully implemented, and followed by all staff; • sufficient resources and time are allocated to enable the designated person and other staff to discharge their responsibilities; and • all staff and volunteers feel able to raise concerns about poor or unsafe practice in regard to children, and such concerns are addressed sensitively and effectively in a timely manner in accordance with agreed whistle blowing policies. Senior Members of Staff with Designated Responsibility for Child Protection should ensure the following: Referrals • Refer cases of suspected abuse or allegations to the relevant investigating agencies; • Act as a source of support, advice and expertise within the educational establishment; • Liaise with head teacher to inform him/her of any issues and ongoing investigations and ensure there is always cover for this role. Training • To recognise how to identify signs of abuse and when it is appropriate to make a referral; • Have a working knowledge of how LSCBs operate, the onduct of a child protection case conference and be able to attend and contribute to these; • Ensure that all staff have access to and understand the school’s child protection policy; • Ensure that all staff have induction training; • Keep detailed accurate secure written records and/or concerns; • Obtain access to resources and attend any relevant or refresher training courses at least every two years. • Raising Awareness. All staff and volunteers • fully comply with the school’s policies and procedures; • attend appropriate training; • inform the designated person of any concerns. Further Education Institutions and Governing Bodies See arrangements above for schools. [iii] Police There is a National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) document entitled, “Guidance on Investigating Child Abuse and Safeguarding Children, Second Edition”.

In it the priorities and responsibilities of the Police Service in protecting child welfare are described as: – protect the lives of children and ensure that in the policing of child abuse the welfare of all children is paramount; – investigate all reports of child abuse and neglect and protect the rights of child victims of crime; – establish the investigation of child abuse and safeguarding of children as a mainstream policing activity; and – adopt a proactive multi-agency approach to preventing and reducing child abuse and neglect and safeguarding children. [iv] Health service roles and responsibilities in child protection “Within the health services every member of staff has a responsibility for ensuring that children are protected as much as possible. ” Different specializations have unique observations [e. g.

Mid-Wives for pre-born children and their parent(s)] but in summary each staff member, leader, and volunteer is to be trained to recognize and intervene according to agency policies; some identified leaders will have roles in leading interagency meetings and some specialists will be given opportunity to make recommendations regarding child, young person and/or parent(s). For children seen in A&E there is a check system to verify if a child has been flagged for another concern. [v] ALSO RE. HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS: Health care providers specialist knowledge may also be very helpful with conditions or situations such as the following: • Children and young people with severe behavioural difficulties; • Emotional disturbance; • Eating disorders; • Self-harming behaviour; Families where there is a perceived high risk of danger; • Very young children; • Abused child or abuser has severe communication problems; • Situations where parent and carer feigns the symptoms of, or deliberately causes ill-health to a child; • Where multiple victims are involved. [vi] Office for standard in education (Ofsted) Children’s Directorate Registered childminders and group day care providers must satisfy explicit criteria in order to meet the national standard with respect to child protection (Standard 13, of Day Care Standards issued by Ofsted). Ensuring that they do so is the responsibility of the Children’s Directorate of Ofsted. Ofsted requires that: All childminders and group day care staff have knowledge of child protection, including the signs and symptoms of abuse and what to do if abuse or neglect is suspected; • Those who are entrusted with the day care of children or who child mind have the personal capacity and skills to ensure children are looked after in a nurturing and safe manner. Ofsted will seek to ensure that day care providers: • Ensure the environment in which children are cared for is safe; • Have child safeguarding children policies and procedures in place, which are consistent with these procedures; • Be able to demonstrate that their procedures have been followed when an allegation is made. Ofsted must contact Children’s Social Care about any child protection issues and, in consultation with them, consider whether any action needs to be taken to protect children attending the provision.

Ofsted must be informed when a child protection referral is made to Children’s Social Care about: • A person who works as a child minder; or • A person who works in day care for children; or • Allegations regarding any person residing in the home of a registered childminder; or • Any service regulated by Ofsted’s Children’s Directorate. Ofsted must be invited to any Strategy Meeting where an allegation might have implications for other users of the day care service and/or the registration of the provider. Ofsted must seek to cancel registration if children are at risk of significant harm by being looked after in childminding or group day care settings.

Where warranted, Ofsted will bring civil proceedings or criminal proceedings against registered or unregistered day care providers. Additionally, Ofsted’s Children’s Directorate: • Registers private and voluntary care services which are required to meet national standards; • Inspects, assesses and reviews all care services; • Inspects boarding schools, residential special schools and further education colleges with residential students under 18 years; • Publishes an inspection report; • Provides details of the number and quality or private and voluntary care services; • Deals with complaints about care service providers; • Takes enforcement action when services do not meet minimum standards.

Providers will also be expected to have knowledge of child protection, including signs and symptoms and what to do if abuse or neglect is suspected and an up to date child protection policy. [vii] NSPCC The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) is a charity with a duty to protect children from abuse and neglect and has the statutory power to bring care proceedings in its own right. The NSPCC operates a national 24 hour child protection line (see Appendix 2), which accepts referrals and passes the information to the relevant Children’s Services. Children’s Social Care may commission the NSPCC to undertake specific child protection related work, including Section 47 Enquiries and ‘special investigations’. [viii] Also see: GUIDE TO INTERAGENCY WORK — http://www. northyorks. gov. uk/index. aspx? rticleid=12437 Also, per The Department for Children, Schools and Families’ “Working Together to Safeguard Children–A guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children”, The Purpose of multi-agency working at both strategic and operational levels is to achieve better outcomes for children and young people by fostering: a shared understanding of the tasks, processes, principles, roles and responsibilities outlined in national guidance and local arrangements for safeguarding children and promoting their welfare; more effective and integrated services at both the strategic and individual case level; improved communication and information sharing between professionals, including a common understanding of key terms, definitions and thresholds for action; effective working relationships, including an ability to work in multi-disciplinary groups or teams; sound child focused assessments and decision-making; and learning from Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) and reviews of child deaths. [ix] PLEASE SEE ADDITIONAL PAGES: _________ re CAF and Multi-agency working. Please see the “Illness Grid” for responses to the following AC’s: Assessment Criteria 2. 1Identify the signs and symptoms of common childhood diseases. and Assessment Criteria 2. 2Describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured. and

Assessment Criteria 2. 3Identify circumstances when children and young people might require urgent medical attention. Note to: Wendy — I had already done this grid, per brief instructions on Moodle the week when class was cancelled due to snow and ice. So this may not be quite what you were looking for but I learned some things and thought I could use this as a resource in the future so I did not delete content, even though it is quite lengthy. In general, responses at school include the following for when a child is injured or becomes ill: Have a First Aider accessible during times of outside play and during all school hours. Reassure the child;

Have child assessed by First Aider; If okay to move the child take the child to a quiet area; Other wise clear the area and leave child in place; Reassure other children who are concerned; If unable to self-ambulate and/or child appears to need help moving and First Aider recommends, then call an ambulance; Minor cuts/bruises: apply cold, wet paper towel; Document anything witnesses, often this is done in the School Accident Book; If bump to head then send home a letter to notify parents; If any bodily fluids are involved, wear gloves; Keep child cool or warm, depending on situation. Contact parents if anything other than minor health/illness/accident arises.

Please see ABC Road School’s “Medical and First Aid Procedures” for an example policy regarding boundaries for prescribed medication at school, emergency first aid, and some common conditions (i. e. , diabetes, choking, fractures, burns and scalds, shock, head injuries, bleeding, poisons, heart attack, asthma and epilepsy). ILLNESS GRID |Illness |Signs and symptoms 2. 1 |What actions to take 2. 2 |Is urgent medical attention | | | | |required? 2. | |Flu |Sudden fever – a temperature of 38°C (100. 4°F) or above |Call parents. Send child home. Typical GP |No. | | |dry, chesty cough |instructions follow. If you have flu, it will |You probably only need to see your| | |headache |usually be possible for you to treat yourself |doctor if you are in a high risk | | |tiredness |effectively at home. group and then you may be | | |chills |If this is the case you should: |prescribed antivirals if you are: | | |aching muscles |rest |pregnant | | |limb or joint pain |keep warm |Or if you have: | | |diarrhoea or upset stomach |drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration |lung disease | | |sore throat |try to take paracetamol or anti-inflammatory |heart disease | | |runny or blocked nose |medicines such as ibuprofen to lower a high |kidney disease, | | |sneezing |temperature and relieve aches |liver disease | | |loss of appetite | neurological disease such as motor| | |difficulty sleeping | |neurone disease, Parkinson’s or | | | | |multiple sclerosis | | | | |a weakened immune system | | | | |diabetes | |Epilepsy |The main symptoms of epilepsy are repeated seizures. |Especially with Tonic-Clonic seizures: |No. | | |People with epilepsy can experience any variety of seizure, although most people follow a consistent |move them away from anything that could cause |However, dial 999 if: | | |pattern of symptoms known as an epilepsy syndrome. Seizures can occur when you are awake or asleep |injury, such as a busy road or hot cooker |it’s the first time someone has | | |(nocturnal seizures). cushion their head if they’re on the ground |had a seizure | | |Partial seizures |loosen any tight clothing around their neck, such |the seizure lasts for more than | | |Symptoms of a simple partial seizure include: |as a collar or tie, to aid breathing |five minutes | | |changes in the way things look, smell, feel, taste or sound |when their convulsions stop, turn them so that |the person doesn’t regain full | | |an intense feeling that events have happened before (deja vu) |they’re lying on their side |consciousness, or has a series of | | |a tingling sensation, or ‘pins and needles’, in your arms and legs stay with them and talk to them calmly until they |seizures without regaining | | |a sudden intense emotion, such as fear or joy |have recovered |consciousness | | |the muscles in your arms, legs and face may become stiff |note the time the seizure starts and finishes. | | | |you may experience twitching on one side of your body |Be aware of what the person does during the | | | |The symptoms of a complex partial seizure normally involve apparently strange and random bodily |seizure.

Make a note of what they’re like | | | |behaviour, such as: |afterwards (such as sleepy, confused, or | | | |smacking your lips |aggressive), and record how long the seizure lasts. | | | |rubbing your hands |The following information may be helpful: | | | |making random noises |Where was the person? | | | |moving your arms around |What were they doing? | | |picking at clothes |Did the person mention any unusual sensations, such| | | |fiddling with objects |as an odd smell or taste? | | | |adopting an unusual posture |Did you notice any mood change, such as excitement,| | | |chewing or swallowing |anxiety or anger? | | | |During a complex partial seizure, you will not be able to respond to anyone else, and you will have no|What brought your attention to the seizure? Was it | | | |memory of the event. a noise, such as the person falling over, or body | | | |Generalised seizures |movements, such as their eyes rolling or head | | | |In most cases, a person having a generalised seizure will be completely unconscious. |turning? | | | |There are six main types of generalised seizure; these are their symptoms: |Did the seizure occur without warning? | | | |1. Absence seizures, sometimes called petit mal, mainly affect children.

They cause the child to lose |Was there any loss of consciousness or altered | | | |awareness of their surroundings for up to 20 seconds. The child will seem to stare vacantly into |awareness? | | | |space, although some children will flutter their eyes or smack their lips. The child will have no |Did the person’s colour change? For example, did it| | | |memory of the seizure. Absences can occur several times a day. Although they are not dangerous, they |become pale, flushed, or blue?

If so, where – the | | | |may affect the child’s performance at school. |face, lips or hands? | | | |2. Myoclonic jerks. These types of seizures cause your arms, legs or upper body to jerk or twitch, |Did any parts of the body stiffen, jerk or twitch? | | | |much like if you have received an electric shock. They often only last for a fraction of a second, and|If so, which parts were affected? | | | |you should remain conscious during this time.

Myoclonic jerks often happen in the first few hours |Did the person’s breathing change? | | | |after waking up and can occur in combination with other types of generalised seizures. |Did they perform any actions, such as mumble, | | | |3. Clonic seizure. This causes the same sort of twitching as myoclonic jerks, except the symptoms will|wander about or fumble with clothing? | | | |last longer, normally up to two minutes. Loss of consciousness may occur. |How long did the seizure last? | | | |4. Atonic seizure.

Atonic seizures cause all your muscles to suddenly relax, so there is a chance you |Was the person incontinent (could not control their| | | |will fall to the ground. Facial injuries are common with this type of seizure. |bladder or bowels)? | | | |5. Tonic seizure. Unlike an atonic seizure, tonic seizures cause all the muscles to suddenly become |Did they bite their tongue? | | | |stiff. You can lose balance and fall over, so injuries to the back of the head are common. |How were they after the seizure? | | | |6.

Tonic-clonic seizure. A tonic-clonic seizure, sometimes known as “grand mal”, has two stages. Your |Did they need to sleep? If so, for how long? | | | |body will become stiff and then your arms and legs will begin twitching. You will lose consciousness | | | | |and some people will wet themselves. The seizure normally lasts between one and three minutes, but | | | | |they can last longer. [A]bout 60% of all seizures experienced by people with epilepsy are | | | | |tonic-clonic seizures. Tonic-clonic seizures are what most people think of as an epileptic fit. | | | | |NOTE: Auras. People who have epilepsy often get a distinctive feeling or warning sign that a seizure | | | | |is on its way. These … are known as auras, but they are actually simple partial seizures. | | | |Auras differ from person to person, but some common auras include: | | | | |noticing a strange smell or taste | | | | |having a feeling of deja vu | | | | |feeling that the outside world has suddenly become unreal or dreamlike | | | | |experiencing a sense of fear or anxiety | | | | |your body suddenly feeling strange | | | | |Although this warning cannot prevent the seizure, it can give you time to warn people around you and | | | | |make sure you are in a safe place. | | | |Tonsillitis |The main symptom of tonsillitis is a sore throat. |Call parents. Send child home. Typical GP instructions follow. |No. | | | |There is no specific treatment for tonsillitis. Treat at home. Exceptions are made if: | | |Other common symptoms include: |Whether your child’s tonsillitis is caused by a virus or bacteria, it is likely that|your child’s symptoms are | | |red and swollen tonsils |their immune system will clear the infection within a few days. In the meantime, |severe | | |pain when swallowing |there are some things that you can do to help. |your child’s symptoms show | | |high temperature (fever) over 38°C (100. °F) |Make sure your child has plenty to eat and drink, even if they find it painful to |no sign of easing | | |coughing |swallow. Being hungry and dehydrated can make other symptoms, such as headaches and |your child has a weakened | | |headache |tiredness, worse. |immune system. | | |tiredness |If your child has recurring bouts of tonsillitis (>5 in one year), surgery may be | | | |pain in your child’s ears or neck |considered. | | |white pus-filled spots on your child’s tonsils |Self-help at home | | | |swollen lymph nodes (glands) in your child’s neck |Over-the-counter (OTC) painkillers such as paracetamol and ibuprofen can help | | | |loss of voice or changes to your child’s normal tone of voice |relieve symptoms such as a sore throat. … [I]t is important to check you have bought| | | |Less common symptoms of tonsillitis may include: |the correct type and dosage as younger children only need small dosages. Your | | | |being sick |pharmacist will be able to advise you. | | | |a ‘furry’ tongue |Children under 16 years of age should not take aspirin. | | |bad breath |To soothe a sore throat one can use lozenges and oral sprays. | | | |difficulty opening the mouth |Some people find that gargling with a mild antiseptic solution can help relieve a | | | |Younger children may also complain of a stomach ache, which can be caused by |sore throat. An alternative method is to gargle with warm salty water. Mix half a | | | |the swelling of the lymph nodes in the abdomen. |teaspoon of salt (2. 5g) with a quarter of a litre (eight ounces) of water.

It is | | | | |important never to swallow the water so this method may not be suitable for younger | | | | |children. | | |Diarrhoea/ |Vomiting and diarrhoea. Diarrhoea |Call parents. Send child home. Typical GP instructions follow. |No. | |Vomiting |is the passing of watery stools |Children with these conditions should be kept off school/treat at home. They can return 48 hours after their symptoms disappear.

Most |Just if it lasts | | |more than is normal for you. |cases of vomiting or diarrhoea get better without treatment. |for more than 2-3| | | |Contact your GP if: |days and/or child| | | |your child has diarrhoea and is vomiting at the same time |will not ingest | | | |your child has diarrhoea that’s particularly watery, has blood in it or lasts for longer than two or three days |any fluids. | | |your child has severe or continuous stomach ache | | | | |Otherwise, diarrhoea isn’t usually a cause for concern. Give your child plenty of clear drinks to replace the fluid that’s been lost, | | | | |but only give them food if they want it. | | | | |Don’t give them fruit juice or squash, as these drinks can cause diarrhoea. | | | |Anti-diarrhoeal drugs can be dangerous, so don’t give these. Oral rehydration treatment can help. | | | | |Don’t allow children to swim in swimming pools for two weeks after the last episode of diarrhoea. | | |Chickenpox |The most commonly recognised chickenpox symptom is a red rash that can cover the entire body. |Call parents. Send child home. Typical |No. | | |However, even before the rash appears, you or your child may have some mild flu-like symptoms including: |GP instructions follow. Only if child has| | |feeling sick |If your child has chickenpox, inform |a weakened immune| | |a high temperature (fever) of 38? C (100. 4? F) or over |their school or nursery and keep them |system or is a | | |aching, painful muscles |at home while they are infectious, |“newborn baby”. | | |headache |which is until the last blister has | | | |generally feeling unwell |burst and crusted over.

This usually | | | |loss of appetite |takes five or six days after the rash | | | |These flu-like symptoms, especially the fever, tend to be worse in adults than in children. |begins. | | | |Chickenpox spots | | | | |Soon after the flu-like symptoms, an itchy rash appears. Some children and adults may only have a few spots, but others are covered |Also: | | | |from head to toe. |-painkillers | | | |The spots normally appear in clusters.

But the spots can be anywhere on the body, even inside the ears and mouth, on the palms of |-hydration | | | |the hands, soles of the feet and inside the nappy area. |-treat itchiness to stop irritating the| | | |Although the rash starts as small, itchy red spots, after about 12-14 hours the spots develop a blister on top and become intensely |rash | | | |itchy. |-try to help child dress so as not to | | | |After a day or two, the fluid in the blisters gets cloudy and they begin to dry out and crust over. |be too hot or too cold. | | |After one to two weeks, the crusting skin will fall off naturally. | | | | |New spots can keep appearing in waves for three to five days after the rash begins. Therefore different clusters of spots may be at | | | | |different stages of blistering or drying out. | | | |Anaphylaxis |The time it takes the symptoms … to develop depends on how the trigger entered your body. If it was |If anaphylaxis is suspected you should check what |Yes. See box to the left. | |something you ate, such as peanuts, then it can take … from a few minutes to two hours. If it was |systems of the body are being affected by symptoms. | | | |something that entered your skin, such as a sting or an injection, it will usually take 5-30 minutes. |Most health professionals recommend a ABC method, | | | |Symptoms can vary … sometimes it can only cause mild itching or swelling, but in some people it can be|where you should check: | | | |extreme and lead to death. Airways – are symptoms affecting the airways, such | | | |Symptoms of anaphylaxis include: |as swelling inside the throat | | | |a red raised itchy skin rash |Breathing – are symptoms affecting breathing such | | | |swelling of your eyes, lips, hands and feet |as causing shortness of breath | | | |narrowing of your airways which can cause breathing difficulties and wheezing |Circulation – are symptoms affecting the | | | |feeling like there is a lump inside your throat |circulation such as causing dizziness or fainting. | | |a sudden drop in blood pressure which can make you feel faint and dizzy |If a person has symptoms affecting all three of | | | |nausea |these systems of the body then it is likely that a | | | |vomiting |person has anaphylaxis; especially if they also | | | |strange metallic taste in the mouth, |have symptoms affecting their skin. | | |sore, red, itchy eyes | | | | |a feeling of impending doom like something terrible is going to happen | | | |Impetigo |Impetigo does not cause any symptoms until 4-10 days after the initial exposure to the bacteria. |Call parents. Send child home. Typical GP |No. | | |People can easily pass the infection on to others without realising that they are infected. |instructions follow. |If symptoms have not improved | | |Symptoms of bullous impetigo begin with the appearance of fluid-filled blisters, which usually occur |Treat at home.

Impetigo is not usually serious and |within seven days of starting | | |on the trunk (the central part of the body from above the waist, but excluding the head and neck) or |will often clear up without treatment after two to |treatment, go back to your GP for | | |on the arms and legs. The blisters may quickly spread, before bursting after several days to leave a |three weeks. |a follow-up appointment to discuss| | |yellow crust which heals without leaving any scarring. |However, if you or your child has symptoms, visit |other treatment options. | | |The blisters aren’t usually painful, but the area of skin surrounding them may be itchy.

As with |your GP to rule out the possibility of other, more | | | |non-bullous impetigo, it is important that you do not touch or scratch the affected areas of the skin. |serious infections. | | | |Symptoms of fever and swollen glands are more common in cases of bullous impetigo. |If impetigo is confirmed, it can usually be | | | |Symptoms of non-bullous impetigo begin with the appearance of red sores that usually occur around the |effectively treated with antibiotics which may be | | | |nose and mouth.

However, sometimes other areas of the face and the limbs can also be affected. |prescribed in the form of a cream (topical) or as | | | |The sores quickly burst leaving thick, yellow-brown golden crusts. After the crusts dry, they leave a |tablets. With treatment, the infection should clear| | | |red mark that usually heals without scarring. The time it takes for the redness to disappear can vary |up after about seven to 10 days and the time that | | | |between a few days and a few weeks. |the person is infected will also be reduced. | | |The sores are not painful, but they may be itchy. It is important not to touch, or scratch, the sores | | | | |because this can spread the infection to other parts of your body, and to other people. | | | | |Other symptoms of impetigo, such as a fever and swollen glands, are rare but can occur in more severe | | | | |cases. | | |Ringworm |Ringworm often looks like a round, red or silvery patch of skin which may be scaly and itchy. |Call parents. Send |No. | | |The ring spreads outwards as it progresses. You can have one patch or several patches of ringworm, and in more serious cases your skin may |child home. Typical |If this is your first | | |become raised and blistered. |GP instructions |episode and/or depending | | |The symptoms of scalp ringworm include: |follow.

Treat at |on the type (some types | | |small patches of scaly skin on the scalp, which may be sore |home. Ringworm is |are treated with OTC | | |patchy hair loss |easily treated using|medicines), then contact | | |an itchy scalp |antifungal creams, |GP but it is not urgent. | | |The symptoms of foot ringworm (athlete’s foot) include: |tablets and shampoo. | | |an itchy, dry, red and flaky rash, usually in the spaces between your toes | | | | |The symptoms of groin ringworm (jock itch) include: | | | | |red-brown sores (not necessarily ring-shaped), which may have blisters or pus-filled sores around the edge | | | | |itchiness and redness around your groin area, such as your inner thighs and bottom (the genitals are not usually affected) | | | | |the skin on your inner thighs can become scaly and flaky | | | | |The symptoms of nail ringworm include: | | | | |a whitish thickening of the nail | | | | |discolouration (the nail can turn white, black, yellow or green) | | | |the nail can become brittle and start to fall off | | | | |the skin around the nail may be sore and irritated | | | |Accidents |In school, contact the trained First Aid Provider and have this individual |If an accident happens |Take the child to A if child: | | |provide an assessment of issues. |Call an ambulance if the child: |-hase a fever and are persistently lethargic despite | | |This topic has a huge range of possible definitions.

An NHS search of accidents|stops breathing |having paracetamol or ibuprofen | | |with children provides: |is struggling for breath (for example, you may notice |-is having difficulty breathing (breathing fast, | | |Most young children have some injuries and accidents. Most will be minor, but |sucking in under the ribcage) |panting or are very wheezy) | | |it’s sensible to know what to do if the accident or injury is more serious. |is unconscious or seems unaware of what’s going on |-has severe abdominal pain | | |If you’re worried about [the] child’s injuries and not sure if they need |won’t wake up |-has a cut that won’t stop bleeding or is gaping open| | |medical help, call NHS Direct on 0845 4647.

If you’re unsure whether you should|has a fit for the first time, even if they seem to | | | |move [the] child, make sure they’re warm, then call an ambulance. |recover |-has a leg or arm injury and can’t use the limb | | | |have swallowed a poison or tablets | | |Whooping Cough |The symptoms of whooping cough usually take between six and 20 days to appear after infection with the |Call parents. Send child home. Typical GP instructions follow. |Some-what. | |Bordetella pertussis bacterium. This delay is known as the incubation period. |Whooping cough can be treated successfully with antibiotics and most |Child should| | |Whooping cough tends to develop in stages, with mild symptoms occurring first, followed by a period of |people make a full recovery. |be seen by | | |more severe symptoms, before improvement begins. |Whooping cough is much less serious in older children and adults than |GP but not | | |Early symptoms |it is in babies and young children. Your GP will usually advise you to |emergently. | |The early symptoms of whooping cough are often similar to those of a common cold and may include: |manage the infection at home and follow some simpl