8th Grade Social Studies STAAR

Jamestown
1607; first successful colony in North America
Declaration of Independence
1776; document stating that the 13 colonies were a free and independent nation
Constitutional Convention (Philidelphia Convention)
1787; gathering of state representatives to revise the Articles of Confederation
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Northwest Ordinance
1787; article that set up a government for the Northwest Territory, guaranteed basic rights to settlers, and outlawed slavery there
Louisiana Purchase
1803; vast territory between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, purchased from France in 1803
Civil War
1861-1865; war between the North and South
French and Indian War
1754-1763; a war that took place between England and France, both aided by Native American Allies, that led to the end of French power in North America
Treaty of Paris
1763; agreement between England and France that ended the French and Indian War
Articles of Confederation
1777; first American constitution that created a loose alliance of 13 independent states
Battle of Bunker Hill
1775; first major battle of the Revolution
Battle of Lexington and Concord
1775; conflicts between Massachusetts colonists and British soldiers that started the Revolutionary War “shot heard ’round the world”
Battle of Saratoga
1777; the first major American victory in the Revolution
Battle of Yorktown
1781; final battle in the Revolution
Washington’s Farewell Address
1796; announced he would not seek a third term and gave his views on the best policies for the United States
War of 1812
1812; war between the U.S. and England
Missouri Compromise
1819; agreement proposed by Henry Clay to keep the number of slave and free states equal; allows slavery in some western territories
Indian Removal Act
1830; forced removal of Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi
Nullification Crisis
1832; caused by act passed by South Carolina that declared the 1832 tariff illegal
Trail of Tears
1838; forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi
Mexican War
1846; war over disputed territory between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River
Mexican Cession
1848; Mexican territory of California and New Mexico given to the U.S. under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Compromise of 1850
1850; agreement on slavery by which California joined the Union as a free state and a strict fugitive slave law was passed
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854; law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, giving popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery
Lincoln’s first inaugural address
1861; Lincoln expresses ideas about union and government
Fort Sumter
1861; first shots of the Civil War fired there
Battle of Gettysburg
1863; major Civil War battle; the Confederates never invaded the North again
Gettysburg Address
1863; speech written and delivered by Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg
Battle Of Vicksburg
1863; Union victory which geographically split the Confederacy in two
Emancipation Proclamation
1863; President Lincoln’s declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy
Lincoln’s second inaugural address
1865; Lincoln expresses ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government
Appomattox Court House
1865; Virginia town that was the site of the Confederate surrender
Assassination of Lincoln
1865; Lincoln shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth five days after Confederate surrender
Christopher Columbus
Explorer whose voyage in 1492 from Spain to North America opened the Atlantic World
John Smith
Leader of Jamestown colony
Pocohontas
Native American who married Jamestown Englishman John Rolfe
Samuel Adams
Bostonian who led the Boston Tea Party
Benjamin Franklin
Colonial inventor, printer, writer, statesman; contributed to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution
Thomas Jefferson
Third President of the United States; wrote Declaration of Independence; supported minimal government and spoils system
Marquis de Lafayette
French officer who assisted the Americans during the Revolution
Thomas Paine
Political philosopher and author of “Common Sense” which urged colonists to declare their immediate independence from Great Britain
George Washington
First President of the United States, commander of Continental Army during Revolution, president of the Philidelphia or Constitutional Convention; wanted United States to maintain neutral foreign policy
Alexander Hamilton
Co-author of Federalist Papers with James Madison and John Jay, developed economic policies to help strengthen American economy, including establishment of the Bank of the United States
Patrick Henry
Member of Virginia state convention who opposed ratification of the Constitution; instrumental in causing adoption of first 10 amendments to the Constitution
John Adams
Second President of the United States, in office during the XYZ Affair; wanted to keep United States neutral; supported the Alien and Sedition Acts
Sacagawea
Shoshone woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark’s expedition as a translator
James Madison
Fourth President of the United States, co-author of the Virginia Plan, the Federalist Papers, and the Bill of Rights; asked Congress to declare war on Britain in 1812
George Mason
A strong supporter of the Bill of Rights, refused to sign the Constitution in 1787
Andrew Jackson
Seventh President of the United States; his election reflected a growing spirit of democracy and the spread of political power to the “common” people; the modern Democratic party traces its roots to this time
Frederick Douglass
Escaped slave, abolitionist, speaker, and writer; author, “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass”
John Paul Jones
American Navy captain who fought and defeated the British in 1779, the greatest sea victory for the Americans during the Revolution
James Monroe
Fifth President of the United States; issued the Monroe Doctrine
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
American woman suffrage leader and co-organizer of the first woman’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, NY
John C. Calhoun
Vice President under Jackson and later Senator from South Carolina, supporter of states’ rights, argued in favor of nullification
Henry Clay
Senator who suggested Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850
Daniel Webster
Senator who opposed nullification but supported the Compromise of 1850
Jefferson Davis
Elected President of the Confederate States of America in 1861
Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of the Union forces during the Civil War who ordered his generals to fight a total war
Robert E. Lee
Confederate General who surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the Civil War
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States; President during the Civil War; gave Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Adress; assassinated five days after Lee’s surrender
Five Themes (Geography)
1. Location
2. Place
3. Interaction
4. Movement
5. Regions
Using Cartographer’s Tools
Compass- identifies directions and relative locations
Scale- estimates distance
Latitude and longitude- grid to determine exact location
Key or legend- directory of map symbols and colors
Using Special Purpose Maps
Used to analyze and interpret maps of:
Natural features, such as elevation and climate
Features made by people, such as land use, roads, countries, population density, and battles
Mercantilism
Theory that a nation’s economic strength came from protecting and increasing its home economy by keeping strict control over its colonial trade
Protective tariff
A tax on imported goods to protect a country’s industry from foreign competition by making the foreign goods more expensive
Taxation
Government system to raise money by seeking payment from citizens; British government sought to raise money to pay for the French and Indian War by imposing the Sugar and Stamp Acts on American colonists
Banking System
Alexander Hamilton asked Congress to set up a national bank; Congress created the Bank of the United States in 1791
Plantation System
Agricultural system in the South which relied on slave labor to work the large farms and estates
Slave trade
The first African slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619; by 1700 the Southern colonies had begun to rely on slave labor and the transatlantic slave trade developed and grew
19th Century Industrialization
Rapid growth was a result of the Industrial Revolution- the process by which machines replaced hand tools and steam and other new sources of power replaced human and animal power
19th Century Urbanization
Process of a population’s shifting from farms to cities, especially as a result of the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century
Free Enterprise
System in which the government plays a limited role in the economy
Abolitionist movement
Movement to end slavery in the United States and its territories
Reform movements
Public education- schools and educational systems supported by public taxes
Temperance movements- campaign against alcohol consumptions
Women’s rights movements- organized campaign to win property, education, and other rights for women
Prison reform- movement to improve conditions for people being held in prisons
Care of the disabled- in 1817 Thomas Gallaudet set up a school for the deaf and Samuel Gridley Howe founded the first American school for the blind in 1832
Steamboat
Robert Fulton and John Fitch used the steam engine to power boats; revolutionized travel in the West; carried passengers and gave farmers and merchants an inexpensive way to transport goods
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney to speed the process of cleaning cotton seeds from the fiber; a single worker using the gin could do the work of 50 doing it by hand
Bessemer Process
Method developed in the 1850s for making stronger steel at a lower cost
Transportation systems
It was thought a better transportation system with roads, bridges, and canals, would make it easier and cheaper for farmers in the West and the South to ship goods to city markets; Henry Clay’s American System
Magna Carta
1215; A British document that contains two basic ideas: monarchs themselves have to obey laws, and citizens have basic rights
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619; Representative assembly in colonial Virginia
Mayflower Compact
1620; Agreement for governing the Plymouth colony, signed by the Pilgrims before they landed at Plymouth
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
1639; A plan of government in the Puritan colony in Conneticut; expanded the idea of representative government in the English colonies
English Bill of Rights
1689; Signed by monarchs William and Mary of England; document guaranteeing the rights of English citizens

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