8th Grade US History Final Exam REVIEW

8th Grade US History Final Exam REVIEW

What amendment protects freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom to assemble, and freedom to petition?
first amendment
Which president was a big believer in the “common man”, which led to an increase in voter participation?
Andrew Jackson
Which historical event happened in the US in 1803?
Louisiana Purchase
Were Quakers for or against slavery?
against
What is the supreme law of the land in the us?
US Constitution
How did the plantation system in the South change US society?
led to an increase in slavery to produce cash crops
What was Jackson’s kitchen cabinet?
informal group of advisors that met in the White House kitchen
Why did farmers west of the Appalachian Mountains favor control of New Orleans?
needed to ship good on the Mississippi River, needed to transfer to large ships at New Orleans
What was sectionalism, and how did it affect the US?
loyalty to state/section rather than to country as a whole, causes divisions within the country
Why did Texas rebel against Mexico?
Mexico stopped further American settlement and wanted to enforce the ban on slavery
What were the particulars of the Supreme Court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sanford?
no black person (slave or free) is a US citizen
blacks cannot sue in federal court
slaves are protected by the 4th/5th amendments
US govt. cannot regulate slavery everywhere in the US
What was the event that caused the Southern states to secede from the Union?
election of Lincoln in 1860
What were Jefferson’s beliefs about government, people’s rights, and loyalty to the US?
unalienable rights protected by the Constitution
govt. support of the common man
govt. support of agriculture
US support of people fighting for liberty
Why did US citizens favor annexing Texas and Oregon?
Manifest Destiny
When did the industrial revolution occur in the US, and how did it impact the early lives of many?
early-mid 1800’s
farming (North) decreased
increased urbanization
women/children in industrial workforce
more territory added to US (manifest destiny)
What was a direct result for Texas after the Texas Revolution?
Texas became an independent republic
Why did Spain agree to sell Florida?
Jackson invaded; Spain couldn’t defend Florida
wanted to gain something for it
What was the purpose of the protective tariff?
support American manufacturing
encourage people to buy American-made goods
Who was most responsible for bringing the industrial revolution to the US?
Samuel Slater
Why did many Southerners support slavery?
Southern economy based on cash crops & slave labor
What is the President’s cabinet?
head of executive departments and advisors to the president
Why did many banks fail in 1837?
bank notes were not backed by gold or silvers
What was the main purpose of the Tariff of 1816?
protect American manufacturing
encourage people to buy American-made goods
Where were free, public schools first established?
New England
What were the weaknesses of the Southern Confederacy?
not a cohesive unit
states had too much power, fed. govt. not enough power
too much sectionalism among states
What did the British agree to in the treaty of 1846 with the US?
give up claims to Oregon country below 49th parallel
What invention made it possible for factories to be located away from dams and streams?
stream engines
What is nullification?
idea that states have the right to cancel and refuse to apply/follow federal laws which they believe are unconstitutional
What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850?
CA enters as a free state
popular sovereignty in former Mexican lands
ends slave trade in DC
stricter fugitive slave laws
What were the reasons that America moved WEST?
farmland
religious freedom
gold
manifest destiny
What were the terms of the Missouri Compromise?
MO enters as a slave state
ME enters as a free state
line drawn along the 36 30′ n latitude
above the line= free territory
below the line= territory open to slavery
What did the invention of the cotton gin do for the cotton industry?
made growing cotton more profitable
plantations/slavery spread farther west
What is the practice of giving government jobs to members of the winning political party in elections known as?
spoils system
How did owners of privately-built roads hope to make profits?
collecting tolls
Many factories were located in the North, and the jobs were held by what group of people?
immigrants
Why were people in the NE United States opposed to the War of 1812?
would hurt their profits from trade