8th Grade US history STAAR review

James Madison
4th president of US
Main author of the US Constitution during the War of 1812
John Adams
2nd president of US
Helpes negotiate Treaty of Paris, ending the American Revolution
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Warm climate, rich soil, long growing season
Farming and agriculture
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Middle Colonies
NewYork, Pennsylvania,New Jersey, Delaware
Fertile soil, milder climate than New England
Diverse, tolerant
Northern (New England) Colonies
Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine
Cold climate and rocky soil
Shipbuilding, trade,and fishing
Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Abraham Lincoln
Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson
Lewis and Clark
Constitutional Convention
James Madison
George Washington
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson
John Hancock
House of Burgesses (1619)
John Smith
Founded in 1636 by Thomas Hooker after leaving Massachusetts
Founded in 1680 by William Penn
Promoted tolerance and equality
Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe as a debtor’s colony
Mayflower Compact
Agreement among male pilgrims aboard the Mayflower in which they pledged loyalty to England and promised to obey the laws of the colony; formed a “civil body politic” for “our better ordering and preservations”
House of Burgesses
Created in Virginia in1619
First representative government in the colonies
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First written constitution in America
Adopted in 1639
French and Indian War outcome~ 1754-1763
George Washington gains national prominence
England gains control of more territory
War plunges England into debt
Proclamation of 1763 states that colonists CANNOT settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution
Elected 1st President of the US in 1789
Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declaration of Independence
Elected 3rd President of US in 1800
Benjamin Franklin
Publisher and inventor
Respected statesman who guided the colonies toward independence
Helped convince France to support America during the Revolutionary War
Patrick Henry
Delivered “Give me liberty, or give me death” speech in the Virginia Houseof Burgesses in March, 1775
Thomas Paine
Author of “Common Sense” which was instrumental in convincing colonists to support the revolution against Britain
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson
Lists colonial grievances against King George
Justifies the colonies breaking away from England
Causes of the American Revolution
Britsih taxed colonies heavily for revenue to pay for the French and Indin War
“No taxation without representation”-colonists resented being taxed without having a representative in Parliament
Tax Acts including: Stamp Act, Sugar Act, and Tea Act angered colonists
Boston Massacre
Intolerable Acts(Coercive Acts)
The Battles of Saratoga
Turning point of Revolution
French enter war as American allies
Battle of Yorktown
Major British defeat that effectively ends the war
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Ends the war!
Britain forced to recognize American independence
Magna Carta
Limited the power of the king
Provided trial by jury
English Bill of Rights
Influenced the Constitution by forbidding cruel and unusual punishment
Granted the right to bear arms
Laws must be passed by the legislative branch
Taxes must be approved by the legislative branch
The Articles of Confederation
The first form of government established by the 13 colonies
Articles were replaced by the US Constitution because the Articles had a weak central government
Northwest Ordinance
Established an ordely expansion to western territory
1st attempt by the US to stop spread of slavery
New states given the same rights and privelages as previous states
Opposed ratification of the Constitution
Supported a Bill of Rights
Ex: Patrick Henry and George Mason
Jamestown, Virginia
Founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company
Colony was saved by tobacco
Representative Government
System of government where citizens are represented by elected leaders
Lexington and Concord
First battle of revolution
“Shot heard ’round the world”
Alexander Hamilton
Author of Federalist Papers
1st secretary of the treasury under Washington
to formally approve
Fact: to go into effect, 9 of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution
Great Compromise
Represntation: All states get 2 votes in the Senate
Number of votes in the house determined by state population
Executive Branch
Enforces laws
Judicial Branch
Interprets laws
A system where the people vote for elected representatives to run the government
Bill of Rights
1st 10 amendments of the Constitution
Protect individual rights and liberties
Necessary in order for some states to ratify the Constitution
Checks and Balaces
Makes sure no branch of government becomes too powerful
Limited Government
Power of the government is restricted by the Constitution-“No one is above the law”
Washington’s Farewell Address
Warned against political parties and forming alliances with foreign countries
Monroe Doctrine
Closed Americas to further European colonization
In exchange, US promised to stay out of European affairs
War of 1812
British attack Washington, D.C.
British retreat from Fort McHenry in Baltimore, MD
Francis Scott Key writes The Star Spangled Banner
Andrew Jackson wins the battle of New Orleans
Jacksonian Democracy
Idea of spreading political power to all the people, thereby ensuring majority rule
Trail of Tears
Forced removal of Cherokee Indians from their homes to resettle in the west
Jackson’s war on the bank
Jackson removes federal funds from nationl bank, forcing it into bankruptcy
Louisiana Purchase
Purchased by President Jefferson from France
Doubled the size of the US
Joined US as 28th state
Mexican Cession
California and New Mexico sold to the US for $15 Million after the Mexican-American War
Utah Territory
Established as a territory
Brigham Young becomes Governor
Encouraged settlement in the west
Created thousands of new jobs
McCulloch v. Maryland
States cannot tax a federal bank
Gibbons v. Ogden
Congress has authority to regulate interstate and intrastate trade
Samuel Adams
Cousin to John Adams
Leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty
Charles de Montsquieu
Separation of powers
Mayflower Compact
Willam Bradford
An economic system that promoted thr growth of a country’s economy through a favorable balance of trade
Goal was to build wealth by exploiting the natural reaources of colonial territories
King George 3
Ruler of Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War
Americans who supported declaring independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution
Supported ratification of Constitution and the creation of a strong central government
Ex: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
Federalist Papers
Essays written to encouage ratification of the Constitution
Authors included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
The Preamble
Intro to the Constitution that states its purpose
Three-Fifths Compromise
Slavery: Each slave counts as 3/5 of a person for taxtation and representation in the house
Separation of Powers
Divides the powers of the federal government into 3 branches
Legislative Branch
Makes laws
Power is shared between states and national government
Individual Rights
Basic rights and liberties of all citiens as guaranteed in the Bill of Rights
Popular Sovereignty
People hold supreme power
Marbury v. Madison
Established Judicial Review giving Supreme Court authority to decideif laws are constitutional or not
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the US was destined to stretch across the continent
Oregon Territory
33rd state
Gadsden Purchase
Purchased from Mexico for $10 Million
Plymouth, Massachusetts
Founded in 1620 by Pilgrims for religious freedom and tolerance
tax on imports
Americans who supported Great Britain during the American Revolution
Winter at Valley Forge
Washington struggled to keep the Continental Army together
William Blackwell
Laws of nature
John Locke
Natural rights
To approve
(important fact) 1787
delegates from 13 stats drafted the US Constitution in Philadelphia, PA
Unalienable Rights
Rights that cannot be taken away without due process
Such as: life, liberty, and th pursuit of happiness
Movement of people from one location to another
Movement of people into a country frim another country
Columbian Exchange
Exchange of crops, animals, disease, and ideas of different cultures after Europeans landed in the Americas
Subsistence Agriculture
Farmer produces just enough to support himself and his family wih little left for purchasing manufactured goods
Free Enterprise System
System by whcih people can conduct business free from government control except for reasonable regulations made for the general good
Dawes Act (1887)
Broke up Native American reservations
Homestead Act (1862)
Gave free land to settlers who would live on the land for 5 years
Encouraged thousands to the Great Plains
Morrill Act (1862)
Funded public colleges focused on agriculture and mechanical arts
14th Amendment
Made former slaves citizensand gave equal protection under th law for all citizens
15th Amendment
African American males are given the right to vote
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery in the US
Hiram Rhodes Revels
1st Africsn American elected to the Senate
Radical Reconstruction Congress
Wanted Congress, not the President to control a tougher, more extreme approach
Reconstruction (1865-1877)
Period after Civil War in US when southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Results of the Civil War
Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House and South loses war
Southern economy is ruined
Northern economy becomes stronger
Reconstruction begins
Appomattox Court House
April 9,1865
Lee surrenders to Grant
Grants shows mercy ad respect to Lee and his troops
July 1863
Confederates surrender
Union holds Mississippi River
July 1-4, 1863
Surprise battle in Pennsylvania
Lee retreats
Septembr 17, 1862
Bloodiest day of the war
Lee retreats
Licoln decides to take action against slavery
Fort Sumter
April 12-14, 1861
Confederate forces attack US fort in South Carolina
Medal of Honor Recipients
Philip Bazzar
William Carney
Emancipation Proclamation
Document declaring that all slaves in th South were free
Gettysburg Adress
2 minute speech uniting Americans
Expressed what war was about “government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.”
Abraham Lincoln
President of US during Civil War
First Republican President
Election resulted in South’s secession from Union
Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865
Jefferson Davis’ Inaugural Address
President of Confederacy compared secession to divorce between husband and wife
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court decision which Dred Scott (a slave) was considered propertt, and not a citizen- therefore had no right to bring a lawsuit asking for his freedom
Election of 1860
Lincoln elected President
Civil War
War between North and South from 1861-1865
Compromise of 1850
California admitted as a free state
New Mexico Territory to have no restrictions on slavery
Set new border between Texas and New Mexico
Slave trade (but not slavery) banned in Washington, D.C.
Stronger fugitive slave laws
Missouri Compromise
Maine enters Union as a free state
Missouri enters Union as slave state
Slavery prohibited in remainder of Louisiana Territory
Nullification Crisis
Argument between South Carolina and the federal government regarding the role of national government
John C. Calhoun
Southern Senator
Supported slavery
Daniel Webster
Northern Senator
Opposed slavery
Henry Clay
Westerner known as the “Great Compromiser”
Plantation System
Economic system in which slaves provided the necessary labor for planting and harvesting cashcrops like cotton, rice, and tobacco
State’s Rights
Belief in local government close to the people
Each state should be able to decide key issues for themselves
Population begins to shift away from farms and into cities
Interchangable Parts
Invented by Eli Whitney
Opened the way for factories
Bessemer Steel Process
Late 1800s
Invented by WIlliam Kelly and Henry Bessemer
Allowed steel to be mnufactured cheaply
Invented by Robert Fulton
Improved transportation of goods and people
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney
Removed seeds from cotton
Increased demands for slaves
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
worked for women’s rights
Woman’s right to vote
Henry David Thoreau
Refused to pay taxes in protest of the Mexican-American war
Civil Disobedience
Peaceful protest of injustice
William Lloyd Garrison
Published the Abolitionist Newspaper- The Liberator
Sojourner Truth
Spoke about her experiences as a slave
Frederick Douglas
Influential speaker and writer
North Star
Harriet Tubman
Conductor on the Underground Railroad
Person who fights to end slavery

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