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A foreword of a book on mass media laws and regulations

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION:

Syed Sajjad Ali Shah, Former Chief Justice of Pakistan said in a foreword of a book on Mass Media Laws and Regulations in Pakistan that:

“All over the world, the citizens’ right to acquire knowledge and information is increasingly being proclaimed and recognized as a fundamental right. The international human rights instruments as well as national constitutions and laws, acknowledge and safeguard this right”

WHAT IS ELECTRONIC MEDIA?

Any channel of communication which serves different functions such as a wide range of entertainment or mass appeal and communicating news and information and advertisement messages through electronic medium is called Electronic media.

The duty of media is to communicate massages from advertiser or vendors and serves it as a product or services to the consumer. Types of media include print, electronic, outdoor and direct mail. Print media refers to magazine and news paper where as electronic media are usually referred as broadcast media that are radio and television including cable.

BACKGROUND OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN PAKISTAN AND UK:

In 1964 Television was first introduced in Pakistan. The only channel at that time was Pakistan Television (PTV) that lasts just for few hours everyday from evening till midnight to the viewers. The Channel introduced as a corporation of the state, where the government of Pakistan appointed its board of directors. The managing director was also appointed by the Government of Pakistan but with the approval of the boards.

The Early channel includes STN, which was awarded by monopolistic contract with a private company called Network Television Market (NTM).

In 1990 PTV was stroked by the financial mismanagement that causes a vast amount of debt and because of Hindi channels the rapidly reducing popularity among the viewers also reduced their advertising revenue.

Pakistan Electronic Media is now regulated by Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA). It was established under PEMRA ordinance of 2002. The same month after establishment PEMRA issued 29 Radio licences for new private radio stations.

The duty of this authority is to regulate and facilitate the private electronic media, and to improve the standards of information, education and entertainment and to expand the choice for the people of Pakistan including current affairs, news, religious knowledge, arts and culture and as well as science and technology.

Where as in 1932 right before 32 years when television was first launched in Pakistan, BBC launched the first television channel in UK called “THE BBC TELEVISION SERVICE.” The BBC was sponsored by the public money build up from a TV licence fee collected from all UK households who had a television set. This fee was mandatory for all; failure to pay the fee was punishable by prosecution causing a fine or imprisonment. Until ITV was launched in 1955 BBC television service had a complete monopoly in UK.

ABSTRACT:

Training and development come under the umbrella of human resource management. This research will help analyse the current frameworks by human resource executives to improve training and development within Pakistan media industry and as well as look at the barriers facing by human resource department over the coming year and techniques for overcoming them.

This research is a comparative study of training and development strategies in UK and Pakistan media Industry. With the purpose to look into the topic, I will compare and relate the techniques of UK media Industry with Pakistan media industry as how UK media industry deals with such kind of situations.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Training and development refers to pass on or to enhance the specific knowledge and skills of an employee. Training and development is essential to advance the current and future performance of the employee by boosting the ability of an employee to perform better through learning and training.

Training usually offers to the operatives on the other hand development programmes are for the employees on upper level or positions.

The Primary aim of training and development is to help the organisation reach its goal by increasing value to its key resources that is the employee of the organization. By training the employee we can enable them to perform well and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities.

The Basic aims of training and development are:

It develops the ability of the employee and advances their performance.

It helps to meet the organization with the future needs of human resource by help the staff to grow within the organization.

And it also reduces the learning time for the employees and make sure that they become completely proficient as quickly and economically as possible.

It has been seen that most of the researchers mainly focused their investigation on the role and responsibilities, role conflict and role ambiguity and some extent on the training and development programme, but this piece of research reflects the study of how training advance the level of understanding of the employee to their job and also how it helps in their career development.

The main objective of the research is to look in to the developments in this important field of human resources particularly in electronic media industry in United Kingdom and Pakistan. Further to this we also look in to the organisations working without training and development department in some organisations.

RESEARCH OVERVIEW:

The goal of my research is to find out that how training and development can help improve the knowledge and skills of the employee within the organization especially in Pakistan electronic media by comparing it with the UK electronic industry mainly focus on the broadcasting media.

The first chapter of my research will help to introduce the analysis of the study and also why it is useful to investigate further into this topic. The aim and objectives of the research study are also included in this chapter.

Chapter two highlight the critical review of literature. The literature review will be divided into two major parts

(1) Organizational theories

(2) Training and Development.

Chapter Three will cover up the research methodologies used for the research area.

Chapter four will examine the data collection and analyse the types of information of the collected data.

The Fifth Chapter will conclude the research and will suggest some advice and emphasize the limitations of the study.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW:

A critical and in depth evaluation of a previous research is called Literature Review. It examines a wide range of literature concerned with the employee motivation which has major importance for organizational matters such as Training and development.

The themes provided the framework based on:

1. Organisational theory which relates to employee in an organization

2. To designed the development strategies to reward and distinguish the employee input in television channels.

We will look in this research how these set of organisational theories and approaches relate to understand the topic of research.

ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES:

Dugan the famous Author said in 1985 that “training and development is alive and well and growing. In fact, it has grown to be a part of a much larger arena.”

There are so many approaches to training and development by so many authors my research will mainly focus on the Classical Approach, The human relation approach, and the contingency theory.

I will give a brief introduction of all of these theories in my research.

THE CLASSICAL APPROACH:

The Standard model to the organizational plan and management in the classical approach were based on the assumed basic numbers, which are written below.

To be operated and structured there is at least one best approach for all the organizations.

Classical approach was based on the legal managerial power and rule of law.

We know financial reward is the best way to motivate employee to work and we will also examine what are other ways of motivating employee and get their maximum use.

THE HUMAN RELATION APPROACH:

The Third step in the development of modern management was the advancement in the attention to the human factors which has become known as the “Human Relation School of management.”

It was introduced in 1930s as a response to the negative view of human nature suggested by the classical approach and against the mechanistic view of organization.

Human Relation approach talks about the emotional behaviour of the people that people are more emotional rather than economical rational beings, where as organizations are cooperative social systems rather than mechanical ones; and also that organizations are composed of informal structure, and rules as well as formal procedures and practices.

CONTINGENCY THEORY:

This theory was first come in to view in the 1960s as a rejection of the “One best way” approach. There are many types of the contingency theory. It is a set of behavioural theory that argues that there is no one best way of organising or leading and the leadership approach to one situation is not necessarily suitable to others.

The Four most important suggestions of Contingency theory are:

• There is no one best way to manage the organization.

•The plan and aim of the organization should be according to the environment.

•Effective organizations not only plan according to the environment but also fit between its subsystems.

•The organization should be properly designed and the management style should be suitable both to the tasks and the nature of the work group if the organization wants to satisfy its needs and requirements.

ROLE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

According to Casse and Banahan (2007), “the different approaches to training and development need to be explored.”

Training in an organization is mainly consisting of two parts:

1- Internal Training

2- External Training

INTERNAL TRAINING:

Internal training means a training session organised within the house by human resource department or giving training to a particular department by a senior staff or talented employee as a resource person.

EXTERNAL TRAINING:

The training which is arranged outside the organization by training institutes and consultants are called external training. Both the trainings are very essential as it helps preparing staff for greater challenges.

THEORITICAL CONCEPT OF TRAINING:

When the planning of a learning programme become a major concern, the theoretical concept of training becomes more significant. It helps determining the area where there is a space for further improvement and the training is required to achieve the goal. For any organization it is important to design the objectives and framework of training to achieve its corporate goal.

There are countless theoretical concepts I will include few of them in my dissertation to make it clear to understand the objective of my research. I will try to briefly explain those concepts in my research proposal.

Systematic training cycle is a stage based activity which begins with Training Needs Analysis (TNA)

Jill Bowman & John P. Wilson, (2008)

Jill Bowman & John P. Wilson, (2008) point out two definitions regarding (TNA)

• “Analysing training needs provides a focus and direction for the investment an organization has to make in its people”.

• Need for training exists in organizations when particular weaknesses need to me overcome by the application of systematic training. Therefore, before commencement of actual training session, it is very important to identify the training needs first.

Jill Bowman & John P. Wilson, (2008)

The systematic training cycle has three stages.

1- Training Design

2- Training Delivery

3- Evaluation

Any training programme in an organization has to be designed first once it is designed it needs to be implemented. Implementation is overwhelmed with certain problems such as managers at the first place are more action oriented but suddenly they get busy to engage in the training efforts. Secondly availability of the trainer who also knows the philosophy and objective of the company is difficult. And also scheduling the training programme around the present work is another problem.

The final stage of the training and development programme is the evaluation of the programme. Evaluation of the programme helps determine the result.

These set of classic theories and approaches will make the research topic more clearly for readers and how these relate to each other in media industry.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.

The core task for any researcher to complete its research is to analyze the problem and to select that which research methodology to follow. It is a challenging endeavour and causes difficulties if the most suitable methodology is not selected.

TYPES OF RESEARCH:

1- Primary Research

2- Secondary Research

3- Qualitative Research

4- Quantitative Research

PRIMARY RESEARCH:

In Primary research a researcher collects the data which doesn’t really exist. It can be done through surveys, questionnaire, interviews and observations.

SECONDARY RESEARCH:

Secondary research is to examining the existing data, it may be the mixture of information acquire by different authors and scholars and a summary or collation.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH:

Qualitative research tries to find out the “WHY” not “HOW”. It is about investigating the issues, answering the questions and understanding phenomena.

The main methods uses in this research are observation, interviews and documentary analysis.

It seeks to explore people’s attitudes, behaviours, value system, and lifestyles. It also focuses groups, in depth interviews like many other approaches but qualitative research also involves the analysis of any unstructured material including customer’s feedback forms, reports or media clips.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH:

Quantitative research technique enumerates the data by applying different mathematical and statistical methods. Quantitative research includes surveys and customers questionnaires.

It is about knowing the opinion of the people in a way so you can produce an appropriate fact and statistic to guide you in making decision for future.

You can only get the reliable statistical result by surveying people in a fairly large numbers and also ensure they are representative sample of your target market.

CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS:

At first the data may appear to be a mass of confusing, unrelated, accounts. But by

Studying and coding (often I code the same materials several times just after Collecting them), the researcher begins to create order (Charmaz, 1983: 114)

In Data Analysis researcher gathers a raw data and organize it so that useful information can be extracted from it. Raw data can be in variety of types including measurements, surveys, and observations. In data analysis process, the raw data organised in a way which will be useful. For Example, The result of surveys may b tallied so that we can see that how many people answer to the surveys and how they response to the questions.

Data Analysis is an important step of the research process. The aim of data analysis is to define the qualitative and quantitative data that provides learner to develop knowledge and skills in data analysis. It also supports the development of critical appraisal skills by considering the critical review.

COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

In this stage I will try to analyze the primary data which I will collect from different television channels. I will try to collect data from BBC and Pakistan television channels including GEO TV Network, Express News and AAJ TV. I will also do the surveys and make the questionnaire for the employee working in electronic media industry and also a separate interview questions for HR experts associated with the industry. I will also analyze the data and the information collected through surveys by focusing on the objective of my research and will try to analyse them in a very systematic way, it is very important as it will help me to draw a valid conclusion and clarify the aim and objectives of my research.

TIME LINE FOR DISSERTATION:

A dissertation is an extensive piece of academic writing. The timeline make sure that every step is completed at a given time. For successful achievement of a dissertation there has to be a time line.

Month 1 Month 2 Month 3

TASKS

Preliminary Research

Define research questions/objectives

Work on methodology and finish rough drafts of methodology

Library Work

Preparing Questionnaires, and survey questions

Refine Dissertation Methodology

Write literature review

Write Introduction

Research paper writing

References and Bibliography

Polish format of research proposal

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION:

This research adds value in quite a lot of ways; firstly it contributes a better understanding on some vital attributes of Training and Development specifically in Pakistan and UK electronic media Industry. Secondly it provides insight the attitude and behaviour of an employee in the organization and why they need training.

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of training in the efficiency of an employee, in how the training gives confidence to perform there desire task in their routine work.