Why are sexually transmitted diseases more likely to affect females to a greater extent than males? • Sexually transmitted diseases are more likely to affect females to a greater extent than males because they expose a greater surface area of mucous membrane during sexual contact. Why is a woman more likely to get an STD from an infected male than a male is to get it from an infected female? • A woman is more likely to get an STD from an infected male than a male is to get it from an infected female because females expose a greater surface area of mucous membrane during sexual contact than males.
Why is a woman less likely to show symptoms of an STD than is a male? • Women are less likely to show symptoms because the infected area is not easily seen and the urethra is less likely to be infected, so there is a less chance of pain. List 5 areas where mucous membranes are found. 1. Urethra 2. Vagina, Uterus, Fallopian Tubes 3. Vulva 4. Rectum 5. Eyes How do bacteria cause disease? • Bacteria cause disease by producing harmful chemicals, which are toxins of enzymes. These toxins kill or damage body cells.
The damage to the body cells causes the symptoms of the disease. How does the structure of bacterial cells differ from that of human cells? • Bacterial cells have a slightly different structure than that of human cells. These structural differences are important because they allow antibiotics to kill bacteria without killing host, or human, cells. Why can antibiotics kill bacteria without killing the host cells? • Bacteria cells are smaller than human cells and have a simpler structure. How do antibiotics kill bacteria? Antibiotics kill bacteria by either preventing bacteria from making cell walls, preventing bacteria from making complete proteins, or damaging the plasma membrane. How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics? • Bacteria get their resistance from genes that inactivate the antibiotics, pump the antibiotics out of the cell, or allow them to function in spite of antibiotics. Bacteria get these resistance genes through mutation and selection or from other bacteria through plasmids that carry genes for resistance. Which STDs are caused by bacteria? • STDs caused by bacteria include Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis.