A.P.U.S. History – Chapter 2

A.P.U.S. History – Chapter 2

Compare and Contrast the English model of colonization to that of the French and Spanish
French: Friendly relations with indians (comparatively)
Tried to convert natives to christianity
Came in small numbers
Extractive economic activity (for trade): resource based, dependant on extracting or harvesting natural resources to sell and trade
catholic
Spanish: Came to conquer
Looked for and found precious minerals
Tried to convert indians
Explored deep into continent to look for wealth
catholic
English: Came in large groups
Settled and improved land
More religiously tolerant
Wiped out indian culture
Didn’t explore deep into continent
Mostly protestant
To what extent was the defeat of the Spanish Armada a turning point in American History
Gained a reputation as a major naval power
English population was growing rapidly
Economy was depressed
Poor and landless people increased
Explain one political and one economic cause for Jamestown early struggles for survival
Political cause: Early struggles for survival.
Jamestown was England’s first corporate colony (Joint-stock company).
Conflict erupted between the settlers and natives causing trade to stop.
Economic cause: Early struggles for survival
Gold-seeking adventurers refused to hunt/farm
Lead to Hunger & Starvation (persistent issue)
Trade stopped & settlers got hungry
Compare and Contrast Jamestown and Plymouth Colonies
Compare:
Both were on Indian settlements
Both grew tobacco
Both traded with Indians at some point
Many died in first few months of settlement
Both established a legislative government
Involved in joint-stock companies
Contrast:
The Plymouth Colony: Pilgrims from the Church of England who wanted to organize a separate church because they wanted to be independent from monarchs (Known as Separatists)
Pilgrims came to America in search of religious freedom aboard the Mayflower. Rather than going to Jamestown, they decided to establish the Plymouth Colony
Jamestown became a Royal Colony because the Virginia company had made many poor decisions which put them in debt and King James I took control.
Compare and contrast the political development of Virginia to that of New England. Are they more similar or different?
Similarities:
Only male property owners could vote
Female and landless had few rights (slaves none at all)
Governor ruled with unlimited power
Democratic and antidemocratic practices coexisted in colonies
Differences:
Virginia: Virginia Company guaranteed colonists the same rights as residents of England
1619: Organized first representative assembly in America (House of Burgesses)
New England: Pilgrims drew up a document that said that they would make decisions based on the will of the majority (Mayflower Compact)
Showed self government
Male Puritans could participate in yearly elections
The Chesapeake Colonies: Explain how cultural interactions between colonizing groups, Africans, and American Indians in the colonial are impacted the development of American colonial identity
Interactions between Natives and Englishmen created racial tensions bordering on war. This may have led to extreme prejudice against all native people.
Interactions between Africans and Englishmen was mostly slavery which may have lead to the idea that Africans were inferior to the white man, which may have lead to the slave trade being a major economic factor in the south.
Both of these interactions led most of the Englishmen to be extremely racist against anyone who wasn’t English.
Identify the major causes for the establishment of slavery in the Western Atlantic World. Which of these was the most significant, why?
Major Causes for Slavery –
Increasing labor demand
Tobacco farms
Racism
Plantation owners pay for immigrants and slaves for land
Natives died in slavery, Africans proved more resilient
A demand for an increase in labor was the most significant during this period. Since the demand for tobacco was already very important to most chesapeake bay colonies, more slaves increased the amount of tobacco each colony could produce
Identify the causes of the sources of discord in early New England? Which ones were the most threatening and to what extent were they handled correctly?
New England had some early sources of Discord
Failure of Halfway Covenant
King Philip’s War
Halfway Covenant caused discord with the weakening of the Puritans
Experiences were low= members were low
King Philip’s war- most discord in New England
Unification of native tribes caused year-long war
Thousands on each side killed
Colonial forces prevailed and killed King Philip, ended war
To what extent did the English Civil War serve as turning point for the colonies in America, what were the characteristics before and after that time period?
English Civil War served as turning point:
New England Confederation
Formed because of lack of assistance in fighting American Indians
Showed that colonies can unify for a common purpose
American revolution
King Philip’s War
Thousands on both sides died
New England Confederation won
Before time period:
Colonies Fought Native Indians on their own
English Monarchy
King Charles
After time period:
Colonies helped each other fight
King Executed
Parliaments/ Puritans Won
Military Dictator- Oliver Cromwell
Brought moral/ Religion change to England
Compare and contrast the the MIddle Colonies and the Southern Colonies during the Restoration area
Alike: Both under English rule
Difference: Torn between Oliver Cromwell and King Charles II & Southern are more slavery and plantation owners
Significance: Already leading to revolution
Identify the causes and motivations of the British mercantile system. Which one is most significant? Why?
Enrich mother country (Great Britain)
To grow in wealth and self-sufficiency
Increase political power and private wealth
With the exclusion of other empires
Both reasons were extremely important to the British mercantile system. The main goal was to achieve a self-sufficiency that excluded other countries from trade. Their hope was to be able to reach this through the colonies of America and their colonists.
The political, economic, and cultural impact of the British mercantile system.
Political – the political aspects for a British mercantile system is very important. Having a strong economy is very key to a monarch’s strength and his renown.
Economic – economically it was one of the best times for Britain. They had the largest naval armada after the Spanish’s armada defeat, and controlled shipping lanes. They could trade with the world.
Cultural – with the new mercantile system also came cultural exchange w/ new world and old
Explain the political, economic, and cultural impact of the British mercantile system
Political: The English are getting richer allows the government to have more power by creating a bigger military
Economic: The Tobacco product was the main crop that allowed the British to become richer along with sugarcane helped the British gain more influence around the world
Cultural: The right to religious freedom in the America’s, more acceptable to other cultures since it was a giant “melting pot”.
To what extent did African slavery differ regionally in eighteenth-century North America
Massachusetts
First enslavement of “lawful” captives
Virginia
Mother’s enslavement expanded to their children
Maryland
Africans- regarded as socially inferior
Baptism didn’t affect slaves sentence
Southern colonies had a lot of agriculture
Plantations
Strict laws
Life bondage
Expanded to their children
Wanted to escape
Hard labor
Explain 3 reasons for demographic shift of population.
Whites
Europeans coming over to colonize the Americas
Blacks
Slaves were coming in from Africa to work on the settlements
Natives
Dying from diseases that the Europeans brought over
Colonists took over land, so they had to adapt to new areas