A.P. World History chapter 3

A.P. World History chapter 3

Herodotus
wrote about the mummifications the Egyptians performed. said the Egyptians were a “gift of the Nile”
Nile River Valley
produced fertile land when flooded which created a surplus of food. let there be stratified jobs because not everyone needed to hunt and gather
climatic conditions of the Sub-Sahara Desert
first, the desert was full of greenery and running water. climate started to increase and the desert soon became uninhabitable by people. used Nile River for a source of water
Food in the Sub-Sahara Desert
domesticated animals and gathered wild wheat. planted cotton and watermelon
deities
both feared and respected because they were thought to bring rain for crops so they could grow
Nile River
red by rain and snow from mountains worlds longest river. when it floods, it leaves behind rich soil that is perfect for farming and gave the Egyptians a surplus of food. links places together because it was a trade way and new ideas and crops where spread
cataract
an unnavigable stretch of rapids or waterfalls
government
nile kingdoms. many fights over political and economical problems. kingdoms overtook kingdoms.
ta-seti
major nubian kingdom. strong and powerful. taken over by Egypt
nubian kingdoms
seperate kingdoms. lots of fighting took place
egyptian kingdoms
on kingdom that was strong and powerful
mense (or narmer)
started unified rule in Egypt, by a king or pharaoh. founded memphis if 3100 b.c.e
pharaoh
said to be gods sent down to earth as humans. associated with horus the sky god. said to be amon’s son, the sun gods son. pharaohs were shown being bigger than the other people in pictures because they had more power
archaic period
3100 b.c.e to 2660 b.c.e. when most powerful pharaohs where. most pyramids were built
old Kingdom
2260 b.c.e to 2160 b.c.e. when most powerful pharaohs where. most pyramids were built
Khufu or Cheops
most famous pyramid
Nubia
had gold, ebony, ivory, and precious stones. egypt wanted what it had. both societies feared each other because they thought they where going to be taken over by one another. established a powerful kingdom called Kush. Kush was strong and powerful, not as strong as Egypt though. trade between it and Egypt. societies sometimes mixed and people sometimes married
middle kingdom
2040 b.c.e. to 1640 b.c.e. pharaohs not as powerful
hyksos
from southwest asia horse-riding nomadic people. had a military advantage over Egypt and took over Egypt through Memphis, the capital. used horses, bronze weapons and arrows.
new kingdom
surplus of food. population -4 million, plus a strong army. government split into many working offices. pharaohs built temples and palaces to show their power and wealth
Tuthomis III
most vigorous king. beat Kush through capital kerma. took over most of Nubia and the Nile River Valley
Egypt’s decline
nubians pushed Egyptians out of Nubia. pushed out from southwest asia and Assyrians invade Egypt.
King Kashta
takes over Thebes and forms Kushtite dynasty in Egypt. earns the name pharaohs. extends egypt passed the Nile Delta
Assyrian Rule
pushes out Kushtite dynasty and invades Egypt
patriarchal societies
where adult men have higher positions and are in charge
writing
used for literary expressions and religious reflections. used for government records- taxes- and commerical information- kepping records of who payed or traded.
Memphis
first capital of egypt
thebes
major city. also a capital. administrative center for upper egypt
tanis
important trade port
kerma
earliest Kush capital. trade center for land and sea trade (Nile River).
Napata
political center for Nubia
Meroe
Nubia’s second capital. trade center for Nile River.
heirarchies
social distinction. a society with different classes
social classes (egypt)
persants/ slaves- hard laborers that worked in the fields. royals- pharaoh- supreme central ruler. no noble class- professional military forces and administrators and tax collectors as central government.
social classes (nubia)
diverse society. wealthy showed money by buying goods and decorating themselves and their houses with them, or putting them in coffins with the dead.
Patriarchal society
men where supreme and more important. ran most states and made most decisions
men and women
able to buy property and slaves and give their wealth to their children
women
more power and freedom in egypt and nubia. some where priestesses. some got an education
queen hatshepsut
took power as a pharaoh. coruled with Tuthmosis III. women ruler- unfamiliar in Egypt at the time.
nubian women
many women ruled nubia. some by themselves and others with a king