A.P. World History: Early Civilizations

A.P. World History: Early Civilizations

Hominid
An early ancestor of humans, A member of a biological group including human beings and related species that walk upright
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Indigenous
Native to a certain area
Affluent
rich; prosperous
vagaries
an unpredictable or erratic action, occurrence, course, or instance
Millennia
Based on the widespread belief that the world was about to end with the second coming of Christ. This belief was started by the preacher William Miller who gained tens of thousands of followers by predicting a specific date (October 21, 1844) when the second coming would occur. There were obvious disappointments when nothing happened on the appointed day, but the Millerites would continue as a new religion, the Seventh-Day Adventists
Shamans
(Especially among certain tribal peoples) a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds, using magic to cure illness, foretell the future, control spiritual forces, etc.
Egalitarianism
A belief in the equality of all people
Capricious
ADJ. FICKLE, N. INCLINATION TO CHANGE ONE’S MIND COMPULSIVELY
Patriarchy
A form of social organization in which males dominate females
Pathological
(adj) relating to or caused by disease; relating to compulsive bad behavior
Homo habilis
1st Human
Homo sapiens
Modern Humans, “man who thinks”, A species of the creatures Hominid who have larger brains and to which humans belong, dependent on language and usage of tools. Developed clothing, rope, shelters, sex roles. Evolved as early as 250,000 years ago and emerged out of Africa around 70,000 years ago.
Willendorf Venus
20,000 years ago, statues found made from mammoth ivory tusk, soapstone and clay. Archeologists believed different people all over made them. They had large hips/breasts. Very sexual and explicit. Believed to have been in Matriarchial societies with women as leaders. Maybe show pregnancy, don’t show facial details. All have some sort of hat on, use of twine became popular. Used to carry Child.
Clovis people
•First migrants (by sea and land) to the North American continent; came in 3 separate migration
Lascaux
A cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic painting
Kalahari
A desert in southwestern Africa.
Sahul
The landmass that encompassed Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea during periods of low sea level, The landmass consisting of Australia, New Guinea, and the surrounding continental shelf during the late Ice Age.
Austronesia
An Asian-language family whose speakers gradually became the dominant culture of the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Pacific islands, thanks to their mastery of agriculture. They migrated all through the Pacific.
Domestication
Selective growing or breeding of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans.
Sedentary
characterized by sitting; little exercise
Diffusion
The process by which an idea, an invention, or some other cultural item is borrowed from a foreign source., How Culture spreads. Expansion, Hierarchical, Contagion, Relocation.
Colonization
A physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
Steppes
Dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus. Can be found in Russia, Europe, or Asia.
Tribute
Money paid for protection, (n) A gift, service, or other demonstration of gratitude, admiration, or affection.
Bantu
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa.
Pastoralists
Herders of domesticated animals.
Fertile crescents
Tigris, Euphrates, Syrice, Israel, Iran and Iraq, a region in the Middle east where farming and the first civilizations developed
Andes
A large system of mountain ranges located along the Pacific coast of Central and South America
New Guinea
It lies north of Australia near the equator. It is the second largest island in the world after Greenland. Humans have been living there for 40,000 years. Possible independent food production arose there around 7000 B.C.
Mesoamerica
“Middle America” the region extending from modern-day Mexico through Central America
Palestine
Also called Holy Land. Biblical name, Canaan. an ancient country in SW Asia, on the E coast of the Mediterranean.
Mesopotamia
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means “land between the rivers;” Sumerian culture
Catalhuyuk
One of the first Neolithic villages (located in modern day Turkey), Good example of agricultural village society. Socail structure, buried dead, many people, well built houses, specialization.
Sudan
Africa’s largest country, the region of Africa between the Sahara to the north and the tropics to the south., -people domesticated cattle, became nomadic herders but still collected wild grains; then established permanent settlements and cultivated sorghum, yams.
Nigeria
1/4 of population in Africa, 1.Most populated country in Africa, WEST AFRICA. It used to be a British colony.
Cahokia
an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Sumerians
A group of people who were the first to settle in Mesopotamia. They were the first people to invent the wheel and plow (a tool used for farming). They may have been the first people to discover agriculture and create an irrigation system.
Gilgamesh
A legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. “An eye for an eye”.
Hatshepsut
1480 BC Queen Hatshepsut came to power during the New Kingdom, forst ruling with her husband and then on behalf of her stepson, Thutmose III. Had herself crowned pharaoh. Wore false beard, usually worn by kings. BUilt great fueral temple in Valley of the Kings. She expanded Egypt through trade rather than military.
Phoenician
A civilization in the are of present day Lebanon, creators of the first alphabetic writing system. They also created extensive trading systems.
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the Hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria (p.64)
Ambivalent
Having mixed feelings, uncertain
Citadel
(n.) a fortress that overlooks and protects a city; any strong or commanding place
Regent
A person who rules for a monarch during periods of illness, absence or extreme youth.
Literacy
the ability to read and write
endemic
(adj.) native or confined to a particular region or people; characteristic of or prevalent in a field
mercenaries
Foreign soldiers who fought not out of loyalty, but for pay.
Epidemic
Affecting an a typically large number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time.
Sumer
First civilization in Mesopotamia.
Nile River
Floods were predictable – left rich soil on the banks of the river – great for farming – produced a surplus of food.
Norte Chico
A region along the coast of Peru that possessed a highly-developed urban culture as early as 2500 B.C.E. Characterized by massive stepped pyramids and extensive use of cotton.
Caral
Largest of some 25 urban centers at that time.
Indus River
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea.
Uruk
A large Sumerian city-state in Mesopotamia; has tablets with very early Sumerian scripts
Harappa
A large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan
Yellow River
Yellow River
(CHINESE STATUE OF THIS: WOMEN-THE RIVER- HOLDING CHILD-THE PEOPLE)a major river of Asia in northern China, (Huang He) 6th longest river in the world; a “cradle of civilization” in East Asia; before the evolution of dams, it flooded more often and unpredictably
La Venta
An ancient island town of Middle America on the east coast of what is now Mexico; center of Olmec culture in 1000 B.C. surrounded by swamps and rivers.
Nubia
A civilization to the south of Egypt in the Nile Valley, noted for development of an alphabetic writing system and a major iron working industry by 500 BCE