A Patriot’s History of the United States Chapter One

A Patriot’s History of the United States Chapter One

God, glory, and gold
Reason post-Renaissance Europeans went to parts of the globe they had never seen before.
Norse sailors
First to sail to the Western Hemisphere. Reached Iceland in 874 and Greenland a century later.
3 factors that made long ocean voyages possible
1st – sailing and shipbuilding technology advanced
2nd – larger, cohesive dynastic states gave an increased taxable base (more money)
3rd – Protestant Reformation fostered competition to convert non-Christians in new lands (Catholic vs Protestant)
Prince Henry the Navigator
Brother of King Edward or Portugal opened a school to train sailors and map makers
Bartholomeu Dias
First to sail around the Cape of Storms in 1486 (later named Cape of Good Hope by King John II)
Vasco de Gama
Sailed to Calicut, India in 1498
Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
Columbus’s 3 vessels
Portugal, Spain, France, England
Countries competing in exploration
Christopher Columbus
Native of Genoa, Italy who attempted to find an ocean path to the Orient in 1492
Watling Island in the Bahamas
Place that Columbus first landed on his first voyage.
Marco Polo
Italian merchant who spent much time traveling to China and bringing back stories of its riches.
Amerigo Vespucci
Explorer who was mistakenly given credit for discovering the New World thus having the Americas named for him.
Vaxco Nunez de Balboa
Crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean (as he named it) in 1513
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigated the glove 1519-1522
Juan Ponce de Leon
Attempted to plant a colony on the Florida coast.
Hernando Cortes (Cortez)
Eventually defeated the Aztecs capturing their capital in 1521.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Hernando de Soto
Explored Florida from 1539-1541 and ultimately crossed the Mississippi River.
Henry Morgan and Sir Francis Drake
Famous English pirates
Jacques Cartier
1534, Explored Canada looking for the NW passage, traveled up the St. Lawrence River to Montreal, Discovered St. Lawrence River
Samuel de Champlain
French cartographer who explored inland for a series of lakes to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. He established what would later be called Quebec.
Huguenots
French Protestants
Walter Raleigh
Established Roanoke Colony on the Carolina coast.
Roanoke
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don’t know what became of them.
Virginia Dare
1st English child born in America (1587)
Captain John Smith
1580-1631 A 26 year old English colonist who came to America in 1608 and helped to create the Jamestown Colony. He made an agreement with the Powhatan Indians. He encouraged settlers to work harder and build better housing. No work = no food
Jamestown
(1607) first permanent English settlement in North America. Majority died from starvation, disease, and Indian attacks.
Pocahontas
(1595-March 21, 1617) The daughter of Powhatan, she is known for helping the colonists at Jamestown, and saving English settler John Smith’s life by shielding him from a hostile hunting party led by Powhatan’s son. She converted to Christianity and married the English settler John Rolfe after being held hostage in Jamestown (treated very well). They had a child in 1615 and moved to England in 1616. Later known as Rebecca Rolfe.
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Bacon’s Rebellion
1676 uprising led by Nathaniel Bacon. Angry with Governor Berkeley for his refusal to send troops against the Indians he led a march to track hostiles. Instead he encountered and killed friendly Indians and then turned his 500 men against the government of Jamestown, burning most of the buildings. Soon, after Bacon died from a virus and the leaderless rebels were soon defeated.