A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES CONTENTS |Sl. No. |Title |Page No. | |1. Introduction |1 – 5 | | | |Statement of the Problem |1 | | | |Objectives of the Study |1 | | | |Scope and Significance of the Study |2 | | | |Research Methodology |2 | | | |Limitations of the Study |4 | | | |Chapteraisation |4 | |2. Profiles |6 – 17 | | | |Industry profile |6 | | | |Company profile |8 | | | |Product profile |13 | |3. |Theoretical Framework |18 – 28 | |4. |Analysis and Interpretation |29 – 40 | |5. |Findings and Recommendations |41 – 42 | |6. Summary |43 | | |Bibliography | | | |Appendix | | LIST OF TABLES |Table |Description |Page No. | | | | | |4. 1 |Score of Various Attributes |30 | |4. 2 |Score of Various Attributes |31 | |4. |Score of Various Attributes |32 | |4. 4 |Score of Various Attributes |33 | |4. 5 |Gender of Respondents |34 | |4. 6 |Educational Qualification |35 | |4. 7 |Experience of the Respondents |36 | |4. 8 |Age of the Respondents |37 | |4. |Marital Status of the Respondents |38 | | | | | LIST OF FIGURES |Figure |Description |Page No. | | | | | |4. 1 |Score of Various Attributes |30 | |4. 2 |Score of Various Attributes |31 | |4. 3 |Score of Various Attributes 32 | |4. 4 |Score of Various Attributes |33 | |4. 5 |Gender of Respondents |34 | |4. 6 |Educational Qualification |35 | |4. 7 |Experience of the Respondents |36 | |4. 8 |Age of the Respondents |37 | |4. |Marital Status of the Respondents |38 | | | | | Chapter I Introduction Introduction ? Statement of the problem ? Objectives of the Study ? Scope and Significance of the Study ? Research Methodology ? Limitation of the Study ? Chapterisation Chapter III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Chapter IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Chapter V SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chapter VI SUMMARY APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY Chapter II
PROFILES Industry Profile ? Company Profile ? Product Profile INTRODUCTION A study was conducted at, WESTERN INDIA PLYWOODS, VALAPATTANAM, the largest integrated wood processing complex in the country on Job Satisfaction of the employees. Job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their work. Job satisfaction is an affective attitude — a feeling of relative like or dislike toward something. Job satisfaction typically refers to the attitudes of a single employee. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Western India Plywoods has been incurring losses in the last few years. Health, knowledge, skill level etc. f employees are significant factors that can influence the fate of an organization. The causes of business failure may be internal and external, mostly by people related issues. This study attempts at finding the current level of job satisfaction of employees at Western India Plywoods and what it means for its turnaround. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Main Objective The main objective is to study the satisfaction level of workers with respect to various factors. Sub-Objectives ? To study the employee perception about personnel policies. ? To identify ways of improving job satisfaction, if possible. SCOPE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study is limited to the workers at the WESTERN INDIA PLYWOODS.
It is conducted with the objective of finding various factors affecting the job satisfaction of workers in the company. This study in its practical and theoretical sense will help the management in assessing the satisfaction level of the workers. Job satisfaction of the employees is the major concern of every organization. Dissatisfied employees is a major threat to the company causing a decline in every functions of the company. So the study on the job satisfaction of the employees gains more importance and significance in the sense that it affects productivity and hence the existence of the company. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design . The study conducted at WESTERN INDIA PLYWOODS was descriptive in nature.
It aims at portraying accurately the characteristics of a group or situation. Sampling Design The technique adopted for the sampling is convenient sampling . Sample Size and population The workers of Western India Plywoods constituted the population for the study. It has 900 permanent workers. The sample selected for the study is limited to 50 for convenience. Study Variables The following variables were selected for the study ? Gender of respondents ? Age of respondents ? Educational qualification ? Experience of employees ? Time spent with family ? Wage level ? Opinion about promotion policy, job security, recognition, work place relationship, etc was also included. Methods of Data Collection
Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected from the workers by means of Questionnaire and the secondary data were compiled from past records, journals and the Internet. Tools of Data Collection Questionnaire was prepared to collect the relevant data. Major variables such as promotional factors, motivational factors, personal factors and environmental factors were considered while preparing questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared after an initial discussion with a few employees, HR manager, trade union representatives etc. For the questionnaire, closed -end questions were used. Data Analysis and Interpretation
The data analysis and presentation were done using mean, chi-square test, frequency tables, bar charts and pie-diagram. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ? Chances of bias from the respondents cannot be neglected. ? Qualitative study poses a problem of proper articulation of feelings and emotions. In an organizational context superior behaviour may also affect quality of responses. CHAPTERISATION Chapter I Introduction deals with “introduction to the study”, “Statement of the Problem”, “Objectives of the Study”, “Scope and Significance of the Study”, “Research Methodology” and “Limitation of the Study”. Chapter II Profile deals with “Industry Profile”, “Company Profile”, and “product profile.
Chapter III, “Theoretical Framework” of job satisfaction Chapter IV, Analysis and Interpretation deals with the analysis and interpretation of the data collected from the respondents. Chapter V Summary, Findings and Recommendations deals with findings from the analysis and the suggestions based on the findings. CONCLUSION This chapter we presented the problem, objectives, scope and significance of the study. The research methodology and limitation of the study were also mentioned . The next chapter deals with profile of the company, its products and markets. INDUSTRY PROFILE INTRODUCTION According to archeologist, man’s cultural progress can be traced in the art of wood veneering.
Relics, found in Egypt and Chinese tombs dating from 2002 BC indicate that veneering combines art and science. The 14th century witnessed the revival of art and brought to veneering a new figure and beauty. Today modern machinery and mass production technique produce veneers that are used to build nearly 80% of furniture. PLYWOOD INDUSTRY The necessity of making plywood arises out of the inherent defect in wood plywood in an engineered wood panel . made from thin layer of wood veneers assembled with grain direction of adjacent veneer as right angled to each other with layers of synthetic resins, adhesive and pressed under high heat and pressure, thus imparting a great degree of strength.
It is dimensionally stable and strongest sheet material to weight ratio . It is technically designed to be strong and stiff enough to safely replace more than three times thick solid timber for the same use. It appears, plywood industry has become an innocent victim of gross misconception. The unfounded impression that this industry is exerting pressure on our natural resources is factually incorrect. It is in total disagreed to its excellent role as an economic substitute of solid wood and thus prevention of natural forest and ecology. Strangely enough the government desires that the use of aluminium, steel and plastic as substitute of solid wood in buildings may be encouraged.
Similarly other substitute like wood based board and medium densified fiber board are claiming their superiority over plywood in terms of its functional use and ecology conservation role. PRODUCT PROFILE The company produces traditional general-purpose commercial and decorative plywood. In addition to that the company proudly presents an exciting range of specially plywood panels and materials for specific applications. 1. WESIND FIRE RETARDANT PLYWOOD This plywood is ideal for residential and non-residential building, transportation vehicles etc. This plywood meets the British Standards Specification and has been certified by the British Standard Institute. 2. WESTIND FIRE RETARDANT PLYWOOD
Experts in the aviation field have acclaimed this extra ordinary product of the Company for its unparalleled quality. This product has earned the recognition of the Directorate of Civil Aviation, Government of India, on its introduction itself. 3. WESTIND MARINE PLYWOOD Made of special category timber, this highly durable plywood ensures smooth sailing of vessels in the harsh marine environment. 4. WESTIND RESIN COATED PLYWOOD BWR plywood is coated with a special grade phenolic resin coated plywood’s impart a superior finish to the concrete surface and avoid the tedious and expensive plastering operation. 5. WESTIND FLOORING BOARDS These boards have been developed using veneer hard board laminates.
The boards have been given a social water repellent treatment and the unique is that they can be cut to nay size to suit the requirement of the floor area. It can be directly laid on a raw concrete floor by applying a thin coat of suitable adhesive. 6. WESTED FURNITURE WESTERN INDIA PLYWOOD specializes in exquisite and molded plywood furniture, which will exceed your expectations regarding strength and durability. WESTIND furniture is manufactured utilizing the finest building material available in the market. It is a matter of pride to WIP that the loose furniture in the Leela Goa project was entirely supplied by the company. It is made with a judicious blend of solid timber and composite panels to optimise strength and cost.
The company adopts ultra modern technology to give the products of lasting value and elegance. 7. WESTED SUPTER BLOCK BOARDS Bonded with phenolic resing to produce by a special process with extra core. This product is free from warping and surface undulation. It is a superior to conventional block board and particle board. Its more stable than conventional block boards and its nailing and screw holding properties are superb. 8. WESTING COMPREG Densified and super toughened wood panel products made from veneers impregnated with synthetic resin adhesive and pressed at elevated temperatures and pressures. ? WIPWOOD – for textile and jute mill looms. ? WIPROC – for press forming tools in sheet metal and Aeronautical industries. WIPLAC-panels for rail coach furnishing. ? WIPBEAR-for rolls bearing application ? WIP FILTER PLATES AND FRAME WORKS – for filtration in Chemical industries. ? WIPCHECK-compressed floor board for Automobile, industrial and rail coach furnishing. ? WIPCOM-for high and low voltage insulation in air or in an oil bath. COMPREG MOULED CHAIR SEATS – for EMU rail coaches, Auditorium, Theatres and restaurants. The introduction of WIPLAC and a host of other innovative products underlie the company’s commitment to the industry and provide reason for the luminous reputation in the country’s larges integrated wood product company enjoys in domestic and international markets.
In 1978, WIP set up a plant for manufacturing Di-ally phthalate molding powder, a thermo set which had to be imported with them. Significantly, the technology was developed in house with support from Shree Ram Institute of Industrial research, Delhi. In 1989, the Company put up a pre-finishing plant for direct printing wood grains and plain colours onto hard boards and plywood using radiation curved surface finishes. The pre-finishing plant is the only one of its kind in the country and one of the few in the world. All the raw materials and processes employed in the plant are 100% Eco-Friendly. The company’s products are exported to quality conscious markets around the world. MARKETS
The Company has been passing through acute problems for sourcing good raw materials, the price of which increases almost on a daily basis. The main raw material for the company, i. e. , timber, is being exported and here again the company has no control over the price, which varies from shipment to shipment. The company has also no control over the levies being made by Central State Government. Also, the steep increase in cost of imported raw materials, the high power tariff and the ever increasing cost of Furnace oil and other petroleum products collectively put together rendered the company’s products uncompetitive in the market. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY The energy conservation measures taken are as follows:
Installed variable frequency drives for mating conveyors in No: II Hard board line to eliminate components like brakes, clutches, V-belts and inching motors. By retaining the existing motors, considerable power saving has been achieved. Optimized cooling tower operation by retrofitting and introduction of energy savers in cooling fans Installed level monitoring, closed loop control system for white water chest, and achieved optimisation in white water usage. Introduced automatic Delta Star running system for partial loaded motors in plywood and hardwood plants. The company has also achieved 100% utilization of source raw materials due to its integrated production system. Therefore, it would be apt to call the Western India Plywood’s Ltd. “the company with a conscience. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION In this chapter theoretical aspect of job satisfaction is recorded. Job satisfaction reflects the extent to which people find gratification or fulfillment in their work. Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological and environmental factors that make a person to admit, I am happy at my job. Extensive Research on job satisfaction shows that personal factors such as individual’s needs and aspirations determine his attitude, along with group and organizational factors such as relationship with co-workers and supervisors, working conditions, work policies, and compensation. DEFINITION
We can define job satisfaction as involving cognitive, affective and evaluating reactions or attitudes and states it is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. Job satisfaction is a result of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. Through the years five job dimensions have been identified to represent the most important characteristics of a job about which employees have affective responses. These are: ? The work itself: The extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning and the chance to accept responsibility. Pay: The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable that of others in the organization. ? Promotional opportunities. The chances for advancement in the organization. ? Supervision: The abilities of the supervisor to provide technical assistance and behavioral support. ? Co-workers: the degree to which fellow workers are technically proficient and socially supportive. There are number of factors that influence job satisfaction. However the main factors are: I. PROMOTIONAL FACTORS Promotional opportunities seem to have a varying effect on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take a number of different forms and have a variety of accompanying rewards.
For example, individuals who are promoted on the basis of seniority often experience job satisfaction but not as much as those who are promoted on the basis of performance. A promotion is the transfer of an employee to a job which pays more money or one that carries same preferred status. A promotion may be defined as an upward advancement of an employee in an organization to another job, which commands better pay/wages, better status/prestige, and higher opportunities/challenges, responsibility, and authority, better working environment, hours of work and facilities, and a higher rank. A promotion is a vertical move in the rank and responsibility. Involved in a promotion may be some measure of skill; and responsibility. Promotions are usually given: ?
To put the worker in a position where he will be of greater value to the company and where he may derive increased personal satisfaction and income from the work; ? To recognize an individual’s performance and reward him for his work so that he may have an incentive to forge ahead. Employees will have little motivation if better jobs are reserved for outsiders. ? To increase an employee’s organizational effectiveness; ? To promote job satisfaction among the employees and give them an opportunity for unbroken, continuous service; ? To build up morale, loyalty, and a sense of belonging on the part of the employees when it is brought home to them that they would be promoted if they deserve it; ?
To attract suitable and competent workers for the organization. II. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS There is no doubt that motivation is the key to the promotion of proper good human relations. The term “motivation” was originally derived from the Latin word movere, which means “to move”. We can define motivation as an inner state that energises, activates, or moves (hence ‘motivation’), and that directs or channels behavior towards goals. Thus motivation is a general term that applies to the entire class of energy, drive, tension and similar forces. The studies can be classified under two groups, on the basis of convenience and simplifications, viz. , traditional theories, and modern theories.
The traditional theories are based on mostly the “human relations approach” in management, with little attention to psychological processes that occur. This approach was based upon three simple assumptions: ? Personnel primarily are economically motivated and secondarily desire security and good working conditions. ? Provision of the above rewards to personnel will have a positive effect on the morale. There is a positive correlation between morale and productivity. III. PERSONAL FACTORS Personal factors comprises name, age, sex, marital status, experience, spending time with the family are the personal factors affecting the level of job satisfaction.
Age: The relationship between age and job satisfaction could be complex generally one would expect that as the person gets older greater would be his job satisfaction level because of the experience and the case with which he would he will be able to perform his work Education: The relation between job satisfaction and education is based on how his educational qualification helps him to meet the job requirements and how he is able to utilize to earn additional promotion or a fare salary. However it is reasonable to assume that the more educated would be more frustrated. Years of experience: The relation between job satisfaction and years of experience is such that a new employee would be more satisfied with his job because of the enthusiasm of the work but these gradually decrease and increases when he reaches the stage of retirement as there is no other alternative opportunity available to him IV. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Interpersonal relationship with supervisor-There seems to be two dimensions of supervisory style that affect job satisfaction. One is employee centeredness, which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes a personal interest and cares about the employee. It commonly is manifested in ways such as checking to see how well the employee is doing. The other dimension is participation or influence, as illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. In most cases, this approach leads to higher job satisfaction. A participative climate created by the supervisor has a more substantial effect on worker’s satisfaction Interpersonal relation with work groups will have an effect on job satisfaction.
Friendly, co-operative co-workers or team members are a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The work group especially a “tight” team, serves as a source of support, comfort, advice and assistance to the individual members. A “good” work group or effective team makes the job more enjoyable. However, this factor is not job satisfaction. On the other hand, if the reverse condition exists the people are difficult to get along with this factor may have a negative effect on job satisfaction. Working conditions have a modest effect on job satisfaction. If the working conditions are good (clean, attractive surroundings for instance), the personnel will find it easier to carry out their jobs.
If the working conditions are poor (hot, noisy surroundings for example), personnel will find it more difficult to get things done. In other words, the effect of working conditions on job satisfaction is similar to that of the work group; there may or may not be a job satisfaction problem. Hertzberg’s motivation and hygiene factors are relevant in job satisfaction. If the workers get adequate opportunity to hear and to be heard by the top management it can be a source of job satisfaction. This observation has been subscribed by Vroom while he holds that there exists a relationship between job satisfaction and opportunity for self-express. [pic]
A MODEL OF JOB SATISFACTION The model of job satisfaction is presented below: EXPECTATIONS ACTUAL ABOUT JOBSCONDITIONS DISCREPANCIES PAYPAY WORK ITSELFWORK ITSELF PROMOTIONSPROMOTIONS COWORKERSCOWORKERS WORKING CONDITIONSWORKING CONDITIONS SUPER VISORSSUPER VISORS EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION Basically, job satisfaction is determined by the ‘discrepancy’ between what individuals expect to get out of their jobs and what the job actually offers. A person will be dissatisfied if there is less than the desire amount of job characteristics in the job. For instance if a person expects to be promoted in six month and then is not, the person will be dissatisfied.
A person will be satisfied if there is no discrepancy between decide and actual conditions. If it is more than the employee expected of some job factor and the excess is beneficial (e. g. a large bonus, faster promotion) then the person will be very highly satisfied. Job Satisfaction And Productivity Historically the concept of human relations assumed that high job satisfaction led to high productivity but later research indicated that this was an incorrect assumption. Satisfied workers turned out be either high producers or low producers only on average producers. The satisfaction-productivity relationship appeared to quite complex being influenced by various intermediate factors such as rewards than an employee receives.
The question has often risen whether job satisfaction leads to performance of performance leads to job satisfaction. Lawler and Porter have developed a model that suggests that productivity leads to satisfaction. According to them, performance leads to reward and if these are perceived to equitable employee, satisfaction is the result. The assumption, which seems most realistic, is that satisfaction and productivity are in a circular relationship in which each affects the other. From the various studies a general relationship emerges between job satisfaction and productivity as shown in figure Relationship between Job satisfaction and Productivity [pic]
Here in X, Y graph where X = Productivity and Y = Job satisfaction Line A = High Job satisfaction and Less Productivity Line B = High Job satisfaction and High productivity Lind C = High productivity and less job satisfaction. Here ‘line C’ of chart shows the conditions of high productivity and low job satisfaction which can be occur when the supervisors push the production through techniques of scientific management such as methods study, time study and close supervision. C. B MAMORIA – PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT ‘Line A’ represents a condition which believes that satisfied workers are the best workers and try to keep workers happy regardless of the affects on organizational goals.
In this condition, the worker may derive such job satisfaction, but work may be done. One supervisor describes this condition, as “my workers due so happy that they don’t feel like my working”. The middle ‘line B’ appears to be the most desirable agreement-where high satisfaction and high productivity are combined together CONCLUSION In this chapter the theoretical aspects of job satisfaction were discussed. Major variables such as promotional factors, motivational factors, personal factors and environmental factors were considered . The relationship between job satisfaction and productivity was also described. The next chapter gives analysis and interpretation of the survey data. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION INTRODUCTION
In this chapter the analysis of the collected data is shown. Analysis of data is made possible through Frequency Tables, Bar Charts, Pie-diagram, and Chi-Square test. Information is interpreted in percentage forms. Scoring method is also used to find the score of various attributes. Mean of various attributes are also shown. In scoring method score is given to the options for example. Score given to Strongly agree, agree, no opinion, disagree, strongly disagree is +2, +1,0, -1, -2 respectively. Mean: mean is the most common measure of central tendency and can be defined as the value of various given items in a series by the total number of items. Mean = (fx / (f TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
The test of hypothesis is a process of testing significance regarding the parameter of the population on the basis of the sample. Chi-Square test is used to test the significance of the parameters of the population. Formula for Calculating X2 : [pic] Where O = Observed Frequency, E = Expected Frequency, Degree of Freedom = (C-1) (R-1) Table: 4. 1 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES |SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Standard of living |0. 6 | |2 |Promotion policy |-0. 4 | |3 |Job security |0. 64 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the score of standard of living is 0. 6 and the score of promotion policy is -0. 54 while job security got 0. 64. Figure 4. 1 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can see that the graph of promotion policy came to the negative side. Majority of the employees are not satisfied with the promotion policy. They have the opinion that the present job has improved their standard of living and they think that their job is secure. Table 4. 2 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Appreciation |-0. 38 | |2 |Suggestion |0. 08 | |3 |Salary |-0. 3 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the score of appreciation from superiors is -0. 38. The score of salary is -0. 3 Figure 4. 2 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can see that they are not getting appreciation from the superiors. The superiors are not inviting suggestions from the employees. The salary given to them is not adequate. Table 4. 3
SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES |SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Better job prospect |-0. 6 | |2 |Job change |-0. 02 | |3 |Skill |-0. 32 | |4 |Time spent with family |0. 5 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the score of desire to change the present job is -0. 02.
Utilization of skill got a score of -0. 32 while the time spent with family got 0. 5. Figure 4. 3 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can analyse that majority think that they don’t have a better job prospect as per their qualification. They don’t want to change the present job. Majority are having the opinion that their skills are not properly utilized. They are getting enough time with their family. Table 4. 4 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES |SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Trade union activities |0. | |2 |Welfare measures |0 | |3 |Working condition |0. 44 | |4 |Relationship with co-workers |0. 82 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the activities of trade union got 0. 4 as its score, while working condition scored 0. 44. the relationship with co-workers scored 0. 82. Figure 4. 4 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. The employees are having a nice opinion about the trade union activities and working condition. A healthy relationship exists between workers and their superiors.
The welfare measures provided by the company are not adequate. Table: 4. 5 GENDER OF RESPONDENTS |SI NO |SEX |FREQUENCY |PERCENTAGE | |1 |Male |41 |82 | |2 |Female |9 |18 | *Source: survey data From the table we can analyze that 82% of the employees are male and 18% is female Figure 4. 5 GENDER OF RESPONDENTS [pic] The same date is shown with the help of pie-diagram. From that we can see that majority of the respondents are male. Table: 4. 6 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION SI NO |EDUCATION |FREQUENCY |PERCENTAGE | |1 |SSLC |39 |78 | |2 |HSC |8 |16 | |3 |GRADUATION |3 |6 | |4 |PG |0 |0 | *Source: survey data The educational qualification of respondents is shown in the table. 78 % of the workers have education up to school level and 16% of them are having educational qualification HSC . 6% of the respondents are graduates. Figure 4. 6 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can interpret that majority are having their education up to school level. Table: 4. 7 EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS |SI NO |EXPERIENCE |FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE | |1 |0 to 10 |8 |16 | |2 |10 to 20 |27 |54 | |3 |20 to 30 |10 |20 | |4 |30 to 40 |5 |10 | *Source: survey data Mean experience= 17. 4 The experience of respondents is shown in the table. 54% of them are having experience between 10 to 20 years. 16% comes under the range 0 to 10. Only 10 of them have experience above 30 years. Figure 4. 7 EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can see that majority are having experience between 10 to 20 years. Table: 4. 8 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS SI NO |AGE |FREQUENCY |PERCENTAGE | |1 |21 – 30 |12 |24 | |2 |31- 40 |32 |64 | |3 |41 to 50 |4 |8 | |4 |above 50 |2 |4 | *Source: survey data Mean age =36 From the table we can see that 64%of the respondents come under the age group 31 to 40 Figure 4. 8 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS [pic] The same data is shown in the graph. Table: 4. 9 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS SI NO |MARITAL STATUS |FREQUENCY | | | | | | | | | | |PERCENTAGE | |1 |Married |35 |70 | |2 |Single |15 |30 | *Source: survey data The marital status of the employees is shown in the table. We can see that 70%of the employees are married. Figure 4. 9: MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS [pic] The same data is shown with the help of graph. Chi- square is a non parametric test that has assumed great importance in statistical analysis and statistical inferences because it can be used without making assumptions about parameters, as it is a distribution free test.
Chi-square is a measure which evaluates the extent to which a set of the observed frequency of a sample deviates from the corresponding set of the expected frequency of the sample. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPERIENCE AND WAGES H0=There exist no significant relationship between experience and wages H1= There exist significant relationship between experience and wages | |Wages | |Experience |Agree |Disagree |Total | |0 to 20 |12 |23 |35 | |20 to 40 |7 |8 |15 | |Total |19 |31 |50 | O |E |O-E |(O-E)2 |(O-E)2/E | |12 |13. 3 |-1. 3 |1. 69 |. 1271 | |23 |21. 7 |1. 3 |1. 69 |. 0779 | |7 |5. 7 |1. 3 |1. 69 |. 2965 | |8 |9. 3 |-1. 3 |1. 69 |. 1812 | |Total |. 6827 | Calculated Value of X2=. 6827
Degree of freedom = 1 Table value at 5% level of significance =3. 841 As the calculated value is less than the table value the null hypothesis is accepted. The test of hypothesis reveals that there is no significant relationship between experience and wages. Those with more experience are not paid higher. Conclusion Analysis of collected data is shown in this chapter. Analysis of data is done by Frequency Tables, Bar Charts, Pie-diagram, and Chi-Square test. Information is interpreted in percentage forms Findings and recommendations are given in the following chapter. FINDINGS ? Majority of the employees are not satisfied with the promotion policy. The present job has improved their standard of living to some extend. ? Majority have the opinion that their job is secure. ? The employees are not getting adequate salary and the appreciation from their superiors is not satisfactory. ? Majority have the opinion that their skills are not fully utilized. ? The employees have a nice opinion about trade union activities and working condition. ? A healthy and relationship exists between workers and their superiors. The welfare measures provided by the company are not adequate. ? Majority of the respondents at WIP were male. ? Majority of the workers have education up to school level. ? Main experience of the workers at WIP is 17 years. Most of the workers fall in the age group of 31-40 mean age is 36 years. ? The test of hypothesis reveals that there is no significant relationship between experience and wages. Those with more experience are not paid higher. RECOMMENDATIONS ? It is advisable that the company should pay sufficient attention in providing monetary benefits to the employees ? The Management should take some initiative to enhance the welfare measures ? The employers should duly recognize and appreciate the efforts taken by the employees. It will give motivation to the employees ? It was found that the more experienced workers are not paid higher and thus resulting in employee dissatisfaction.
It is advisable that the company should take some initiative to implement new wage system in which experience gets more importance. ? Timely promotions would greatly help the workers as they feel recognized. ? Valuable suggestions made by the workers should given due consideration. SUMMARY The findings generated by the analysis of data resulted in the following conclusions. This study finds that personal factors like experience, time spend with the family affect the level of job satisfaction. Further analyses of data revealed that organisational factors like wages, reward, job security; role of job in increasing the standard of living affects the level of satisfaction.
This study shows significant relationship between wages and standard of living Additionally this study reveals that managerial factors like ability, suggestions for improvement, relationship with superiors and co-workers contributes to the level of satisfaction. This study also indicates that working condition, role of trade union, welfare measures affects the level of satisfaction. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Referred 1. VSP RAO, HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, EXCELL BOOKS, NEW DELHI, 2000. 2. MAMORIA C. B. ; GANKAR S. V. ‘PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TEXT AND CASES. HIMALAYA PUBLISHING HOUSE, MUMBAI 2004. 3. BISWAJET PATTNAYAK, HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EXCELL BOOKS, NEW DELHI, 2000 4. KOTHARI C. R. RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES, WISHWA PRAKASHAN PUBLICATION, NEW DELHI, 1999. Websites www. questionpro. com www. wipltd. com. INTERVIEW SCHEDULE A Study on Job Satisfaction of Employees Conducted at Western India Plywoods, Valapattanam 1. My job is secure Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 2. I get comparatively better salary Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 3. I usually get appreciation from superior officers Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 4. They encourage me to offer suggestions for improvement of my establishment Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 5.
My job improved my standard of living Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 6. I had a better job prospect as per my qualification. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 7. I like to change my present job Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 8. I am satisfied with the relationship with my superiors and co-workers. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 9. My skills are completely utilized Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 10. I am satisfied with the trade union activities. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 1. Company provides number of welfare measures. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 12. I have a convenient working condition. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 13. Your opinion about present promotion policy Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 14. I get enough time to look after my family Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 15. Name: 16. Sex: 17. Age:21-30(31-40(41-50(Above 50( 18. Educational qualification SSLC(HSC(Graduation(PG( 19. Experience 0-10(10-20(20-30(30-40( 20. Marital Status Married(Single( ———————– C B A 21 – 30