A well balanced diet is a cardinal component for healthier life. A sound wellness may merely be guaranteed when the diet consumed by human being would cover all the obligatory foods but in balanced measure ( Geil and Anderson, 1994 ; Bazzano et al. , 2001 ; Wahlqvist, 2001 ; Anderson and Major, 2002 ; Venn and Mann, 2004 ) . The human diet comprising of all indispensable foods like H2O, saccharides, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, is considered as balanced ( Potter and Hotchkiss, 1997 ) .
Along with the other indispensable foods, protein is the critical particularly in instance of kids, for their proper growing and development. Proteins are indispensable for the endurance of life as it is imperative for the growing and fix of musculuss, castanetss, tegument, sinews, ligaments, hair, eyes and other tissues ( Lieberman et al. , 2009 ) .
The benefits of protein enriched diet can ne’er be concealed. Taking such diet is of import to battle against infections and diseases as it facilitates to bring forth antibodies to trip our immune system ( Alexander et al. , 1998 ) . It is suggested to devour high protein diet for early recovery from hurts. Protein is besides helpful in blood curdling and fixs ( Friedman, 1996 ; Alexander et al. , 1998 ) . The mean day-to-day protein intake for a normal human person should be 56-80 g/ twenty-four hours ( 0.8 g/kg organic structure weight/day ) , while for babies it should be 2-3 g/kg organic structure weight and kids require excess 4-5 g proteins daily for their healthy growing and development ( Sun et al. , 1999 ; Awan, 2007 ) .
Malnutrition due to protein lack is an approaching flagitious quandary for the multitudes whose basic diet is chiefly comprised of cereals and other starchy nutrients. Several studies on nutritionary appraisal every bit good as nutrient balanced sheets in Pakistan have pointed toward the happening of changing grade of protein lack in some open groups of the population, due to the consumption of low quality and measure of protein ( GOP, 2008 ) .
The people devouring protein lacking diets can be suffered from many upsets like chest malignant neoplastic disease, colon malignant neoplastic disease, bosom disease and osteoporosis. Kwashiorkor and Marasmus are reported as the major diseases due to the protein lack and malnutrition in 3rd universe states. Marasmus causes loss of fats, muscular strength and every bit good as of digestion capacity ( Alam et al. , 2003 ) . On the other manus, Kwashiorkor normally manifests with hydrops, alterations in hair and clamber coloring material, anaemia, megalohepatia, lassitude, terrible immune lack and early decease ( Bhan et al. , 2003 ) . These diseases are largely found in babies holding diet deficient in protein or due to the consumption of lower quality of protein ( Barker, 2002 ) . Protein-energy malnutrition besides favors the pathogenesis during famishment ( Reilly, 2002 ) .
Therefore detecting the benefits of protein in the diet, the ingestion of protein enriched nutrient is of current involvement of consumers to achieve quality nutrient. Good quality proteins have a important impact to run into nutritionary demands of the fast turning population in the development and under developed states including Pakistan. The scientists have made assorted efforts to better protein contents and quality of basic nutrient ( wheat for Pakistani public ) through different agencies.
The increased costs and limited supplies of carnal proteins, have geared the contemporary research attempts towards the survey of nutrient belongingss and possible use of protein from locally available nutrient harvests, particularly from under-utilized or comparatively ignored high protein oil-rich seeds and leguminous plants ( Enujiugha and Ayodele-Oni, 2003 ) .
Pakistani population utilizes wheat flour and its merchandises as their basic nutrient with an mean consumption of 318 g/person/day which contributes about 45 per centum of the entire energy consumption ( Akhatar et al. , 2009 ) . But wheat is unable to provide the balanced proteins as it is lacking with indispensable amino acids like lysine ( Rehman et al. , 2001 ) . On other manus leguminous plant grains and beans are rich in lysine and therefore the incorporation of these possible beginnings of balanced proteins into the wheat flour for the production of high protein merchandises like bars, biscuits and even chapatis can non merely promote the protein quality but besides heighten the mineral contents and their handiness ( Bressani, 1993 ) .
Grain leguminous plants are renowned as of import beginnings of nutrient and provender proteins, besides called as ‘the hapless adult male ‘s meat ‘ . In many states, leguminous plant seeds are considered as the separating beginning of protein in the diet ( Marcello and Cristina, 1997 ) . Besides the leguminous plant proteins contain important sum of lysine which an indispensable amino acid, but on contrary, most of the cereals are missing with lysine ( Alobo, 2001 ) . In add-on to nutritionally of import, the leguminous plants are besides being recognized as holding curative and remedial belongingss such as hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties ( Shahzadi et al. , 2007 ) . Nutritionists around the universe suggest that the pulsations ( grain legumes ) like garbanzo and beans should be incorporated in the day-to-day diet to take down down the glycaemic index and to accomplish a scope of other wellness benefits ( Muzquiz and Wood, 2007 ) .
Gram, besides named as Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L. ) , is one of the oldest and the widely consumed leguminous plants in the universe, peculiarly in tropical and semitropical countries ( Singh et al. , 1991 ) . The flour of decorticated gm seeds is used in several dishes and as a addendum in ablactating nutrient mixes, staff of life and biscuits ( Bau et al. , 1997 ) . Gram is rich in protein and low in fat which is largely of polyunsaturated nature ( Singh et al. , 1992 ) . Grams besides contain important sums of dietetic fibre and hence they prove as a healthy beginning of saccharides for individuals with insulin sensitiveness or diabetes. Chickpeas contain about 23 per centum protein, 64 per centum entire saccharides ( 47 per centum amylum, 6 per centum soluble sugar ) , 5 per centum fat, 6 per centum petroleum fibre, 3 per centum ash and high mineral content ( Champ, 2001 ; Boye et al. , 2009 ) .
The incorporation of protein-rich leguminous plant flours such as gram flour in bakeshop merchandises like staff of life and biscuits can achieve the end of protein enrichment ( Patel and Rao, 1996 ; Singh et al. , 1996 ; Gandhi et al. , 2001 ; Sharma and Chauhan, 2002 ) . These composite flours have proven many practical utilizations and are being employed in different parts of the Earth to heighten the nutritionary and functional belongingss of flour ( Shahzadi et al. , 2005 ) . In modern states the composite flour engineering is extensively used to manufacture different types of adust and extruded merchandises. Among processed bakeshop merchandises, biscuits grasp big popularity in rural every bit good as in urban countries among all the age groups ( Agrawal, 1990 ) .
The term biscuit was derived from the Latin word biscoctus, intending twice cooked ( Macrae et al. , 1993 ) . By and large the word biscuit is used in European states and the term cookies in the USA. Biscuits are popular grocery, consumed by a broad scope of populations, due to their pleasant gustatory sensation, prolonged shelf life and easy handiness at reasonably low cost ( Gandhi et al. , 2001 ) . Cookies are of import nutrient militias for people engaged in geographic expeditions and risky ocean trips, in war and other catastrophes ( Mlaik and Sheikh, 1976 ) .
Because of the competition in the market and increased demand for healthy, recognized and well-designed merchandises, efforts are being made to progress the alimentary value and functionality of biscuits by seting their alimentary composing. Such properties can be achieved by increasing the ratios of wholegrain natural stuffs or different types of dietetic fibres, other than wheat, leguminous plants and pulsations, in the basic formulas of biscuits with the effort to raise protein quality and content, mineral content and their handiness ( Hooda and Jood, 2005 ; Tyagi et Al 2006 ) .
Supplemented biscuits made from different low priced beginnings such as leguminous plants or pulsations flour along with wheat flour, are expected to battle with several lacks such as the hapless quality and lesser handiness of protein encountered in the natural wheat flour biscuits ( Akubor, 2003 ) . The high alimentary cookies can be prepared from composite flours such as wheat flour fortified with soy, cottonseed, pulsations, peanut, mustard or maize sources flour ( Tsen, 2006 ) .
Protein giving ingredient for biscuits should hold pleasant spirit, low H2O soaking up capacity and high protein efficiency ratio ( PER ) . It should neither negatively affect the spread ratio and texture ( i.e. , brittleness ) nor cause any significant alteration in the dough consistence, snap and desirable baking reactions ( Lorenz, 1983 ) . The challenge of choosing the best suitable protein beginning has geared bakery industry to research such ingredients which impart desirable nutritionary and functional features to the baked merchandises ( Tyagi et al. , 2006 ) .
Keeping in position the importance of protein enriched diet, present undertaking was designed to accomplish the undermentioned aims:
To fix protein enriched cookies by utilizing gram flour
To measure nutritionary and chemical belongingss of protein enriched cookies
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Every new research and scientific survey demands to take a expression into the old work done in the relevant field. So, the earlier surveies upon protein enriched bakeshop merchandises showed that the incorporation of flour obtained from grain leguminous plants and pulsations into the bakeshop points particularly in cookies, non merely better the protein contents but besides the overall acceptableness of the merchandise. The available literature related to current survey has been presented under the undermentioned header:
Cookies and Biscuits at a Glance
Enrichment of Protein in Cookies
Significance of Gram and its flour
Cookies Prepared by utilizing Gram flour
Biological Evaluation of Cookies
Cookies and Biscuits at a Glance
Biscuits and cookies represent the taking class of snack points among adust nutrients all over the universe ( Pratima and Yadava, 2000 ) . They are normally thought as a beginning of pleasance and joy but non a important nutrient merchandise in footings of nutrition.
The name cooky is originated from the Dutch word koekje, intending “ little or small bar ” while, the term Biscuit comes from the Latin word Bi coctum, significance, “ twice baked ” ( Macrae et al. , 1993 ) . Harmonizing to culinary historiographers, biscuits or cookies started out long ago, non as a dainty or a comfort nutrient, but as an oven temperature regulator. A little sum of bar hitter was baked to modulate the oven temperature termed as trial bar, subsequently on formed the base of modern cookies ( Davidson, 1999 ) .
Commercially available simple cookies are made from white patent flour or heterosexual graded flour which is nutritionally inferior to whole wheat flour ( Elahi, 1997 ) . Simple wheat flour based biscuits contains 7 to 12 per centum proteins, 60 to 65 per centum saccharides, 22 to 26 per centum fat, 1 to 3 per centum petroleum fibre and 1.5 to 2.5 per centum minerals ( Hooda and Jood, 2005 ) .
While in some other experiment seven different assortments of biscuits were analyzed for proximate analysis. It was shown that entire sugar varied from 17.26 to 40.42 per centum, protein contents were in the scope of 5.46 to 8.9 per centum, entire fats in biscuits were 24.6 to 28.9 per centum and minerals including Na, K, Fe and Ca ranged between 800-4950 mg/kg, 450-1720 mg/kg, 38-230 mg/kg and 120-1800 mg/kg, severally. However, Cu, manganese and Zn were calculated as 1-7 mg/kg, 3.5-10.4 mg/kg and 8.2-25.5 mg/kg severally ( Semwal et al. , 1996 ) .
Fe and Mn contents in cookies were evaluated by Sebecic ( 2002 ) . Consequences of that survey showed that Fe contents in seven analyzed biscuits ranged from 9.32 to 24.80 mg/kg while Mn contents range from 3.76 to 16.37 mg/kg. On the other manus the vitamin contents in cooky flours were reported as 0.203 to 0.228 mg/100g for vitamin B1, 1.037 to 0.048 mg/100g for vitamin B2 and 1.17 to 1.42 mg/100g for nicotinic acid ( Keagy et al. , 1980 ) .
In another experiment, it was concluded that the Zn and cuppa contents in wheat flour biscuits scopes from 5.89-17.64 mg/kg and 1.15-2.79 mg/kg, severally depending upon the type of wheat milling merchandises ( Sebecic and Dragojevic, 2004 ) .
While textural surveies of different cookies showed that the cooky diameter is a map of spread rate and set clip. Cookies produced with soft wheat flour were significantly larger in diameter ( 184 millimeter ) than those made with difficult flour ( 161 millimeter ) . Similarly, cookies manufactured by soft wheat flour set subsequently ( 5.8 proceedingss ) during baking than those produced with difficult wheat flours. It was concluded that these differences in diameters and puting clip appeared to be affected by flour protein content ( Miller and Hoseney, 1997 ) .
Enrichment of Protein in Cookies
Cookies or biscuits are the important among the bakeshop points. These are liked by all the age groups as a beginning of pleasance and energy. However, these are most normally appreciated by the school traveling kids who need more energy and proteins per unit organic structure weight than an grownup ( Shahzad et al. , 2006 ) . Keeping in position their drawn-out life and handiness they can be enriched with protein, normally from pulsations flour and used for particular eating programmes ( Manley, 1998 ) .
The construct of utilizing composite flour for the intent of protein enrichment is non new and has been the topic of legion surveies. An extended reappraisal reported that the bakeshop points can be manufactured with every bit much as 10 to 30 per centum rice flour, 5 to 20 per centum cereal grains and root flours, or with 3 to 15 per centum of other proteinaceous flours ( Fellers and Bean, 1988 ) . It was besides observed that the usage of composite flours is a much better tool to utilize in biscuits than in staff of lifes due to their ready to eat signifier, broad ingestion, longer shelf life and good feeding quality ( Tsen et al. , 2006 ) .
Several efforts have been carried out to fix protein enriched cookies by utilizing different beginnings of protein. In an experiment, defatted wheat source ( DFWG ) flour was used for the readying of protein enriched cookies and it was estimated that the petroleum protein ( 28.9 per centum ) , rough fiber ( 5.35 per centum ) , ash ( 4.52 per centum ) and mineral content were higher in the cookies prepared from DFWG flour as compared to wheat flour cookies ( Arshad et al. , 2006 ) . Similarly the permutation of pigeon-pea flour up to the degree of 50 per centum in the preparation of biscuits significantly increased the protein and mineral contents ( Harinder et al. , 1999 ) . Due to the incorporation of mustard flour, the protein contents of biscuits were 2.5 times increased coupled with lessening in fat and an addition in fiber content ( Tyagi et al. , 2006 ) .
Nutritional features of high protein cookies prepared from defatted soy flour ( 50 % , patent flour footing ) and insignificant butter ( 40 % , patent flour footing ) were examined by different research workers. It was highlighted that the protein and mineral contents were significantly improved in high protein cookies than those of control ( Ranhotra et al. , 1980 ) . Another effort was proved to be successful for the fabrication of protein enriched biscuits made from land linseed. It was observed that the protein contents increased from 6.50 per centum to 8.52 per centum, fat contents increased from 26.13 per centum to 31.45 per centum, fiber contents elevated from 0.15 per centum to 3.78 per centum and ash contents were besides increased from 0.26 per centum to 1.00 per centum ( Nisa, 2000 ) .
Similarly, the public presentation of soya bean and maize flour blends with their functional properties, were evaluated for the production of high protein cookies. In that survey it was concluded that the degree of foods increased with the addition of soybean flour in the blends. The protein contents of the composite flour cookies increased from 10.2 per centum in the 100 per centum corn cookies to 28.3 per centum for the 60 per centum soya bean permutation ( Akubor and Onimawo, 2003 ) . Similarly the supplementation of soy and kinema flours into heterosexual graded flour was carried out for the production of cookies. It was described that the protein contents were more than 17 per centum than those of control ( Shrestha and Noomhorm, 2002 ) .
Assorted research workers replaced wheat flour ( WHF ) with defatted fluted Cucurbita pepo ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook ) seed flour ( FPF ) at degrees of 0 to 25 per centum which significantly affected the chemical, physical, centripetal and nutritionary belongingss of cookies. There was an addition of 84.6 per centum in petroleum protein, 62.9 per centum in Ca, 131.0 per centum in K and 61.6 per centum in phosphorus contents of composite cookies ( Giami et al. , 2005 ) . When the cookies made from the blends incorporating different proportions ( 0 % , 5 % , 10 % , 15 % and 20 % ) of natural, besotted and germinated Greek clover seed flour were evaluated it was found that the add-on of natural, besotted and germinated Greek clover flour to wheat flour increased the contents of protein ( 10.5 % , 10.4 % and 11.0 % ) , lysine ( 2.15, 2.20 and 2.25 g/100 g protein ) , dietetic fiber ( 12.7 % , 11.3 % and 10.9 % ) , entire Ca ( 58.3, 57.1 and 57.7 mg/100 g ) and entire Fe ( 7.40, 7.26 and 7.36 mg/100 g ) at 10 percent degree of permutation ( Hooda and Jood, 2005 ) .
Enrichment of protein in cookies can besides be done by utilizing stabilised rice bran up to 30 per centum degree of replacing. This pattern can besides heighten protein efficiency ratio. A consumer trial showed 100 per centum acceptableness of rice bran protein enriched cookies among the kids holding ages 4 to 7 old ages ( Sangronis and Sancio, 1990 ) . Similarly the high protein biscuits were prepared from rice bran and flours. Probe of that protein enriched cookies revealed that the protein contents were increased from 6 per centum to 9 per centum as compared to 100 per centum wheat flour cookies ( James et al. , 2007 ) .
Significance of Gram and its flour
Gram ( Cicer arietinum L. ) is one of the most of import leguminous plants, cultivated in Pakistan. It ranks foremost on the footing of whole grain production ( FAO, 2000 ) . Gram or garbanzo, as a whole grain, and its flour are considered as the basic nutrient over the big portion of the universe but still its possible wellness benefits are hidden and it is non every bit much utilized as it could be ( Amjad et al. , 2006 ; Catherine et al. , 2010 ) .
Gram has been used for fixing a assortment of traditional and cultural nutrient points ( Geervani, 1991 ) , and besides as a important ingredient in bakeshop merchandises, imitation milk, infant nutrients preparations and meat merchandises ( Hung and Nithian-andan, 1993 ) . In the signifier of ‘dhal ‘ , gm is identified as a critical beginning of protein in Pakistan, India and Middle East. Gram flour is assorted with wheat flour to bake ‘basini roti ‘ that is unraised staff of life normally consumed by diabetic patients particularly in the rural countries of Sub continent Indo-Pak. An epidemiological study revealed that people of low socio-economic position using gm as a major ingredient of their diet, had comparatively low incidence of cardio-vascular diseases ( Raza, 2003 ) .
Undoubtedly many surveies give us an thought about the nutritionary value of gm as it contains 17.1 per centum to 23.4 per centum protein, 4.2 per centum to 5.3 per centum fat, 2.0 per centum to 3.0 per centum minerals and besides 1507 kJ nutrient energy. The parallel values after gm are 20.8 per centum, 5.6 per centum, 2.7 per centum and 1557 kJ, severally ( Hulse, 1991 ; Gopalan et al. , 1993 ) . Furthermore, the merchandises of gm contained 21.1 per centum protein, 3.1 per centum fat, 53.4 per centum saccharides, 11.1 per centum fibre and 5.9 per centum ash ( Khan et al. , 1995 ) .
In another experiment, it was concluded that gm seed has 38-59 per centum saccharides, 3 per centum petroleum fibre, 4.8-5.5 per centum oil, 3 per centum ash, 0.2 per centum Ca and 0.3 per centum phosphoric. Digestibility of protein varied from 76-78 per centum and for saccharides from 57-60 per centum ( Huisman and Van der Poel, 1994 ) .
Composite flour prepared by blending gram flour with wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 per centum degree of replacing influenced the N keeping and digestibleness. Growth rate was besides increased with higher proportions of gram flour ( Kausar, 1976 ; Firdous et al. , 1977 )
Harmonizing to a scientific research, it is observed that garbanzo rich diet brings about many good alterations in nutrient picks and alimentary consumption. It was reported that the ingestion of 140 g/day cooked garbanzos and its flour based nutrients for six hebdomads resulted in a important addition in proteins degree and dietetic fibres consumption and besides lessening in concentrated fatty acids and cholesterin consumption in healthy middle-aged voluntaries ( Nestel et al. , 2006 ; Riccardi et al. , 2004 ; Yao and Roberts, 2001 ) .
Cookies Prepared by utilizing Gram flour
Grain leguminous plants and pulsations like gm contribute significantly towards nutritionary sweetening of nutrient merchandises and therefore carry throughing the balanced dietetic demands of people in developing and under developed states. Fortification of wheat flour with cheap basics, such as cereals and pulsations, helps in bettering the nutritionary quality of wheat merchandises ( Sharma et al. , 1999 ) .
Gram flour is considered to be a good beginning of protein in the nutrient industry because of its big measure and high quality and easiness in treating to obtain protein enriched merchandises ( Rincon et al. , 1998 ) but the information on the munition of gram flour for cookies readying is instead bare. When the protein enriched biscuits were prepared from composite flours of wheat and different gm flours, it was noticed that the protein contents of biscuits were amplified as the degree of the gm flours increased ( Singh et al. , 1991 ) .
Gram and mung bean flours are considered most advantageous for readying of protein fortified biscuits. These flours can be added in cooky preparation at different degrees of replacing. Supplement of garbanzos flour can increasingly increase the protein contents of biscuits. When the protein enriched biscuits were manufactured by utilizing chickpeas flours, the protein contents of biscuits were raised up to 21.83 g/100g as compared to wheat flour ( El-Nahas, 2008 ) .
In a survey the physicochemical and centripetal belongingss of bastioned biscuits were evaluated and the biscuits were prepared by replacing wheat flour with specified concentrations ( 3 % , 6 % , 9 % , and 12 % ) of wide bean, gm and stray soy protein ( 3 % , 6 % , and 9 % ) . During proximate chemical analysis it was observed that munition increased protein contents from 16.57 per centum to 22.84 per centum. Acceptability survey showed that the supplementation of garbanzo and wide bean flour every bit good as isolated soy protein could be used in production of high-protein biscuits ( Rababah et al. , 2006 ) .
Addition of 18 per centum gm flours to wheat flour biscuits increased the protein content from 10 per centum in market biscuits to 13 per centum in supplemented samples. Chickpea biscuits recorded best penchant among panellists and were significantly better than the other bastioned cookies ( El-Hag et al. , 2001 ) .
In another experiment cookies were made by the replacing of wheat flour to 10, 20, 25 and 30 per centum by weight with gram/chick pea, mung bean or pigeon pea flours. Consequences of survey manifested that the best recognized cookies were those prepared from wheat flour incorporating 10 per centum of gram flour or 20 per centum of mung bean flour or 10 per centum of pigeon pea flour by weight, and protein content increased up to the degree of 7.45, 8.49 and 7.56 per centum on dry weight footing, severally ( Somchai et al. , 1998 ) .
Biscuits supplemented with gram flour were prepared by blending gram flour at 5, 10 and 15 per centum degree of munition with wheat flour. It was reported that the nutritionary, rheological and centripetal properties of biscuits were improved at 10 percent degree of supplementation ( Nefisa et al. , 2006 ) .
In another survey gram flour was assorted with wheat flour at a 15 to 25 per centum ( w/w ) replacing degree for doing supplemented cookies. From proximate analysis of cookies, it was concluded that gram flour was found suited for fixing dark-coloured cookies to enrich their protein and fibre contents ( Tsen et al. , 2006 ) .
Biological Evaluation of Cookies
Nutritional and biological analysis of protein enriched cookies are performed to prove out bioavailability of proteins, biological value, net protein use ( NPU ) and protein efficiency ratio ( PER ) . These parametric quantities are normally checked by giving prescribed diet to prove animate beings like rats, mice and hogs etc. High protein biscuits were biological assayed by different research workers and interpreted that the add-on of 20 per centum defatted soy flour into biscuits recipe increased the digestibleness values from 68 per centum to 84 per centum as compared to command wheat flour based biscuits. The PER of soy flour cookies ( 1.4 ) had besides elevated to great extent ( Singh et al. , 2000 ) .
In another experiment, the alimentary bastioned cookies were prepared by utilizing green gm pigeon pea flour. By analysing protein digestiblenesss on rats, it was revealed that the bastioned cookies showed significantly higher values than control diets ( Devi et al. , 2000 ) .
Consequence of combinations of leguminous plant and millet flours on net protein use, biological value and true digestibleness was evaluated by utilizing albino Sprague-Dawley rats. It was reported that sorghum and gm combination had higher digestibleness. It was besides noticed that the rats fed upon gram-sorghum biscuits gained more weight than the others and had significantly higher biological values ( Geervani et al. , 1996 ) .
Gram flours are besides being used in the fabrication of bakeshop merchandises other than cookies for the intent of protein enrichment. During a recent survey the ability of garbanzo flour to enrich pasta merchandises ( e.g. lasagna ) was checked and found that the entire protein contents increased along with the degree of munition ( Sabanis et al. , 2006 ) .
During surveies on the betterment of functional and baking belongingss of wheat-chickpea flour blends with add-on of gluten ( 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 per centum ) and sodium steroyl-lactylate ( SSL ) 0.5 per centum showed that garbanzo flour up to the degree of 10 per centum supplementation non merely better the functional and baking belongingss of dough but besides the over all protein contents of bakeshop merchandises increased ( Narpinder et al. , 2007 ) .
In another experiment garbanzo flour ( CPF ) was used as addendum in the readying of bars. While detecting the quality attributes of bed and sponge bars, it was concluded that the add-on of garbanzo flour even at 100 percent degree of replacing with wheat flour for bar production is applicable. However, 20 to 50 per centum degree of CPF produces better consequences ( Gomez et al. , 2008 ) . Similarly staff of lifes were besides prepared from wheat flour supplemented with 0, 10, 20 and 30 per centum ungerminated or germinated gram flour to find different quality features of staff of life. It was examined the bastioned staff of lifes did non differ significantly, but the loaf fortified with 10 per centum germinated gram flour did non compare positively with the control ( Maria and Berry, 1989 ) .
Gram flour is besides used for fabrication of extruded merchandises. Like in a survey, engineers successfully made usage of gm flour for the readying of nutritionally enhanced spaghetti. It was concluded that Gram flour-fortii¬?ed spaghetti was extremely acceptable to consumers and had sensible pasta quality, lower cookery loss and less stickiness than the control spaghetti and besides retained better texture than hard wheat after infrigidation ( Wood, 2009 ) .
It is apparent from old literature that the enrichment of protein in bakeshop merchandises has been a phenomenal exercising for research workers. Protein contents in cookies are being improved by using assorted works beginnings particularly grain leguminous plants and pulsations. Among these gms flour is proved more suited than other possible protein beginnings for replacing with wheat flour in bakeshop goods, due to its easy handiness, low cost, more good wellness chances and good pleasant gustatory sensation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The proposed research was carried out at National Agricultural Research Centre ( NARC ) , Islamabad and in the Department of Food Technology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi and partly at National Institute of Health ( N.I.H ) , Islamabad.
PROCUREMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
The natural stuff like consecutive grade flour, gram flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat and all the other ingredients for the readying of cookies were purchased from the local market.
Preparation OF GRAM AND STRAIGHT GRADE FLOURS BLENDS
Treatments under Study
The gm flour was assorted with consecutive grade flour at different degrees, for the readying of cookies as given in table 3.1.
Preparation OF COOKIES
The cookies with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per centum supplementation degree of gram flour was prepared harmonizing to the AACC ( 2000 ) method No.10-50D with little alterations. The formula used for doing cookies is shown in table 3.2.
Table 3.1: Percentage composing of Composite flours ( Straight rate flour + Gram flour )
Straight grade flour ( % )
Gram flour ( % )
Table 3.2 Recipe used for cookies readying
Flour/ composite flour
Hydrogenated vegetable ghee
Chemical AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS
Proximate Analysis of Straight Grade Flour, Gram Flour, Composite Flours and Cookies
Straight Grade Flour, Gram Flour and Composite Flours were analyzed for their proximate composing harmonizing to their several methods described in AACC ( 2000 ) . Gram flour supplemented cookies and wheat flour cookies were analyzed for wet content, petroleum protein, petroleum fat, petroleum fibre and mineral contents harmonizing to their several methods as described in AACC ( 2000 ) with little alterations where necessary.
The wet content of each sample was determined by drying 2 g sample in a hot air oven at a temperature of 130 A± 2 A°C boulder clay to a changeless weight harmonizing to AACC ( 2000 ) Method No. 44-19. The wet was calculated by the undermentioned expression:
Wt. of wet ( g )
Wt. of sample ( g ) Moisture ( % ) = — — — — – A-100
The petroleum protein content was determined in each sample by Kjeldahl ‘s method as described in AACC ( 2000 ) Method No. 46-10. Sample ( 0.5 g ) was digested with concentrated H2SO4 in the presence of digestion mixture. ( K2SO4, CuSO4, and FeSO4 with 100:10:5 parts severally ) . The digested sample was so filtrated and volume was made to 250 milliliter. The 10 milliliter of diluted sample was distilled with 40 per centum NaOH into 4 per centum boric acid which was so titrated with 0.1 N H2SO4 to illume tap colour terminal point.
Vol. of 0.1 N H2SO4 used x 0.0014 x 250
N ( % ) = x 100
Weight of sample x Vol. of diluted sample used
Protein ( % ) = Nitrogen ( % ) X 6.25
The fat per centum was determined by utilizing crude oil ether as dissolver in Soxhlet setup harmonizing to method described in AACC ( 2000 ) method No. 30-10. Following expression was used to cipher the fat %
Wt. of fat ( g )
Wt. of sample ( g ) Fat ( % ) = — — — — – A-100
For finding of petroleum fibre content, the defatted and dried samples ( 2.0 g ) were digested with 1.25 % H2SO4 followed by 1.25 % NaOH solution and filtered as described in AACC ( 2000 ) method No. 32-10.01. The filtered samples were dried in hot air oven. Then dried samples were weighed and placed in muffle furnace at 550-600 A°C for 5-6 hours. The undermentioned expression was used to find the fibre content.
Wt. of sample ( g )
Wt. loss on ignition ( g )
Crude Fiber ( % ) = — — — — – A-100
Wt. of ash ( g )
The ash content of each sample was determined by incinerating the dry sample in Muffle furnace at 500-600 EsC for 5 to 6 hours as described in AACC ( 2000 ) method No. 08-01.The following expression was used to cipher the ash content.
Wt. of sample ( g )
Ash ( % ) = — — — — – A-100
Nitrogen free infusion
Nitrogen free infusion was determined by utilizing the undermentioned expression:
NFE ( % ) = 100 – ( wet % + petroleum protein % + petroleum fat % + rough fibre % + ash % )
Minerals ( Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn ) in cookies were determined by AACC ( 2000 ) Method No. 40-70 by utilizing atomic soaking up spectrophotometer ( Model GBC 932 PLUS, UK ) . The samples were wet digested harmonizing to the method reported by Richard ( 1969 ) before running through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.
Physical features of cookies ( breadth, thickness and dispersed factor ) were determined harmonizing to AACC ( 2000 ) Method No. 10-53.
The flour samples were through Brabender farinograph equipped with 50 g bowl capacity to asses the physical dough behaviour of different flour samples harmonizing to AACC ( 2000 ) . The undermentioned parametric quantities were derived from the farinograms:
The H2O soaking up capacity of the flour was measured as the sum of H2O required to make the curve at the centre 500 Brabender units ( B.U. ) line of the farinogram. It was straight recorded from the H2O degree in the burette attached with the equipment and expressed as per centum.
Dough Development Time
It is observed as the clip taken by the curve to make the point of maximal dough consistence before the first indicant of weakening.
Dough stableness was recorded from the farinogram as the difference in the clip between the point where the top of the curve foremost cross the 500 B.U. line, known as arrival clip and the point where the top of the curve departs from it which is called as going clip.
Time to Breakdown
It was noted as the clip from the add-on of H2O until top of the curve declined from the 500 B.U. line.
The tolerance index was calculated as the difference between the centres of the curve 5 proceedingss after the extremum. It was besides measured in B.U.
Centripetal rating ( coloring material, spirit, gustatory sensation, texture and overall acceptableness ) of cookies was determined harmonizing to the method of Larmond ( 1977 ) .
Biological EVALUATION OF BISCUITS
The biological rating of gm based protein enriched biscuits was done at National Institute of Health ( Veterinary Division ) , Islamabad by feeding different diets to immature albino rats ( Sprague-Dawley ) of unvarying age. The rats were purchased from N.I.H. ( Veterinary Division ) , Islamabad. The eating tests ( Table 3.3 ) were conducted harmonizing to the process adopted by Tetens et Al. ( 1995 ) with little accommodations as done by Awan et al. , ( 1995 ) .
Thirty two immature albino rats were used for the nutritionary rating of the experimental diets. All the diets were kept isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The rats were fed on basal diet for a period of 1 hebdomad and so randomly divided into 8 groups consisting of 4 rats each. All the experimental diets ( Table 3.3 ) were indiscriminately allotted to each group. All the groups were fed ad-libitum for a period of 10 yearss. Composite weight of each group of rats was recorded daily with electronic top burden balance. The body waste of each group of rat were besides collected on the separate filter paper sheet. Fresh and clean H2O was provided all the times to each group in separate graduated glass bottles. At the terminal of 10 yearss, the fecal stuff was collected and dried at 105 A°C and stored in polythene bags for nitrogen appraisal. Then the rats were killed by trichloromethane anaesthesia. The organic structure and meat were dried at 105 A°C. After full drying all the stuff was grinded through electric bomber and stored in polythene bags for nitrogen appraisal. The nutritionary parametric quantities like provender ingestion and organic structure weight, protein efficiency ratio, true digestibleness, net protein use and biological value were determined by following the method of Miller and Bender ( 1955 ) .
Feed Consumption and Body Weight
Feed ingestion of different groups of rats was measured on day-to-day footing. The weight of each group was besides recorded on day-to-day footing. The record of feed consumption and organic structure weight was maintained.
Protein Efficiency Ratio ( P.E.R. )
PER of different experimental diets was determined from weight addition and protein consumption informations of rats as described below:
Addition in weight
Protein intakeP.E.R. = — — — –
True Digestibility ( T.D. )
True Digestibility was determined as given below:
Nitrogen intake – ( Faecal N-Metabolic N )
T.D. = — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ten 100
Net Protein Utilization ( NPU )
The N content of diets, fecal matters and carcase of each group including protein free group were determined by micro kjeldahl ‘s method. The net protein use was determined by the method of Miller and Bender ( 1955 ) as shown below:
B-Bk + Ik
N.P.U. ( % ) = — — — — — — — — A- 100
B = Body N of trial group
Bk = Body N of protein free group
I = N consumption of trial group
Ik = N consumption of protein free group
It was calculated by using the undermentioned expression:
Net protein use
B.V. ( % ) = — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — x 100
The information obtained was analyzed by utilizing analysis of discrepancy technique harmonizing to the method of Steel et Al. ( 1997 ) .
Table 3.3 Composition of assorted diets incorporating supplemented cookies
Casein ( Tc )
Non-Protein ( Tnp )
T0 = Control ( consecutive rate flour cookies ) T1 = 10 % gram flour incorporating cookies
T2 = 20 % gram flour incorporating cookies T3 = 30 % gram flour incorporating cookies
T4 = 40 % gram flour incorporating cookies T5 = 50 % gram flour incorporating cookies
Tc = Casein diet Tnp = Non-protein diet