Abnormal Psych Exam 1

Abnormal Psych Exam 1

abnormal psychology
The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.
norms
A society’s stated and unstated rules for proper conduct.
culture
a people’s common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and arts
trephination
An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior.
humors
According to the Greeks and Romans, bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning
asylum
a type of institution that first became popular in the 16th century to provide care for persons with mental disorders. most became virtual prisons
moral treatment
A nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment; ended by money and staff shortages, declining recovery rates, overcrowding, and prejudice
state hospitals
State-run public mental institutions in the United States.
somatogenic perspective
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes.
psychogenic perspective
The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological.
psychoanalysis
either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology
psychotropic medications
Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning.
deinstitutionalization
the practice, begun in the 1960s, of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals
private psychotherapy
an arrangement in which a person directly pays a therapist for counseling services
prevention
interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop
positive psychology
the study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities
multicultural psychology
the field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature, and treatment of abnormal behavior
managed care program
A system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature, scope, and cost of medical or psychological services.
model
a set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations. also called a paradigm. spells out basic assumptions and sets guidelines for investigation
neuron
a nerve cell
synapse
the tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
neurotransmitter
a chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons
receptor
a site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter
hormones
the chemicals released by the endocrine glands into the bloodstream
gene
chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit
antianxiety drugs
Psychotropic drugs that help reduce tension and anxiety. Also called “minor tranquilizers” or “anxiolytics”
antidepressant drugs
psychotropic drugs that improve the moods of people with depression
antibipolar drugs
psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the moods of people suffering from a mood disorder. also called mood stabilizers.
antipsychotic drugs
psychotropic drugs that help correct the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions found in psychotic disorders
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a form of biological treatment, used primarily on depressed patients, in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient’s forehead
psychosurgery (neurosurgery)
brain surgery for mental disorders; first lobotomy was in 1930s; considered experimental and only used in extreme cases; a biological treatment
id
according to Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses; guided by pleasure principle; sexual, fueled by libido
ego
According to Freud, the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle; its defense mechanisms protect us from anxiety
ego defense mechanism
According to psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse
superego
According to Freud, the moral component of personality that represents a person’s values and ideals; guided by morality principle; unconsciously adopted from our parents
fixation
according to Freud, a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development
ego theory
the psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego and considers it an independent force
self theory
The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self – our unified personality
object relations theory
The psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior.
free association
A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thought, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind, even if it seems unimportant
resistance
An unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy.
transference
according to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient’s life, now or in the past
dream
a series of ideas and images that form during sleep
catharsis
the reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems
working through
the psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming one’s problems
relational psychoanalytic therapy
A form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of patients’ feelings and reactions, and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussion with the patients
conditioning
a simple form of learning
operant conditioning
A process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated.
modeling
A process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others.
classical conditioning
A process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person’s mind and produce the same response
systematic desensitization
a behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
self-efficacy
the belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary
cognitive-behavioral therapies
therapy approaches that seek to help clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking
cognitive therapy
A therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes; people can overcome their problems by developing new ways of thinking; guide clients to challenge dysfunctional thoughts and try new interpretations; used in treating depression
self-actualization
the humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth
client-centered therapy
the humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness
gestalt therapy
the humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises
existential therapy
a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and value
family systems theory
A theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules.
group therapy
A therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems.
self-help group
a group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician. also called a mutual help group
family therapy
a therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them change in therapeutic ways
couple therapy (marital therapy)
a therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship
community mental health treatment
a treatment approach that emphasizes community care
multicultural perspective
the view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior and functioning of its members. also called culturally diverse perspective
cultural-sensitive therapies
approaches that seek to address the unique issues face by members of minority groups
gender-sensitive therapies
approaches geared to the pressures of being a woman in Western society. also called feminist therapies
biopsychosocial theories
explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and societal influences
idiographic understanding
an understanding of the behavior of a particular individual
assessment
the process of collecting and interpreting relevant information about a client or research participant; collecting relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion; used to determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally and how that person may be helped; also may be used to evaluate treatment progress
standardization
the process in which a test is administered to a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual’s score can be measured; needed for an assessment tool to be useful; must do this for administration, scoring, and interpretation; setting up common steps to be followed whenever it is administered
reliability
A measure of the consistency of test, research results, or assessment measure; needed for an assessment tool to be useful; a good tool will always yield the same results in the same situation; two main types
validity
the accuracy of a test’s or study’s results’ that is, the extent to which the test or study actually measures or shows what it claims; needed for an assessment tool to be useful; the accuracy of a tool’s results; three types
mental status exam
A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning.
test
a device for gathering information about a few aspects of a person’s psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred; more than 500 currently in use that fall into 6 categories
projective test
a test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to; require that clients interpret vague and ambiguous stimuli or follow open-ended instruction; mainly used by psychodynamic
– ex. Rorschach Test, TAT, sentence completion tests, drawings (DAP)
– good for supplementary info, little reliability or validity, may be biased against minorities
personality inventory
A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them; usually based on self-reported responses; easier/cheaper/faster than projective tests; objectively scored and standardized; fail to allow for cultural differences in responses; greater validity than projective tests
response inventories
tests designed to measure a person’s responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect (Beck Depression Inventory), social skills, or cognitive processes; have strong face validity; not all have been subjected to careful standardization, reliability, and/or validity procedures
psychophysiological test
A test that measures physical responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems – heart rate, BP, body temperature, galvanic skin response, muscle contraction; polygraph is most popular; require expensive equipment which must be maintained; can be inaccurate and unrealiable
neurological test
a test that directly measures brain structure or activity; EEG, PET scans, CAT scans, MRI, fMRI; general screening device
neuroimaging techniques
Neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity, such as CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs. Also called brain scans.
neuropsychological test
a test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances; Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test; general screening device
intelligence test
a test designed to indirectly measure a person’s intellectual ability; typically comprised of a series of tests assessing both verbal and nonverbal skills; high reliability and validity; highly standardized; could have cultural/language biases
IQ (intelligence quotient)
an overall score derived from intelligence tests; Represents the ratio of a person’s “mental” age to his or her “chronological” age
diagnosis
a determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder; based on existing classification system; use assessment data and the clinical picture
syndrome
a cluster of symptoms that usually occur together
classification system
a list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnoses
empirically supported treatment
A movement in the clinical field that seeks to identify which therapies have received clear research support for each disorder, to develop corresponding treatment guidelines, and to spread such information to clinicians. Also known as evidence-based treatment.
rapprochement movement
an effort to identify a set of common strategies that run through the work of all effective therapists
psychopharmacologist
a psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications
deviance, distress, dysfunction, danger
the four Ds; part of the definition of abnormality; has limitations
deviance
different, extreme, unusual, perhaps even bizarre; vary depending on culture and circumstances
distress
unpleasant and upsetting to the person
dysfunction
interfering with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities in a destructive way; culture plays a role
danger
posing risk of harm to oneself or others; behavior may be careless, hostile, or confused; generally the exception rather than the rule
Szasz
places such emphasis on society’s role that he finds the concept of mental illness to be invalid/a myth; things that are “abnormal” are only “problems of living; society invented the concept of mental illness to better control/change people who threaten social order
three features of therapy
– Jerome Frank
– a sufferer who seeks relief from the healer
– a trained, socially accepted healer, whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his/her social group
– a series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer’s emotional state, attitudes, and behavior
30%
adults in the US who display psychological disturbances in need of treatment per year
19%
children/adolescents in the US who display psychological disturbances in need of treatment per year
Stone Age
regarded abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits; treatment was to force the demons from the body through trephination and exorcism
Hippocrates
believed and taught illnesses had natural causes; looked to an imbalance of the four humors; treatments attempted to rebalance; views 500 BC-500 AD
Middle Ages
Church rejected science; abnormality seen as a conflict between good and evil; return of demonology and treatments
Renaissance
demonological views of abnormality declined; rise of asylums
Gheel
community mental health program; religious shrine devoted to the humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders
1800s
reform and moral treatment; Pinel (France); Tuke (England); Rush and Dix (US); each state had to develop state hospitals that offered moral treatment; century ended with the reemergence of long-term hospitalization
biological model
medical perspective; abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism (brain anatomy/chemistry); inheritance; viral infections
brain anatomy
certain brain regions associated with particular psychological disorders (Huntington’s disease and basal ganglia/cortex)
brain chemistry
an impulse is first received by a neuron’s dendrites, travels down the axon, and is transmitted through the nerve endings to other neurons
neurotransmitters
– abnormal activity in certain ones can lead to specific mental disorders
– depression is linked to low serotonin and norepinephrine
– schizophrenia is linked to high dopamine
endocrine system
mental disorders are sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity; cortisol release is related to anxiety and mood disorders
inheritance
plays part in mood disorders and shizophrenia
psychodynamic model
oldest and most famous; based on a belief that a person’s behavior (normal or abnormal) is determined largely by underlying psychological forces of which he/she is not consciously aware; abnormality is a result of conflict among these forces
biological therapy
drugs, ECT, psychosurgery
psychodynamic therapy
psychoanalysis; seek to uncover past trauma and inner conflicts; therapist is subtle guide; free association; therapist interpretation; catharsis; working through
behavioral model
believes that our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life; concentrates wholly on behaviors and environmental factors; bases explanations and treatments on principles of learning
behavioral therapy
therapist is teacher; aim to identify behaviors that are causing problems and replace them with appropriate ones; may use classical/operant conditioning or modeling; systematic desensitization
cognitive model
proposes that we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking at the processes that are the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions; argues that clinicians must ask questions about assumptions, attitudes, and thoughts of a client; believe abnormal functioning is due to faulty assumptions and attitudes and illogical thinking processes (overgeneralization; stable and global)
humanistic-existential model
combination model
humanist view
emphasis on people as friendly, cooperative, and constructive; focus on drive to self-actualize through honest recognition of strengths and weaknesses
existentialist view
Emphasis on self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility; focus on authenticity
sociocultural models
argue that abnormal behavior is best understood in the light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual; address norms and roles in society; two perspectives: family-social and multicultural
family-social model
argue that theorists should concentrate on forces that operate directly on a person, including social labels and roles (diagnostic labels) and social connections and supports; focus on family structure and communication; abnormal functioning within a family makes insane behavior sane in an insane environment
Rosenhan study
1970s; cohorts came to hospitals reporting auditory hallucinations; diagnosed with schizophrenia; had a hard time overcoming the label once they stopped reporting symptoms
enmeshed family
lack of boundaries; contributes to eating disorders
disengaged family
contributes to schizophrenia
family-social therapy
group, family, couple, community treatment, prevention work
multicultural model
seeks to understand how culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors affect behavior and thought, as well as how people of different cultures, races, and genders differ psychologically; believes a person’s behavior is best understood when examined within that person’s cultural context; prejudice and discrimination faced by many minority groups may contribute to certain forms of abnormal functioning
multicultural therapy
greater sensitivity to cultural issues; inclusion of cultural models in treatment
biological
– cause of dysfunction: biological malfunction
– research support: strong
– consumer: patient
– therapist role: doctor
– key therapy: biological intervention
– therapy goal: biological repair
psychodynamic
– cause of dysfunction: underlying conflicts
– research support: modest
– consumer: patient
– therapist role: interpreter
– key therapy: free association and interpretation
– therapy goal: broad psychological change
– 15%
behavioral
– cause of dysfunction: maladaptive learning
– research support: strong
– consumer: client
– therapist role: teacher
– key therapy: conditioning
– therapy goal: functional behaviors
– 10%
cognitive
– cause of dysfunction: maladaptive thinking
– research support: strong
– consumer: client
– therapist role: persuader
– key therapy: reasoning
– therapy goal: adaptive thinking
– 28%
humanistic
– cause of dysfunction: self-deceit
– research support: weak
– consumer: patient/client
– therapist role: observer
– key therapy: reflection
– therapy goal: self-actualization
existential
– cause of dysfunction: avoidance of responsibility
– research support: weak
– consumer: patient/client
– therapist role: collaborator
– key therapy: varied
– therapy goal: authentic life
family-social
– cause of dysfunction: family or social stress
– research support: moderate
– consumer: client
– therapist role: family/social facilitator
– key therapy: family/social intervention
– therapy goal: effective family or social system
multicultural
– cause of dysfunction: external pressures or cultural conflicts
– research support: moderate
– consumer: client
– therapist role: cultural advocate/teacher
– key therapy: culture-sensitive intervention
– therapy goal: cultural awareness and comfort
biopsychosocial theory
abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive,social, and societal influences; favor diathesis-stress approach; eclectic; 29%
clinical assessment tools
hundreds fall into three categories: clinical interviews, tests, and observations
test-retest reliability
yields the same results every time it is given to the same people
interrater reliability
different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret a particular tool
face validity
a tool appears to measure what it is supported to measure; does not necessarily indicate true validity
predictive validity
a tool accurately predicts future characteristics or behaviors; of the most use clinically
concurrent validity
a tool’s results agree with independent measures assessing similar characteristics or behavior
clinical interviews
face to face encounters that are often the first contact between a client and clinician; used to collect detailed info about a client (esp personal history); allows the interviewer to focus on whatever topics they consider most important, depending on their theoretical orientation; may lack validity, accuracy, or reliability; interviews may be biased/make mistakes or clients may be misleading
unstructured interview
clinicians ask open-ended questions
structured interview
clinicians ask prepared questions, often from a published interview schedule; may include a mental status exam
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
most widely used personality inventory; consists of more than 500 true/false/cannot say self-statements; assesses careless responding and lying; statements describe physical concerns, mood, morale, attitudes toward religion, sex, and social activities, and psychological symptoms; scores range 0-12-; above 70=deviant
clinical observations
systematic observations of behavior; naturalistic, analog, self-monitoring
naturalistic observations
occur in everyday environments; most focus on parent-child, sibling-child, or teacher-child interaction; generally made by “participant observers” and reported to a clinician; useful for ADD/ADHD; reliability and validity are concerns
analog observations
conducted in artificial settings; reliability and validity are concerns
self-monitoring
people observe themselves and carefully record the frequency of certain behaviors, feelings, or cognitions as they occur over time; look for triggers; can be dishonest (validity problems)
clinical picture
created using all available info; influenced by clinician’s theoretical orientation
DSM-5
currently in use; published in 2013; lists approximately 400 disorders; describes criteria for diagnoses, key clinical features, and related features that are often present; requires clinician to provide categorical and dimensional info; has greater reliability than previous editions
categorical information
the name of the category/disorder indicated by the client’s symptoms; clinician must decide whether the person is displaying one of the disorders
dimensional information
a rating of how severe a client’s symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across various dimensions of personality; for each disorder, various rating scales are suggested
anxiety and depression
two most frequently diagnosed disorders
diagnosis harm
misdiagnosis; labeling and stigma; self-fulfilling prophecy
treatment decisions
– begin with assessment info and diagnostic decisions to determine a plan
– use combination of idiographic and nomothetic info
– other factors: theoretical orientation, current research, evidence-based
therapy effectiveness
75% are helped; 5-10% get worse
psychiatrists
M.D.
psychologists
Ph.D, Psy.D, Ed.D
social workers
MSW, DSW
counselors
various
repression
person avoids anxiety by not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious
denial
person refuses to acknowledge the existence of an external source of anxiety
projection
person attributes own unacceptable impulses, motives, or desires to other individuals
rationalization
person creates a socially acceptable reason for an action that actually reflects unacceptable motives
displacement
person displaces hostility away from a dangerous object and onto a safer substitute
intellectualization
person represses emotional reactions in favor of overly logical response to a problem
regression
person retreats from an upsetting conflict to an early developmental stage at which no one is expected to behave maturely or responsibly