Acoustic Signal Based Traffic Density Engineering Essay

Traffic monitoring and parametric quantities estimation from urban to battlefield environment traffic is fast-emerging field based on acoustic signals. This paper considers the job of vehicular traffic denseness appraisal, based on the information nowadays in cumulative acoustic signal acquired from a roadside-installed individual mike. The happening and mixture weightings of traffic noise signals ( Tyre, Engine, Air Turbulence, Exhaust, and Honks etc ) are determined by the prevalent traffic denseness conditions on the route section. In this work, we extract the short-run spectral envelope characteristics of the cumulative acoustic signals utilizing MFCC ( Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients ) . The ( Scaly Conjugate Gradient ) SCG algorithm, which is a supervised acquisition algorithm for network-based methods, is used to calculate the second-order information from the two first-order gradients of the parametric quantities by utilizing all the preparation datasets. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy classifier is used to pattern the traffic denseness province as Low ( 40 Km/h and supra ) , Medium ( 20-40 Km/h ) , and Heavy ( 0-20 Km/h ) . For the development geographicss where the traffic is non-lane driven and helter-skelter, other techniques ( magnetic cringle sensors ) are unsuitable. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy classifier is used to sort the acoustic signal sections crossing continuance of 20-40 s, which consequences in a categorization truth of?95 % for 13-D MFCC coefficients, ~95 % for first order derived functions and ~95 % for 2nd order derived functions of cepstral coefficients.

Keywords: Acoustic signal, Noise, Traffic, Density, Neuro-Fuzzy.


As the figure of vehicle in urban countries is of all time increasing, it has been a major concern of metropolis governments to ease effectual control of traffic flows in urban countries [ 1 ] . Particularly in first-come-first-serve hours, even a hapless control at traffic signals may ensue in a long clip traffic jam doing a concatenation of holds in traffic flows and besides CO2 emanation [ 2 ] . Density of traffic on roads and main roads has been increasing invariably in recent old ages due to motorisation, urbanisation, and population growing. Intelligent traffic direction systems are needed to avoid traffic congestions or accidents and to guarantee safety of route users.

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Traffic in developed states is characterized by lane driven. Use of magnetic cringle sensors, picture cameras, and velocity guns proved to be efficient attack for traffic monitoring and parameter extraction but the installing, operational and care cost of these detectors significantly adds to the high operational disbursal of these devices during their life rhythms. Therefore research workers have been developing several Numberss of detectors, which have a figure of important advantages and disadvantages relative to each other. Nonintrusive traffic-monitoring engineerings based on ultrasound, radio detection and ranging ( Radio, Laser, and Photo ) , picture and audio signals. All above present different features in footings of hardiness to alterations in environmental conditions ; industry, installing, and fix costs ; safety ordinance conformity, and so forth [ 3 ] .

Traffic surveillance systems based on picture cameras cover a wide scope of different undertakings, such as vehicle count, lane tenancy, velocity measurings and categorization, but they besides detect critical events as fire and fume, traffic jams or lost lading. The job of traffic monitoring and parametric quantity appraisal is most normally solved by deploying inductive cringles. These cringles are really intrusive to the route paving and, hence cost associated with these is really high. Most video analytics systems on main roads focus on numeration and categorization [ 4 ] , [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 7 ] , [ 8 ] . Using general intent surveillance cameras for traffic analysis is demanding occupation. The quality of surveillance informations is by and large hapless, and the scope of operational conditions ( e.g. , dark clip, inclement, and mutable conditions ) requires robust techniques. The usage of route side acoustic signal seems to be good attack for traffic monitoring and parametric quantity appraisal intent holding really low installing, operation and care cost ; low-power demand ; operate in twenty-four hours and dark status.

Conventional pattern categorization involves constellating developing samples and tie ining bunchs to given classs with restrictions of lacking of an effectual manner of specifying the boundaries among bunchs. On the contrary, fuzzed categorization assumes the boundary between two neighbouring categories as a uninterrupted, overlapping country within which an object has partial rank in each category [ 9 ] . In brief, we use fuzzed IF-THEN regulations to depict a classifier.

Assume that K forms, p= 1, .. K are given from two categories, where is an n-dimensional chip vector. Typical fuzzed categorization regulations for n = 2 are like

If is little and is really big so

= ( ) belongs to C1

If is big and is really little so

= ( ) belongs to C2

Where are the characteristics of form ( or object ) P, little and really big are lingual footings characterized by appropriate rank maps. The firing strength or the grade of rightness of this regulation with regard to a given object is the grade of belonging of this object to the category C.

Most of the categorization jobs consist of medium and large-scale datasets, illustration: familial research, character or face acknowledgment. For this different methods, such as nervous webs ( NNs ) , support vector machines, and Bayes classifier, have been implemented to work out these jobs. The network-based methods can be trained with gradient based methods, and the computations of new points of the web parametric quantities by and large depend on the size of the datasets. One of the network-based classifiers is the Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier ( NFC ) , which combines the powerful description of fuzzed categorization techniques with the larning capablenesss of NNs.

The Scaled Conjugate Gradient ( SCG ) algorithm is based on the second-order gradient supervised learning process [ 10 ] . The SCG executes a trust part measure alternatively of the line hunt measure to scale the measure size. The line hunt attack requires more parametric quantities to find the measure size, which consequences in increasing preparation clip for any learning method. In a trust part method, the distance for which the theoretical account map will be trusted is updated at each measure. The trust part methods are more robust than line-search methods. The disadvantage associated with line-search method is eliminated in the SCG by utilizing the trust part method [ 10 ] .

We start with a word picture of the route side cumulative acoustic signal which consisting several noise signals ( tyre noise, engine noise, air turbulency noise, and honks ) , the mixture weightings in the cumulative signal varies, depending on the traffic denseness conditions [ 11 ] . For low traffic conditions, vehicles tend to travel with medium to high velocities, and therefore, their cumulative acoustic signal is dominated by tyre noise and air turbulency noise [ 11 ] , [ 12 ] . On the other manus, for a to a great extent congested traffic, the acoustic signal is dominated by engine-idling noise and the honks. Therefore, in this work, we extract the spectral characteristics of the wayside acoustic signal utilizing Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients ( MFCC ) , and so Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier is used to find the traffic denseness province ( low, Medium and Heavy ) . This consequences in 95 % truth when 20-30 s of audio signal grounds is presented.

We begin with description of the assorted noise signals in the cumulative acoustic signal in Section II. Overview of past work based on acoustic signal for traffic monitoring is provided in Section III, followed by characteristic extraction utilizing Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients in IV. Finally, the experimental apparatus and the categorization consequences by SCG-NFC are provided in Section V, and the decision is summarized in Section VI.


A vehicular acoustic signal is mixture of assorted noise signals such as tyre noise, engine tick overing noise, noise due to wash up, engine block noise, noise due to aerodynamic effects, noise due to mechanical effects ( e.g. , axle rotary motion, brake, and suspension ) , air-turbulence noise and the honks. The mixture weighting of spectral constituents at any location is depends upon the traffic denseness status and vehicle velocity. In former instance if we consider traffic denseness as freely fluxing so acoustic signal is chiefly due to tyre noise and air turbulency noise. For medium flow traffic acoustic signal is chiefly due to broad set thrust by noise, some honks. For heavy traffic status the acoustic signal is chiefly due to engine tick overing noise and several honks. A typical vehicle produces assorted noise depends on its speed, burden and mechanical status. In general, estimate can be done as vehicular acoustic signal is categorized as,

Tyre noise

Tyre noise refers to resound produced by turn overing Sur as an interaction of turn overing Sur with route surface. The tyre noise is besides considered as chief beginning of vehicle ‘s entire noise at a velocity higher than 50 kilometers per hours [ 12 ] , [ 13 ] . Tyre noise has two constituents: air noise and vibrational noise [ 13 ] , [ 14 ] . Air noise dominant in the frequence ranges between 1 KHz to 3 KHz. On the other manus vibrational noise is dominant in the frequence scope 100 Hz to 1000 Hz. Effect is generated by route and Sur, which forms a geometrical construction that amplifies the noise ( elaboration consequences in tyre noise constituent in the frequence scope 600 Hz to 2000 Hz ) , produced due to tyre-road interaction [ 14 ] , [ 15 ] , [ 16 ] . The directionality of horn depends upon tyre geometry, tyre yarn geometry, weight and torsion of Sur. The entire Sur noise power along with horn consequence lies in the frequence scope 700-1300 Hz.

Fig. 1. Relationship between the noise of the Sur and the noise of the vehicle harmonizing to its velocity.

The Sur noise is caused by three different factors:

The Sur hitting the land ( Fig 2 )

The quiver of the air through the tread form ( Fig 3 )

The quivers go throughing through the Sur ( Fig 4 )

( B ) ( degree Celsius )

Fig. 2. ( a ) Tyre hitting the land, ( B ) Vibration of the air through the pace form, ( degree Celsius ) Vibrations go throughing through the Sur

Engine noise

Engine noise is produced due to internal burning of engine. Engine noise contains a deterministic harmonic train and stochastic constituent due to aerate intake [ 11 ] . The fuel burning in engine cylinder leads to deterministic harmonic train where lowest harmonic tone refers to cylinder fire rate. On the other manus stochastic constituent is mostly due to the turbulent air flow in the air consumption, the engine chilling systems, and the alternator fans. The engine noise varies with velocity and the acceleration of vehicle [ 11 ] , [ 17 ] . A stationary vehicle produces distinguishable engine tick overing noise whereas traveling vehicle produces different engine noise in correspondence with cylinder fire rate. In the recent old ages, makers designs quieter engine to stamp down the noise degree. So engine noise might be strong on front side of auto compared to other waies.

Exhaust noise

The exhaust noise is produced due to full fumes system. The system goes from the engine burning compartment through exhaust tubings to the exhaust silencer nowadays at the dorsum of the vehicle bring forthing exhaust noise. The exhaust noise is straight relative to burden of the vehicle [ 18 ] . The exhaust noise is characterised by holding power spectrum around lower frequences. Exhaust noise is affected by turbo coursers and after ice chest [ 18 ] , [ 19 ] .

Air Turbulence noise

Air turbulency noise is produced due to the air flow generated by the boundary bed of the vehicle. It is outstanding instantly after the vehicle base on ballss by the detector ( e.g. mike ) . It produces typical drive-by-noise or whoosh sound. The Air turbulency noise depends on the aeromechanicss of the vehicle, wind velocity and its orientation [ 20 ] , [ 21 ] .


Today ‘s urban environment is supported by applications of computing machine vision techniques and pattern acknowledgment techniques including sensing of traffic misdemeanor, vehicular denseness appraisal, vehicular velocity estimate, and the designation of route users. Currently magnetic cringle sensor is most widely used detector for traffic monitoring in developing states [ 22 ] . However traffic monitoring by utilizing these detectors still have really high installing and care cost. This non merely includes the direct cost of labour intensive Earth work but besides, possibly more significantly, the indirect cost associated with the break of traffic flow. Besides these techniques require traffic to be orderly flow, traffic to be lane driven and in most instances it should be homogenous.

Mentioning to the developing parts such India and Asia the traffic is non lane driven and extremely helter-skelter. Highly heterogenous traffic is present due to many two Wheelers, three Wheelers, four Wheelers, auto-rickshaws, multi-wheeled coachs and trucks, which does non follow lane. So it is the major concern of metropolis authorization to supervise such helter-skelter traffic. In such environment the cringle sensors and computer-vision-based trailing techniques are uneffective. The usage of route side acoustic signal seems to be good option for traffic monitoring intent holding really low installing, operation and care cost.

Vehicular Speed Appraisal

Doppler frequence displacement is used to supply a theoretical description of individual vehicle velocity. Premise made that distance to the closest point of attack is known the solution can suit any line of reaching of the vehicle with regard to the mike. [ 23 ] , [ 24 ] .

Feeling techniques based on inactive sound sensing are reported in [ 25 ] , [ 26 ] . These techniques utilizes microphone array to observe the sound moving ridges generated by route side vehicles and are capable of capable of supervising traffic conditions on lane-by-lane and vehicle-by-vehicle footing in a multilane carriageway. S. Chen et Al develops multilane traffic feeling construct based inactive sound which is digitized and processed by an on-site computing machine utilizing a correlativity based algorithm. The system holding low cost, safe inactive sensing, unsusceptibility to adverse conditions conditions, and competitory fabrication cost. The system performs good for free flow traffic nevertheless for congested traffic public presentation is hard to accomplish [ 27 ] .

Valcarce et Al. work the differential clip holds to gauge the velocity. Pair of omnidirectional mikes was used and technique is based on maximal likeliness rule [ 3 ] . Lo and Ferguson develop a nonlinear least squares method for vehicle velocity appraisal utilizing multiple mikes. Quasi-Newton method for computational efficiency was used. The estimated velocity is obtained utilizing generalized cross correlativity method based on time-delay-of-arrival estimations [ 28 ] .

Cevher et Al. uses individual acoustic detector to gauge vehicle ‘s velocity, breadth and length by jointly gauging acoustic moving ridge forms. Wave forms are approximated utilizing three envelop form constituents. Consequences obtained from experimental apparatus shows the vehicle velocities are estimated as ( 18.68, 4.14 ) m/s by the picture camera and ( 18.60, 4.49 ) m/s by the acoustic method [ 29 ] . They besides had estimated a individual vehicle ‘s velocity, engine ‘s unit of ammunitions per minute ( RPM ) , the figure of cylinders, and its length and breadth based on its acoustical moving ridge forms [ 17 ] .

Traffic Density Estimation

Time appraisal for making from beginning to finish utilizing existent clip traffic denseness information is major concern of metropolis governments. J. Kato proposed method for traffic denseness appraisal based on acknowledgment of temporal fluctuations that appear on the power signals in conformity with vehicle base on ballss through mention point [ 30 ] . HMM is used for observation of local temporal fluctuations over little periods of clip, extracted by ripple transmutation. Experimental consequences show good truth for sensing of transition of vehicles

Vehicular Categorization

Classification larning strategies normally use one of the undermentioned attacks:

Statistical classifiers based on Bayes determination theory, assume an implicit in chance distribution for unknown forms, e.g. maximal likelihood appraisal, maximal posterior chance appraisal, Gaussian mixture theoretical accounts, concealed Markov theoretical accounts or k-nearest neighbour method.

Syntactic or structural classifiers based on additive or nonlinear interrelatednesss of characteristics in the characteristic vector lead to linear/non-linear classifier.

Acoustic characteristic coevals are chiefly based on three spheres: clip, frequence, and both time-frequency sphere.

Time sphere characteristic coevals offers really low computational demand, but characteristics are frequently hampered by environmental noise or air current effects.

Frequency sphere characteristic coevals see a stationary spectrum in a given clip frame. As traveling vehicles are non-stationary signals, the influence of Doppler effects and signal energy alterations either have to be neglected or the investigated clip frame must be chosen short plenty to afford quasi stationary signal behaviour.

Time-frequency sphere characteristic coevals see the non-stationary signal behaviour of go throughing vehicles and it lead to accurate steps of signal energies in clip and frequence sphere at the same time, these attacks are holding a high computational complexness.

TABLE I. Vehicular acoustic characteristic extractors and classifiers



Feature Extractor

Classifier used



[ 31 ]


Fuzzy Logic, MLNN

73-79 %

95-97.5 %

[ 32 ]

Correlation based algorithm


[ 33 ]



Vehicle: 88 %

Cylinder: 95 %

[ 34 ]



kNN: 85 %

MPP: 88 %

[ 35 ]

AR mod.


up to 84 %


[ 36 ]



98.25 %

[ 34 ]



kNN: 85 %

MPP: 88 %

TABLE II. Acronyms from subdivision III and IV

TE Time Energy Distribution

MLNN Multi Layer Neural Network.

PCA Principal Components Analysis

NN Artificial Neural Network

HLA Harmonic Line Association

k-NNS K – Nearest Neighbor Search

DWT Discrete Wavelet Transform

MPP Maximum Distance Approach

STFT Short Time Fourier Analysis

AR mod. Autoregressive Mold

CWT Continuous Wavelet Transform


An omnidirectional mike was placed on the prosaic pavement at approximately 1 to 1.5 m tallness, and it recorded the cumulative signal at 16000 Hz trying frequence. Samples were collected for clip continuances of around 30s for different traffic denseness province conditions ( low, medium and heavy ) . The assorted traffic denseness states induce different cumulative acoustic signals. To turn out the above statement, we have examined the spectrograph of the different traffic province ‘s cumulative acoustic signals.

Fig. 3. Spectrogram of the low denseness traffic ( above 40 kilometers per hour ) .

Fig. 4. Spectrogram of the Medium denseness traffic ( 20 to 40 kilometers per hour ) .

Fig. 5. Spectrogram of the Heavy denseness traffic ( 0 to 20 kilometers per hour ) .

For the low denseness traffic status in Fig. 3, we merely see the wideband drive-by noise and the air turbulency noise of the vehicles. No honks or really few honks are observed for low denseness traffic status.

For the medium denseness traffic status in Fig. 4, we can see some wideband drive-by noise, some honk signals, and some concentration of the spectral energy in the low-frequency ranges ( 0, 0.1 ) of the normalized frequence or equivalently ( 0, 800 ) Hz.

For the heavy denseness traffic status in Fig. 5, we notice about no wideband drive-by engine noise or air turbulency noise and are dominated by several honk signals. We note the several harmonics of the honk signals, and they are runing from ( 2, 6 ) kilohertz.

The end of characteristic extraction is to give a good representation of the vocal piece of land from its response features at any peculiar clip. Mel-Frequency cepstral coefficients ( MFCC ) , which are the Discrete Cosine Transform ( DCT ) coefficients of a Mel-filter smoothed logarithmic power spectrum. First 13-20 cepstral coefficients of a signal ‘s short clip spectrum compactly capture the smooth spectral envelope information. We have decided to utilize first 13 cepstral coefficients to stand for acoustic signal for matching traffic denseness province. These coefficients have been really successfully applied as the acoustic characteristics in address acknowledgment, talker acknowledgment, and music acknowledgment and to vast assortment of job spheres. Features extraction utilizing MFCC is as follows,


Pre-emphasis stage emphasizes higher frequences. The pre-emphasis is a procedure of go throughing the signal through a filter. It is designed to increase, within a set of frequences, the magnitude of some ( normally higher ) frequences with regard to the magnitude of the others ( normally lower ) frequences in order to better the overall SNR.

Y [ n ] = x [ n ] -?x [ n-1 ] , ? ˆ ( 0.9, 1 ) ( 1 )

Where ten [ n ] denotes input signal, y [ n ] denotes end product signal and the coefficient ? is in between 0.9 to 1.0, ?= 0.97 normally. The end of pre-emphasis is to counterbalance the high-frequency portion that was suppressed during the sound aggregation.

Framing and Windowing

Typically, address is a non-stationary signal ; therefore its statistical belongingss are non changeless across clip. The acquired signal is assumed to be stationary within a short clip interval. The input acoustic signal is segmented into frames of 20~40 MS with optional convergence of 1/3~1/2 of the frame size. Typically each frame has to be multiplied with a overacting window in order to maintain the continuity of the first and the last points in the frame. Its equation is as follows,

W [ n ] = ( 2 )

Where N is frame size

Y [ n ] = X [ n ] * W [ n ] ( 3 )

Where Y [ n ] = Output signal

Ten [ n ] = Input signal

W [ n ] = Hamming Window

Due to the physical restraints, the traffic denseness province could alter from one to another ( low to medium flow to heavy ) over at least 5-30 min continuance. Therefore, we decided to utilize comparatively longer primary analysis Windowss of the typical size 500 MS and displacement size of 100 MSs to obtain the spectral envelope.

Fig. 6. Primary Windowss of size=500 MS and shifted by 100 MSs to obtain a sequence of MFCC characteristic vectors.


Normally, Fast Fourier Transform ( FFT ) is used to calculate the DFT. It converts each frame of N samples from clip sphere into frequence sphere. The calculation of the FFT-based spectrum as follow,

Ten [ k ] = ( 4 )

Where N is the frame size in samples, x [ n ] is the input acoustic signal, and. X [ k ] is the corresponding FFT-based spectrum.

Triangular bandpass filtering

The frequences range in FFT spectrum is really broad and acoustic signal does non follow the additive graduated table. Each filter ‘s magnitude frequence response is triangular in form and equal to integrity at the Centre frequence and diminish linearly to zero at centre frequence of two next filters. We so multiply the absolute magnitude of the DFT samples by the triangular frequence responses of the 24 Mel-filters that have logarithmically increasing bandwidth and cover a frequence scope of 0-8 kilohertz in our experiments. Each filter end product is the amount of its filtered spectral constituents. Following equation is used to calculate the Mel for given frequence degree Fahrenheit in HZ:

F ( Mel ) = 2595 * log 10 [ 1+f/700 ] ( 5 )

The ith Mel-filter bank energy ( is obtained as

( = ( * , thousand ˆ ( 0, N/2 ) ( 6 )

Where ( is the triangular frequence response of the ith Mel-filter. These 24 Mel-filter bank energies are so transformed into 13 MFCC utilizing DCT.


This is the procedure to change over the log Mel spectrum into clip sphere utilizing DCT. The consequence of the transition is called Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient. The set of coefficient is called acoustic vectors.

= cos ( ?j ) , j ˆ ( 0, 12 ) ( 7 )

Data energy and Spectrum

The acoustic signal and the frames alterations, such as the incline of a formant at its passages. Therefore, there is demand to add characteristics related to the alteration in cepstral characteristics over clip. 13 characteristic ( 12 cepstral characteristics plus energy ) .

Energy=? X2 [ T ] ( 8 )

Where X [ t ] = signal

Fig. 7. Input Acoustic signal, matching log filterbank energies and Mel frequence cepstrum for low traffic denseness province

Fig. 8. Input Acoustic signal, matching log filterbank energies and Mel frequence cepstrum for Medium traffic denseness province

Fig. 9. Input Acoustic signal, matching log filterbank energies and Mel frequence cepstrum for Heavy traffic denseness province


An adaptative web is a multi-layer feed-forward web where each node performs a peculiar map based on incoming signals and a set of parametric quantities refering to node. Fuzzy categorization systems, which are founded on the footing on fuzzy regulations, have been successfully applied to assorted categorization undertakings [ 37 ] . The fuzzed systems can be constituted with nervous webs, and attendant systems are called as Neuro-fuzzy systems [ 37 ] . The Neuro-fuzzy classifiers define the category distributions and demo the input-output dealingss, whereas the fuzzed systems describe the systems utilizing natural linguistic communication. Nervous webs are employed for developing the system parametric quantities in neuro-fuzzy applications. An ANFC consist of input, rank map, fuzzification, defuzzification, standardization and end product beds [ 37, 38, 39 ] .

Fig. 10. An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier

Figure 10 demonstrates generalized classifier architecture with two input variables x1and x2. The preparation informations are categorized by three categories C1 and C2. Each input is represented by two lingual footings, therefore we have four regulations.

Membership bed: The end product of the node is the grade to which the given input satisfies the lingual label associated to this node. Normally, bell-shaped rank maps are chosen to stand for the lingual footings.

( U ) = exp [ – ( ) 2 ] ( 9 )

Where [ ai1, ai2, bi1, bi2 ] is the parametric quantity set.

The bell-shaped maps vary harmonizing to alterations in the values of these parametric quantities, therefore exhibiting assorted signifiers of rank maps on lingual labels Ai and Bi. In fact, any uninterrupted, such as trapezoidal and triangular-shaped rank maps are besides campaigners for node maps in this bed. The initial values of the parametric quantities are set in such a manner that the rank maps along each axis satisfy ˆ-completeness, normalcy and convexness. The parametric quantities are so tuned or trained with a descent-type method.

Fuzzification bed: Each node generates a signal corresponding to the conjunctive combination of single grades of lucifer. All nodes in this bed are labelled by T, because we can take any t-norm for patterning the logical and operator. The nodes of this bed are called regulation nodes.

In order to cipher the grade of belongingness to certain category label the additive combination of the firing strengths of the regulations at Layer 3 and use a sigmoid map at Layer 4. If we are given the preparation set { ( ) , k = 1, .. .. , K } where refers to the k-th input form and


Experimental Consequences

We have collected the route side cumulative acoustic signal samples from chhatrapati square to T-point of Nagpur metropolis. Datas were collected with 16 KHz trying frequence. These informations covered three wide traffic denseness categories ( low, medium and heavy ) . Feature extraction is done utilizing MFCC where primary window size is 500 MS and displacement size is of 100 MS.

Case 1: First 13 cepstral coefficients were considered.

TABLE III. Classification truths of assorted traffic denseness categories based on individual frame.

Traffic Density Class

Accuracy ( % )







Case 2: The full characteristic vectors consisted of the first 13 MFCC coefficients and their first and 2nd order clip derived functions computed. This led to a 39-D characteristic vector per frame.

TABLE IV. Classification truths of assorted traffic denseness categories based on first and 2nd order derived functions of first frame.

Traffic Density Class

First order derived function

Second order derived function










Case 3: MFCC coefficients correspond to full frames are considered ( i.e. T= sample signal length in clip, ex. T=30s ) .


This paper describes a simple technique which uses MFCC characteristics of route side cumulative acoustic signal to sort traffic denseness province as Low, Medium and Heavy utilizing Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier. As this technique uses simple mike ( cost: 500 Rs ) so its installing, operational and care cost is really low. This technique work good under non lane driven and helter-skelter traffic status, and is independent of illuming status. Classification truth achieved utilizing Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy classifier is of ~95 % for 13-D MFCC coefficients, ~95 % for first order derived functions and ~95 % for 2nd order derived functions of cepstral coefficients.

The research on vehicular acoustic signal which is mixture of engine noise, tyre noise, noise due to mechanical effects etc. expands from vehicular velocity appraisal to denseness appraisal. The usage of route side acoustic signal seems to be an alternate, research shows acceptable truth for acoustic signal. Vehicular categorization with Acoustic signals proved to be first-class attack peculiarly for battleground vehicles, and besides for metropolis vehicles.

Clearer definitions of scenarios and applications are required to bring forth a more consistent organic structure of work. New application countries are likely to emerge for traffic signal timings optimisation utilizing cumulative acoustic signals and besides categorization of bikes proved to be emerging country for research. Finally the categorization systems can be extended in a manner that extracted characteristics are utilised as characteristic fingerprints, which affords trailing of vehicles over multiple detector nodes.

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