1. INTRODUCTION Animals that live under human care are in captivity. Captivity can be used as a generalizing term to describe the keeping of either wild animals or domesticated animals such as livestock and pets. This may include for example farms, private and zoos. Keeping animals in human captivity and under human care can thus be distinguished between three primary categories according to the particular motives, objectives and conditions. The domestication of animals is the oldest documented instance of keeping animals in captivity.
This process eventually resulted in habituation of wild animal species to survive in the company of, or by the labor of, human beings. Domesticated species are those whose behaviour, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions under human control for multiple generations. Throughout history not only domestic animals as pets and livestock were kept in captivity and under human care, but also wild animals. Some were failed domestication attempts.
Also, in past times, primarily the wealthy, aristocrats and kings collected wild animals for various reasons. Contrary to domestication, the ferociousness and natural behaviour of the wild animals were preserved and exhibited. Today’s zoos claim other reasons for keeping animals under human care: conservation, education and science. Should Animals be Released Back into the Wild or Kept in Captivity? Let us weigh the pros and cons of this issue, which seems to be on the rise. 2. THE ADVANTAGES OF ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY
The advantage of animals in captivity is protecting the endangered wild animals, sometimes a species may have difficulties in surviving in the wild. Such as adapt helped a certain species of Dart Frog survives, when its habitat was destroyed by natural disaster. To prevent and preserve wild animals, from being captured by poachers for their skins, ivory and supposed medicinal purposes, zoos seem to be a safe for them. Furthermore, animals are provided with proper diet, exercise and enough space.
Animals in captivity ensure the animals have enough food sources and proper medical facility. It is true that there have been zoos treating animals in a cruel manner. However, there is continuous improvement in their manner of working. It won’t be fair to shut down all the zoos for mistakes committed by few zoos in the past. With reforms being brought about in this sector, animals are provided with proper diet and enough space. With a lot of study and training one might be able to provide proper diet and exercise to the animals.
Moreover, the advantage of animals in captivity is education and conservation purpose. School visit to zoos to know more about endangered species and the way to conserve them. The zoo also provide detail and information of an animal’s species, diet, and natural range. People can get familiar with animals education, information and knowledge. Zoos are in fact, trying to make people aware of their ecology. 3. THE DISADVANTAGES OF ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY The disadvantage of animals in captivity is losing natural instinct, animal in captivity unable to hunt and survive in the wild.
Without the opportunity to learn social organizations and habits, many animals in captivity are unable to nurture or care for the young. This matter was shown in the movie of Madagascar :Escape 2 Africa, the gang of animal Alex the Lion, Marty the Zebra, Melman the Giraffe and Gloria the Hippo all in a sudden, they escape from New York Zoo and land in the wilderness of Africa, where Alex meets the rest of his family, but he has trouble communicating with them after spending so much time at the Central Park Zoo.
Now, as the animals reared in the safety of the zoo come into contact with their decidedly wild counterparts for the very first time, they get a better feel for their roots while marveling over the differences between life in the concrete jungle and life on the world’s second largest continent. Besides this, animals in captivity are affected by extreme boredom, lack of appropriate exercise, poor quality food and a lack of variety of food, especially in poorly run facilities.
Wild animals in captivity such as polar bear are being fed with dead fish and meat by trainers, unable to eat live fish. Animals lost their freedom and sense of Choice, stay in small cages, not a proper habitat for wild animals. For example the movie of the killer whale, the friendly whale was in a tank too small and in bad health because of that and other complications that come with being taken from its natural habitat to a place where it cannot meet its own needs.
Lastly, some animals in captivity are forced to live with different climates and weather, such as penguin and polar bear. For example, a zoo in Indonesia, two polar bears lay on a concrete floor trying to stay cool in the tropical heat. At the Alaska Zoo, an elephant named Maggie was confined to a 146 square meter (1600-square foot) barn during the winter. 4. CONCLUSION Now, take a moment to consider why you go to the zoo, the circus, or theme parks with animals.
Is it to look at large animals like a spectator sport? Is your visit prompted by the lure of tiny baby animals? Do you go to learn about endangered species and did you read the signs which often provide little more information than an animal’s species, diet, and natural range? And ask yourself, would you want someone to take you from your family and place you in a strange and unnatural surrounding for the sole purpose of entertainment? The debate over the topic of conservation of wildlife is an endless one.
No doubt, efforts should be taken to study, protect and preserve animals; however care should be taken that animals suffer the least in the process. Moreover, it cannot be denied that some animals in captivity misuse and violate the animal rights. Creating awareness about animal rights and devising efficient ways to control their population is necessary. Conservation efforts should be undertaken considering a broader perspective of maintaining the ecological balance as a whole.