The Effect of Gender on an IQ – Spatial Intelligence Introduction Intelligence is the capability to take in new information and adapt to situations. It is derived from both genetics and environment. Genetics are the part that genes play in a person’s life. It is also questioned that different levels of different types of intelligence are based on whether a person is male or female. Howard Gardner suggested that there are multiple types of intelligence, those of which are: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, naturalistic, interpersonal and intrapersonal.
These intelligences make up the IQ of an individual. Types of intelligences: * Linguistic: the ability one has with of words. * Logical-mathematical: the use calculation. * Musical: sound and rhythm. * Spatial: the use of spacing and where the placing of things are in comparison to one another. * Bodily-Kinaesthetic: the use of body and motion. * Naturalistic: the awareness one has with their natural environment. * Interpersonal: the use of interaction with other people. * Intrapersonal: the understanding of one’s self.
A previous experiment conducted shows the differences between levels of spatial intelligence in males and females and how it can be changed, stating that the findings ‘found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender disparity in mental rotation ability’ (Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition – 1990). It stated that ‘women benefit[ed] more than men’. The aim of this experiment is: to investigate the effect of gender on multiple types of intelligence, specifically spatial intelligence.
Hypothesis: It is believed that the majority of males have more spatial intelligence than females. Independent Variables: gender Dependent Variables: level of intelligence Method Participants Equal amount of 12 girls and 12 boys from the two current (2013) Year 11 Loyola College Psychology classes aged 16 to 17 years. Materials * Task Sheet * Computers with internet * IQ quiz handout Procedure As Seen on ‘Unit 2 Psychology APS 2 SAC 1: ERA Intelligence’ – Task Sheet (refer to appendix) 1. You will form a pair where the 1st person will do puzzle 1 and the 2nd will do puzzle 2. 2. Person 1 Go to the website below complete the puzzle ttp://www. onlinejigsawpuzzles. net/animals_14_polar_bear. htm 3. Record the time required to complete the test and gender of the participant on the table attached. 4. Person 2 to go to the below website and repeated the process above http://www. onlinejigsawpuzzles. net/animals_11_parrot. htm 5. Now complete the questions 1-10 on the IQ quiz handout on logical reason. 6. Correct your questions. 7. Give your results table to either Mr Hong or Ms Ray so that the result may be collated. Results Spatial Test Scores Table: Test Score| No. of Girls | No. of Boys| 8| 1| 3| 7| 4| 2| 6| 1| 2| 5| 5| 4| 4| 0| 1| 3| 1| 0|
Mean: Girls – 5. 83 Boys – 6. 16 Median: Girls – 5. 5 Boys – 6 Mode: Girls – 5 Boys – 5 Graph: Statement of Table and Graph: These results are from a Spatial Intelligence test. The highest scores given were four eights one of which was achieved by a female and the other three by males. The lowest score given to females was a three and the lowest score given to males was a four. On average males scored higher than females with the average score for both categories (male and female) being a score of five. Jigsaw Puzzle Times Table: Times in Minutes:| No. of Girls:| No. of Boys:| 4:00 – 4:59| 3| 0| 5:00 – 5:59| 3| 4| :00 – 6:59| 3| 4| 7:00 – 7:59 | 0| 2| 8:00 – 8:59| 1| 2| 9:00 – 9:59| 2| 0| Mean: For girls and boys – 6:00 – 6:59 Median: Girls – 5:00 to 5:59 Boys – 6:00 to 6:59 Mode: Girls – 4:00 – 4:59, 5:00 – 5:59, 6:00 – 6:59 Boys – 5:00 – 5:59, 6:00 – 6:59 Graph: (in minutes) (in minutes) Statement of Table and Graph: The Jigsaw Puzzle time results ranged from above four minutes to below 10 minutes. The specific male range was between five minutes to 8 minutes and 59 seconds. Over half of both males and females scored between 5 minutes and 6 minutes 59 seconds. The quickest time and the longest time were both completed by females.
Discussion In this experiment the hypothesis was supported in the Spatial awareness test with the majority of males performing at a higher level of spatial intelligence compared to females but not supported in the Puzzle as the majority of females finished their puzzles in a shorter time than males. In the spatial intelligence tests the males had a higher average than females with a quarter of the males achieving the top score compared to the one female. This is not as much shown in the puzzle completion times where, although the lowest score was achieved by a female, the highest score was ompleted by a female as well as the majority of the shortest times were done by females. Males had a smaller range though, with their scores a little more consistent than females. These results suggest that males do tend to have more spatial awareness compared to females but does not mean that there are not exceptions to this suggestion. This may because males, especially within the age range selected for this experiment, have a higher tendency to be playing action video games which in earlier experiments have suggested can improve and maintain a higher level of spatial awareness.
Variables could include the past experience of the subjects including interests, availability to mind games and information, previous intelligence tests conducted, etc. as well as the mood and energy of the person and the time the test was conducted. Improvements could include having all subjects tested at the same time and under quitter conditions without communication. No ethical consideration was given with the exception of the task sheet briefing for the subjects. No debriefing or acknowledgment of agreement to the experiment was given.
As the participants were under the age of 18 an improvement for next time would be to have parental consent to the participation of the experiment. It is concluded that in this experiment males showed a higher ability in spatial awareness. This information suggests that gender does in fact have an effect on intelligence levels but does not mean that there are not exceptions to this suggestion. References * Feng J. , Spence I. , & Pratt J. (1990) Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Edwards R. , Blaher-Lucas E. , Marangio K. , Moore V. (2010) Oxford Psychology Units 1 & 2 Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Appendices Appendix 1 – Link to puzzle page Appendix 2 – Participant data/Raw data Unit 2 Psychology AOS 2 SAC 1: ERA Intelligence The Task: To investigate the effect of gender on multiple types of intelligence, specifically spatial awareness. You will conduct the experiment along the following guidelines. 8. You will form a pair where the 1st person will do puzzle 1 and the 2nd will do puzzle 2. 9.
Person 1 Go to the website below complete the puzzle http://www. onlinejigsawpuzzles. net/animals_14_polar_bear. htm. 10. Record the time required to complete the test and gender of the participant on the table attached. 11. Pearson 2 to go to the below website and repeate the process above http://www. onlinejigsawpuzzles. net/animals_11_parrot. htm 12. Now complete the questions 1-10 on the IQ quiz handout on logical reason. 13. Correct your questions. 14. Give your results table to either Mr Hong or Ms Ray so that the result may be collated. The Written Report:
The written report must be written under the following headings: Title Introduction Method Results Discussion/conclusion References Appendices All aspects of this ERA will be completed at home. You will be given the ERA in the last week of term 3. The final ERA will be due via email on the 19th of October. If you wish to hand in a draft of the ERA it must be given to your teacher by 5th October. Introduction (250-500 words)- The introduction must provide: * Rationale for this experiment * Exploration and discussion of any key theories and concepts related to this experiment from past research. Identification and discussion of the key concepts involved in this experiment that can be used to explain the results * Stated aim of the experiment * Identification of the dependent and independent variables of the experiment * A stated operational hypothesis Method (150 words)- The method must include: * Participants, Materials, Procedure written according to Lab Report conventions * Information regarding the characteristics of your experimental design, participant selection and reference to ethical procedure Results (no word limit)- The results must include: At least one annotated table and an overall statement of results. This must be manipulated in order to present it in a fashion that is ideal for the manner in which you will interpret the data in your discussion Discussion/Conclusion (400-600 words)- The Discussion/Conclusions must include: * A reference to the support or unsupported operational hypothesis * A valid justification for your opinion * Valid inferences from the raw data and results * A discussion regarding how the ideas provided in the introduction are supported or not by your findings * Generalization of findings * Extraneous/confounding variables Conclusion and possible improvements As a final note: * The world limit must be adhered to with a 10% variation both ways. Excess words will not be considered in the grading process (the title, abstract, results, all in-text references, graph/table titles and annotations, appendices and final reference lists are not included in word count) * All work must utilize in-text referencing (Harvard Style) and provide references * All work must be typed in size 12 (Calibri or Times New Roman font) * All tables, graphs and pictures must be labeled and annotated * Appendices must be included.
If referred to in your Lab Report, there must be a clear indication as to which specific areas of the appendices is being utilized. * PLAGARISM FROM ANY RESOURCE WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. Any identified plagiarism will result in that section of the Lab Report being removed and not considered in the grading process. In the case of work being copied from another student, BOTH students involved will face disciplinary actions based upon VCAA guidelines that may result in an ‘N’ grade for Unit 2 Psychology.
Grade Criteria and Structure for SAC 1b Unit 2 Psychology Name: Criteria: Introduction| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 0| Identification and exploration of superordinate goals and other theories and concepts relevant to the experiment| | | | | | | Evidence of research and explanation of concepts relevant to the experiment. | | | | | | | Identification and use of IV and DV in an operational hypothesis| | | | | | | TOTAL: /15| Criteria: Method| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 0|
Identification of key process in developing a method| | | | | | | Identification and explanation of the utilized experimental design| | | | | | | TOTAL: /10| Criteria: Results| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 0| Ability to manipulate raw data into a meaningful format and presentation (Creation and use of accurate data graphs and tables) | | | | | | | Accurate identification of key statistical information from raw data (Mean, median, mode and/or other relevant statistics)| | | | | | | TOTAL: /10|
Criteria: Discussion and Conclusion| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 0| Accurate and justified identification of support/no support for operational hypothesis| | | | | | | Proposed explanation of results in relation to acquired data| | | | | | | Proposed explanation of results in relation to researched theories and concepts relevant to the experiment| | | | | | | Exploration of the relevance of the results to the areas of reducing prejudice| | | | | | | Identification and discussion of extraneous variables and improvements to the experiment| | | | | | | Identification and summation of general conclusions to the population based upon the established data | | | | | | | TOTAL: /30| Criteria: Overall Requirements| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 0| Quality of referencing and research, and overall written quality and presentation of the ERA| | | | | | | TOTAL: /5| Total Score: /70 ( %) Comments: Recording table | Gender (male/female)| Time (in seconds)| Participant 1| | | Participant 2| | | ______________________________________________________________________________ Articles for your reference in completing this ERA Go to the following links to read articles related to spatial intelligence and gender. http://pss. sagepub. com/content/18/10/850. full http://pss. sagepub. com/content/4/1/35. full. pdf+html
The following websites contain information on multiple intelligences http://www. tecweb. org/styles/gardner. html http://www. infed. org/thinkers/gardner. htm Raw DataFemale Participants| Gender| Score on test| Jigsaw puzzle time| 1| f| 7| 5:07| 2| f| 5| 4:48| 3| f| 7| 4:42| 4| f| 7| 6:25| 5| f| 5| 9:35| 6| f| 5| 9:33| 7| f| 8| 4:58| 8| f| 3| 8:16| 9| f| 7| 5:27| 10| f| 5| 6:40| 11| f| 5| 6:24| 12| f| 6| 5:43| Male Participants| Gender| Score on test| Jigsaw puzzle time| 1| m| 7| 5:10| 2| m| 6| 6:31| 3| m| 8| 6:00| 4| m| 7| 6:22| 5| m| 5| 8:39| 6| m| 8| 5:48| 7| m| 5| 6:04| 8| m| 8| 5:18| 9| m| 5| 7:21| 10| m| 5| 7:39| 11| m| 6| 5:39| 12| m| 4| 8:17|