Alex’s AP World History Flash Cards

A.D./C.E.
A.D. (Anno Domini): in the Christian era; used before dates after the supposed year Christ was born
C.E. (Current Era): the time period beginning with the supposed year of Christ’s birth
Absolutism
The belief in absolute principles in political, ethical, or theological matters
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
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Aristocracy
The most powerful members of a society
B.C./B.C.E.
Before Christ/Before Current Era
Bias
Influence in an unfair way
Bureaucracy
An administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures
Chiefdom
A political organization ruled by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns (less powerful than kingdoms and empires).
City-State
A city and its surrounding lands that act as a government
Civilization
A society in an advanced state of social development
Consumerism
The protection or promotion of the interests of consumers
Demography
The scientific study of human populations
Demographic Shift
Noticeable changes in population data, including numbers of people, sizes of ethnic groups, etc.
Diffusion
The spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another
Divination
The art or act of predicting the future or discovering hidden knowledge
Dynasty
A sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
Economic Interaction
Exchanges of goods and services between people
Economic/Political Prominence
(Definition to come)
Economic System
The method used by a society to produce and distribute goods and services
Empire
A group of countries under a single authority
Epidemic
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
Forager
One who searches for food by hunting or gathering
Forced Labor System
People who were always demanded to work in agricultural fields, such as slaves and servants
Global Context/Perspective
(Definition to come)
Global Processes
(Definition to come)
Hyperurbanization
Massive migration to single city, creates primate cities
Imperial Expansion
To expand an empire
Indentured Servant
Laborers who agree to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
Interregional
Permanent movement from one region to another
Kingdom
A monarchy with a king or queen as head of state
Lord/Vassal relationship
(Definition to come)
Medieval
Relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
Merchant
Someone who buys and sells goods for a living
Monotheism
Belief in a single God
Nation-Stat
(Definition to come)
Neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the beginning of agriculture, before writing and bronze tools
Nobility
A high-ranking social class
Nomad
A member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons
Ocean
A massive body of salt water
Paleolithic
Relating to the early phase of the Stone Age
Pandemic
Widespread or general (usually a disease)
Papacy
The government of the Roman Catholic Church
Pastoral
(Definition to come)
Patriarchal
Relating to a society in which men hold the greatest authority
Periodization
Historian’s attempt to break down history into manageable segments
Political Structure
The way a country’s political system shapes, promotes, checks, or absorbs the challenges it confronts from organized civil society
Polytheism
The belief in multiple Gods
Prehistoric
Belonging to or existing in times before recorded history
Primary Source
An original source that informs directly, not through another person’s explanation or interpretation
Revolution
The overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Scribe
To write
Sea
A division of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially enclosed by land
Secondary Source
Information gathered by someone who did not take part in or witness an event
Serf
A peasant bound to the lord’s land (not a slave)
Shaman
The healing specialist of a tribe who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease or injury; commonly called a witch doctor
Slave
A servant who is owned by his or her master
State
A politically organized body of people under a single government
Steppes
Dry, grass-covered plains
Trade System
(Definition to come)
Urban
Having to do with cities or towns

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