In Singapore, the revenue-generating touristry industry has ever been critical for our development. For illustration, it generated about a astonishing S $ 14.1 billion in tourer grosss in 2007[ 1 ], lending close to 5 % of our GDP ( Gross Domestic Product ) .
In recent old ages, our touristry industry has shown marks of stagnancy, even with the attempts by Singapore Tourism Board ( STB ) to advance touristry.
Diagram 1 shows the Butler ‘s Tourism Life-Cycle Model that illustrates the five chief phases that every state ‘s touristry industry will undergo. Every state will first get down at the geographic expedition phase and travel along the Cycle from Stage 1 onwards, as its touristry industry grows and develops.
In 2003, there was grounds that Singapore was at the 4th phase, stagnancy, evident from the undermentioned grounds:
The worsening growing in visitant Numberss
Singapore ‘s touristry growing has been stagnating or even worsening since 1997 – 2003. Harmonizing to touristry informations, the figure of tourer reachings has been stagnating between 6 million to 7.5 million during this period, and for some old ages it has shown a negative per centum alteration from the old twelvemonth. The per centum alterations for these old ages are as follows: -1.30 % ( 1997 ) , -13.28 % ( 1998 ) , -2.20 % ( 2001 ) and -19.04 % ( 2003 ) .[ 2 ]
Short tourer corsets
On norm, tourers were merely remaining for 2 to 3 yearss, clearly demoing that Singapore ‘s tourer attractive forces were losing their entreaty.[ 3 ]
Therefore, the Singapore Tourism Board ( STB ) attempted to rejuvenate touristry, and to farther promote Singapore as a tourer finish by utilizing alternate attacks which we will analyze below:
Since 1990, Singapore has used runs to actively advance Singapore as a tourer finish.
These runs use a multi-pronged attack to advance Singapore, such as through utilizing different signifiers of media for these advertisement runs. In 2004, STB used the tagline ” Uniquely Singapore ” to look the run to advance Singapore as a vibrant and voguish tourer finish. The current run ( since 2010 ) has the tagline “ Your Singapore ” , and aims to advance Singapore as an exciting finish. For illustration, STB has designed an synergistic web site ( YourSingapore.com ) to foreground the exciting and alone entreaties of Singapore ‘s touristry industry.
The runs raise planetary consciousness of Singapore ‘s touristry and heighten our image.
Requires capital which could hold been used to develop other countries, e.g. health care. Thus the demand for the S $ 2Abillion Tourist Development Fund, of which a part of it was used for such candidacies ( merchandise development ) . The intent of this Fund is as follows:
( a ) Infrastructure Development: Developing critical substructure to back up touristry growing
( B ) Capability Development: Enhancing the capableness of Singapore-based travel and touristry participants every bit good as pulling universe category travel and touristry concerns and organisations to put up in Singapore
( degree Celsius ) Anchoring Iconic/Major Events: Attracting iconic or mega events that will foreground Singapore as a premier finish for Leisure, Business and Services client sections
( vitamin D ) Merchandise Development: Developing strategic touristry merchandises
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Changing Percepts and Images
Singapore ‘s tourer attractive forces are turning older and losing entreaty ; therefore the demand for makeovers. After Jurong Bird park ‘s S $ 10Amillion makeover, visitant Numberss rose by 11 %[ 4 ]. Therefore, STB has allocated capital, through enterprises like BOOST[ 5 ]/Tourism Development Fund[ 6 ], of which a part of the financess are used to upgrade these tourer attractive forces.
This alternate purposes to increase the satisfaction degree of tourers here such that they will be more likely to do repetition visits or utilize recommend Singapore as a finish ( viva-voce ) .
Ensures that our attractive forces are invariably renewed, to heighten their entreaty to foreign tourers. These upgraded attractive forces can besides profit locals who visit these topographic points and better their satisfaction degree.
MICE ( Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions ) touristry is one of the fastest turning sectors of the planetary touristry industry today. It involves states join forcesing with event organisers to keep their international events here. Through these events, more than 25 % of visitants to Singapore were attracted due to MICE touristry.
Singapore organises around 6000 of such events every twelvemonth[ 7 ], such as the 2009 APEC ( Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation ) Summit and the 2007 World Bank International Monetary Fund meeting.
Raises Singapore ‘s profile in the universe, because these concern travelers would be exposed to the Singapore civilization and therefore would be more cognizant of our state.
Generates gross for the touristry industry and related service suppliers. The Singapore Tourism Board estimates that by 2015, MICE touristry will lend a important 35 % of touristry gross.[ 8 ]
Exhibition infinite is required for these concern events. Capital invested by the organizers to engage the needed work force and maintain and run these event infinites is diverted from local development utilizations. In the instance of a letup, the exhibition infinite is besides wasted.
Need for options:
We see that there was a demand for options because Singapore can non let our touristry industry to flag, due to the economical importance of our touristry industry, as established earlier. However, the effectivity of the convention, advertisement, is limited. The publicity runs conducted by STB purpose to alter favorably the tourer ‘s perceptual experience of Singapore as a tourer finish such that the person will be more likely to pick Singpore as a finish of pick. However, it was shown that merely about advertisement through the mass media merely brings in approximately 60 % of tourers. Therefore there was a demand to utilize other options to supplement the convention.
We see that the alternate methods have in fact rejuvenated Singapore ‘s touristry industry such that we are come oning along paths A or B on Diagram 1, because we see that visitant reachings have started on an upward tendency since 2003 and have been go oning on this tendency, which indicates that these options have been successful.
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Another manner from which we will travel on to farther measure the degree of success with mention to other lending factors in our Undertaking would be from the point of position of the assorted stakeholders in Singapore ‘s touristry industry, by measuring the impact of an increased figure of tourers to Singapore on the stakeholders, to acquire a more complete position of the impact of these options.
By analyzing the benefits of advancing Singapore ‘s touristry industry to the assorted stakeholders, we see that the publicity of touristry industry in Singapore is besides similar to the publicity of Literature to Singapore ‘s young persons.
Benefits to Stakeholder
Tourists benefit from the convenience of circuit bundles in the SEA part, because of the easiness of which they can travel from one finish to another.
Furthermore, the improved touristry services will guarantee that tourers enjoy their stay more, guaranting in a higher degree of satisfaction for them.
Locals will be able to bask the upgraded installations, the consequence of touristry greening.
These tourer attractive forces will besides hike employment in Singapore, because of the demand to engage Singaporeans to run these attractive forces, which would assist to cut down the unemployment rate in Singapore.
Furthermore, when there is an increasing figure of tourers sing Singapore, the greater involvement by foreign visitants in Singapore ‘s local civilization will promote locals to be proud of this local civilization of theirs, and experience more inclined to protect it,
A better executing tourer industry would bring forth more gross for the touristry industry in Singapore.
Service Providers ( e.g. hotels )
When the tourer volume is increased, this benefits all the suppliers of subordinate services, such as hotels, because there will be a rise in the figure of tourers necessitating housing.
2nd state of affairs which can be considered in a similar manner:
2nd state of affairs: Promoting young person ‘s involvement in English Literature ( Poetry, Prose and Theatrical surveies )
Conventional manner to advance literature:
1. Humanistic disciplines trips
Humanistic disciplines trips are organized by secondary schools in Singapore for pupils.
These abroad trips conducted during the school vacations, present pupils with the chance to see topographic points like United Kingdom, which is one of the chief beginnings of English Literature. As the cost of the fieldtrip is partly subsidized by schools carry oning them, pupils are to a great extent encouraged to fall in in these larning journeys.
The UK Literature trip is frequently conducted with the purpose to:
Supply an chance for a selected group of pupils to be exposed to UK ‘s rich literacy and cultural heritage
Enhance pupils ‘ apprehension of literacy genres and critical analysis accomplishments through practical unfavorable judgment and authorship exercisings
Learn independency and leading accomplishments as pupils are endeavored to look after themselves and one another over the full trip
Allow pupils to hold a first-hand experience and further apprehension of the lives of assorted celebrated dramatists such as William Shakespeare every bit good have sing renowned dramas in celebrated theaters.
Students frequently have to finish a undertaking during or after a trip, which could be in the signifier of a presentation of their experiences there or more literature-based assignments such as composing a verse form, inspired from what they see.
As there is no right or incorrect replies in literature, pupils have the freedom to exert their creativeness – in contrast to the strict and stiff course of study of other topics.
This can trip an involvement in literature among pupils.
However, the figure of topographic points available for such trips frequently limited to less than 50 people and therefore merely a little proportion of the cohort will be able to go to it. Furthermore, an 8 twenty-four hours trip will be a pupil approximately SGD $ 3000 after subsidy, which may discourage pupils from subscribing up for the trip. A big proportion of the pupil population will non be able to take portion in this enriching journey.
2. Integration of play into the lower secondary course of study
Drama as mandatory faculty in course of study
-Many secondary schools in Singapore integrated play as a compulsory faculty in lower secondary as portion of the instruction for literature. Outside trainers ( normally attached to theatre companies ) are frequently employed to run workshops for the pupils. Students have to move out parts of a drama in forepart of an audience in groups, in which they are graded for the concluding merchandise every bit good as the procedure of fixing for it. They have to carry through the different functions required in the readying of a drama such the manager and the histrions, with the aid of a instructor or trainer for counsel. This serves to:
Spur pupils ‘ imaginativeness, as they may be required to improvize and compose their ain version of the dramas.
Allow pupils to derive a greater penetration into the drama they are moving every bit good as into play as pupils will hold an in-depth apprehension of the drama before they are able to move it out
Improve teamwork and leading accomplishments as pupil have to work in groups and settle jobs that may happen by themselves
Construct up assurance
Promote literature as a merriment topic that is non merely bound to the schoolroom and books
-Inter-class Drama Competition can be carried out in lower secondary that allows pupils to take up specific functions of characters in the literature drama and move it out in forepart of an audience. This builds assurance in pupils every bit good as to derive a better apprehension of characters in the novel and able to analyze the text better. This builds involvement in lower secondary pupils as they get to see dramatisation of characters in the drama and learning literature through a merriment and prosecuting manner.
-Literature Den Competition can be carried out in lower secondary, with the purpose of adorning the schoolroom harmonizing to a subject given. Themes include names of poets ( e.g. Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath ) or a celebrated quotation mark from a literature text. This enables us to acquire to cognize more about celebrated poets or quotation marks and it creates a new acquisition environment and raise consciousness of celebrated poets and quotation marks of the yesteryear.
-Literature Broadcast Competition can be carried out for literature dramas as pupils take up a function of a character in the drama and convey feelings and messages of characters through the broadcast. This encourages pupils to be involved in broadcast medium and besides to set themselves in the places of the character and this AIDSs character analysis and hence builds up involvement in the topic.
Our alternate attacks for the 1st state of affairs where touristry is promoted and aliens are attracted to see Singapore to come to see and research our local civilization in bend helps in advancing our civilization and maintaining our heritage alive.
This is similar to our options to advance Literature ( 2nd state of affairs ) as by promoting pupils to demo an involvement and larn more about the plants of art that gaining control niceties of people ‘s lives ( foreign and local civilization ) , we are besides assisting to advance the civilization as expressed in Literary texts.
More significantly, we see that similar options can be efficaciously used in these similar state of affairss, because the effectivity of these steps can be seen through an rating of the instance survey, and because our aims for both state of affairss and the constructs behind the options are similar, this is an appropriate comparing. For our instance survey, the aim of utilizing these options was to pull more tourers to Singapore, which is similar to the aim of our application, which is to pull more local lower secondary school pupils to be interested in Literature.
Furthermore, the constructs behind the several alternate attacks of altering perceptual experience and images and coactions are similar for both the instance survey and the application. Since these options were successful for the former, this shows that we can follow similar steps for the latter to successfully accomplish our aims.
Why we need to see options[ 9 ]?
Target Group: Lower Secondary pupils
Aim: To pull more Lower Secondary pupils to show an involvement in Literature
In May 1995, an article in the Straits Times suggested a diminution in literature registration for “ O ” degree surveies in Singapore.
A turning tendency, it was reported, was for schools, required by the Ministry of Education to offer literature as a compulsory topic for the first two old ages of secondary school, to offer the topic as an option merely for Secondary 3 or 4 pupils. Even though one of the purposes of doing pupils study literature in lower secondary is to let pupils to detect the joy of literature, most pupils do non take up literature as a “ O ” degree topic as it seen to be a harder topic to hit good in.
Hence in order to advance literature and promote more pupils to take up literature as an examinable topic in upper secondary every bit good as to better their linguistic communication and higher-order thought accomplishments, the sort of originative or critical thought necessary for Singapore ‘s hereafter as an economically developed state, our group will wish to research options to advance literature among pupils in Singapore.
Alternate 1: “ Makeover of Literature ” A
Literature is the Hagiographas in which look and signifier, in connexion with thoughts of lasting and cosmopolitan involvement, are characteristic or indispensable characteristics, as poesy, novels, history, life, and essays.
Literature was seen as a depository of humanistic and religious values which might defy the pragmatism and increasing philistinism of mundane Singaporean life.
Wayss to advance literature in Singapore: A
Making Literature Mainstream
Advertise and increase the figure of picks of books to take from so as to provide more to involvements of assorted literature partisans who have involvements in different genres e.g. horror.
Ad runs can be held to alter the perceptual experience of Literature to youths in Singapore by demoing them that Literature is really non tiring as many might believe through agencies ( This is similar to the alternate attack for our 1st state of affairs where attractive forces are given makeovers to heighten their ocular entreaty to tourers ) such as new media.
Puting up an online forum e.g. on Facebook where pupils can discourse Literature texts. This forum can be used by anyone, be it those who are interested in Literature or those who are merely looking about. This helps to make a common space/platform for pupils to prosecute in treatments with others sharing the same passion for the topic.
Furthermore, Literature can be promoted as a topic that non merely analyse and examine texts but besides popular movies/television series. This helps in altering the typical perceptual experience of people that Literature is a deadening and irrelevant topic due to its content which focuses on dramas by William Shakespeare whose plants may non be applicable in present society.
Introduce literature grasp hebdomad in schools where tickets to see dramas can be on sale to hopefully pull upon the pupils ‘ wonder of literature or their passion for it to prosecute in theatrical grasp which is an indispensable portion of Literature. By carry oning trips to research the different facets of Literature Studies, pupils will be more interested in the topic as it opens their eyes to the facets and might trip their passion for literature. Schools can besides ask for local/ abroad companies or possibly, the school ‘s play CCA to execute for the school ‘s assembly during literature grasp hebdomad so as to provide to those pupils who are unwilling or unable to watch dramas.
2. Introduce educational games refering to literature so as to raise involvement in the topic and promote more pupils to take it as an examinable topic for national scrutinies. A
An illustration is to modify board games, such as monopoly, and inculcate literature into the game. ‘Chance ‘ and ‘community chest ‘ cards can be replaced with literature quotation marks, texts or devices that may necessitate one to province the beginning of quotation mark, name a character in the book or explicate literary devices severally. These games can be used during lessons so that even if a pupil has no involvement in playing it in the first topographic point, the pupil will hold to play it. This might trip his involvement in literature.
Other games such as tabu or pictionary can besides be modified, such as including quotation marks and devices in the game of tabu and pulling important scenes in a peculiar literature text in the instance of pictionary.
By leting pupils to larn and derive consciousness of literature in a merriment and prosecuting mode, their involvement will be raised and they might see taking up literature as an examinable topic in their secondary and third instruction. A
WOULD THE ALTERNATIVES BE SUCCESSFUL? IF SO, WOULD THE ALTERNATIVES RESULT IN A MORE SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME THAN IF THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD IS ADOPTED?
The result will be successful as launching of runs will raise consciousness and facilitate acquisition of literature surveies among the pupils.
To demo the success of our alternate, we could:
Expression at instance surveies of other runs that were antecedently launched in Singapore. An illustration is The Speak Mandarin Campaign ( e®?a?Ze?e??aS? ) , which is a year-around run that uses promotion and activities in the community to make consciousness and to ease the acquisition of Mandarin. As portion of the run to advance greater usage, the English newspaper The Straits Times publishes day-to-day Mandarin vocabulary lessons, used Television game shows and music public presentations by local dad stars to increase consciousness in young persons. We can hence measure the success and failure of these attacks taken and see these facets while implementing our undertaking as our mark audience is similar. This can be done as it is similar
Interview teachers/ forces from the English Language and Literature Teachers Association ( ELLTAS ) on the importance of fostering thought persons through taking up literature. This purpose of the interview is to help our group in deriving more cognition about the elaborate course of study of Literature surveies in Singapore and specific facets of Literature surveies that are of relevancy to pupils. By deriving this information, our group can better our option for e.g. the alteration of board games to run into the demands of the topic.
Surveies can be carried out to happen out if pupils are willing/ unwilling to choose for literature as an examinable topic and why/why non. Suggestions to increase registration of literature pupils can besides be seek for in the studies.
Purpose: To happen out pupils ‘ current perceptual experiences and apprehension of Literature
Target Group: Secondary school and Junior College Students
Presently, what degree are you analyzing at?
None of the above
If ( a ) , delight skip to Question 3.
Are you studying/Do you plan to analyze Literature as an examinable topic at the ‘A ‘ Levels?
Are you studying/Did you study/Do you plan to Literature as an examinable topic at the ‘O ‘ Levels?
Yes, Pure Literature.
Yes, Literature Elective.
On a graduated table of 1 to 10, delight rate your involvement in Literature. _____
( 1 being wholly disinterested, 10 being highly passionate about )
On a graduated table of 1 to 10, how utile do you believe Literature is? _____
( 1 being wholly useless, 10 being crucially utile )
Make you happen that Literature is of import because of the analytical accomplishments it teaches?
Make you happen that Literature is of import because it is a signifier of civilization and heritage through which old coevalss can go through down their ways of life and beliefs to future coevalss?
Make you happen that Literature is of import because it stimulates the treatment and idea of controversial or problematic issues covered in the text?
In your sentiment, is adequate being done to advance Literature among young persons in Singapore?
If no, do you hold any suggestions on how you feel Literature should be promote among young persons in Singapore?
How supportive would you be of new options to advance Literature to youths in Singapore? For illustration, would you take part in events organized to observe Literature or play games designed with elements of Literature in it?
Alternate 2: “ Collaboration ”
Wayss to advance literature in Singapore:
In our 2nd option, our group proposes that schools tie-up with art administrations and local authors/poets.A
The event, in the signifier of a just, will be held in secondary schools with the mark audience being lower secondary school pupils who are hesitating over their capable combination options. The timeframe of the event will be one twenty-four hours during school course of study, sooner after the end-of-year scrutinies of lower secondary school pupils so that they will hold more free clip due to more flexible timetables after scrutinies. The carnival will include activities go arounding around literature grasp. Besides being able to bask the public presentations, pupils will be given the chances to travel wing to larn more about the humanistic disciplines such as presenting inquiries to the performing artists etc. This construct of supplying a carnival will be new as our group aims to suggest a alone blend of local and foreign literature show windows coupled with dramas and public presentations put up by theatrical companies to be catered for schools ( content will be sooner related to the pupils ‘ coursework ) .A
There will besides be coaction between schools and local writers and poets where they will be invited to put up booths at these carnivals and to offer pupils with relevant replies on inquiries asked regarding Literature. By supplying pupils the context of Literature through the position of the local poets/authors, the pupils will be exposed to a more interesting point of view of the topic. A
The general diminution in literature registration for “ O ” degree surveies in Singapore has provoked a minute of contemplation about the function of literature in Singapore society. Public figures commented on the utility of literature ; school instructors, applied scientists, and physicians wrote letters and Straits Times columnist Ravi Veloo proposed that “ O ” degree literature be made compulsory for all pupils. Therefore ; our option will take to work hand-in-hand with lifting recognition of the importance to advance literature in Singapore. We will be forming this event in schools who are advocates of the point of view of the importance of Literature from the fact that literature can be seen as a depository of humanistic and religious values which might defy the pragmatism and increasing philistinism of mundane Singaporean life. Besides, the publicity of Literature can be seen as encouraging higher-order thought accomplishments, the sort of originative or critical thought necessary for Singapore ‘s hereafter as an economically developed state.
Aside from the chief mark audience of lower secondary school pupils, upper secondary pupils who are interested to heighten their cognition and involvement for Literature are besides encouraged and invited to take portion in the event. A
An illustration of a play studio that can be considered for coaction is Drama Box. Their educational arm, NeNeMa, have conducted synergistic dramas for schools every bit good as workshops specially tailored for pupils, instructors and corporate clients utilizing. Within a short 6-month period in 2004, they have reached more than 5,000 pupils and 400 instructors through their dramas and workshops1.Their popularity among school populations substantiates their professionalism in carry oning dramas. Therefore, Drama Box serves to be a good pick of organisation to near should our group decides to transport out a pilot trial in which the carnival would be held. A
On the other manus, an writer that could be approached for coaction with schools is Mr Tan Swie Hian, who in 1987 and 1998 severally, was awarded the Cultural Medallion in Singapore and won the Marin Sorescu International Poetry Prize in Romania.A
The principle behind this attack is to perchance trip students’A involvement in literature, as in today ‘s society, literature is being overlooked invariably due to the outgrowth of popular civilization. By utilizing this attack, we hope that literature will one time once more go popular with today ‘s youth.A
In order to demo if this attack is successful, we can inquire the authors/poets for the figure of pupils who signed up for their classs and we can give out studies to the pupils to acquire their sentiment about such events which aim to advance literature.A
A restriction is that the authors/poets might non be free to carry on such things such as the authorship classs. In order to get the better of this, we can seek to reach literature instructors who might be willing to make such things due to their strong passion in learning and distributing his/her love for literature to the following coevals.
WOULD THE ALTERNATIVE BE SUCCESSFUL? IF SO, WOULD THIS ALTERNATIVE RESULT IN A MORE SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME THAN IF THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD IS ADOPTED?
The result will be successful as coaction with humanistic disciplines organisation and local authors/poets in forming carnivals perverts from conventional methods of learning which pupils find deadening or uncreative. By broadening the types of learning methods employed, pupils will break appreciate the topic as a whole and be more interested in the topics as rigidness in the course of study is eliminated.
This alternate attack will be more successful than the conventional manner as it caters to a larger group of mark audience. Unlike the Literature trip which merely a little selected group of pupils can be offered the chance, the coaction with local poets/authors caters to more pupils and is larger-scale and more encompassing that the conventional method.
Primary research methodological analysis: Collaborate with local authors/poets to organize interaction Sessionss at schools to advance literature. Conduct study to see what pupils feel about such Sessionss and how the session has changed how they view literature. Conduct interviews with authors/poets to acquire their sentiments on how literature has affected society over the old ages ( or frailty versa ) , how literature can be farther promoted, etc. A