Am Gov executive branch

Am Gov executive branch

Political asylum
Safe haven for those persecuted in their home country
Foreign aid
Economic and military aid to other countries
Regional security alliances
Built on mutual defense treaties
The UN security council
Bears the UNs major responsibility for maintaining international peace
Foreign policy
All of the things we do in relation to other countries
What part of the executive branch does foreign-policy fall under
The department of state
Headed by the Secretary of State
Isolationism
US policy on non-intervention in the affairs of other nations. concentration of efforts in domestic affairs
Internationalism
Proactive approach to dealing with issues of other nations. Concentration on prevention and diplomacy
State department
The executive branch department in charge of foreign-policy
What are diplomats and ambassadors
Official representatives of the US working traveling or living in a foreign nation
Diplomatic immunity
Diplomats cannot be tried under foreign law
National Security Council
Advisers to the president on all security and foreign matters
Central intelligence agency
Executive Agency responsible for foreign intelligence
The department of defense
Executive department handling all military matters
Department of homeland security
Newest department in charge of domestic and foreign threats
What foreign policy did America practice for the first 150 years
Isolationism
What is the Monroe doctrine
Europe stay out of western affairs
What is the good neighbor policy
The US will Protektor and defend its western hemisphere neighbors a.k.a. north and south America
What is the open door policy
New relations and trade with China
What was America’s stance during world war one
Forced into war a.k.a. not and original partner in the war effort
Collective security
Strength in numbers and strong alliances discourage aggressive behaviors
Deterrence
Military strength discourages aggressive behaviors example teddy Roosevelt said walk softly and carry a big stick
Ambassador
Official representative of US appointed by the president to represent the nation and diplomatic affairs. assigned to a country
Passport
Certificate issued by a government to its citizens who travel or live abroad. Entitles it’s holders the privileges of international custom
Bureaucracy
Large complex administrative structure that handles the every day business of an organization
What are the three features of a bureaucracy
Structural hierarchy. Job specialization. Formal rules of operation
What is structural hierarchy
Multi levels of increasing authority. Defined chain of command
What is job specialization
Specific duties at each level. Job titles
What is the definition of formal rules of operation
Identifiable policies and procedures. Processes, decision-making that follow certain guidelines
List the executive division names
Department, bureau, administration, agency, commission, Corporation/authority
department
Title exclusive to cabinet rank agencies
Bureau
Typically a subunit of a department
Administration
General term for governmental organization
Agency
Term to refer to any governmental organization
Commission
Governmental body that regulates business
Corporation/authority
A governmental organization that conducts business like activities
What are most divisions known bye
Acronyms examples NASA FBI CIA
Staff agency
People or groups that operate in a support capacity. Provide assistant to the line agents. Examples: janitors, cooks, secretaries
Line agency
People or groups that perform the actual tasks to which they are assigned. Examples: teachers, counselors, principals
Where is the executive office of the president located
West wing of the White House
What is the executive office
Advisers and assistance to the president. Several agencies
What is the executive office responsible for
Date to day scheduling and information
Who is the executive office headed by
President’s chief of staff
What is the office of management and budget
Budget support and issues
What are the first departments of the executive office to be developed
Department of state, treasury, war
What is the most recent department of the executive office to be developed
Department of homeland security
Independent agencies
Created by Congressional act headed by a person appointed by the president yet not under their direct control
Two reasons why we have independent agencies
They don’t fit neatly into existing departments and to protect agencies from political influences
Independent executive agencies
GSA, NASA, EPA. Perform specific activities of government
Independent regulatory commissions
SEC, FEC. Out of reach of president roles
Succession
Determines who will fill a presidential vacancy
Line of presidential succession
Vice President, speaker of the house, senate pro tempore, Secretary of State, all other cabinet secretaries in order of establishment
What is the succession process determined by
Presidential succession act of 1947
Presidential candidate announcement
Candidates must announce before they collect contributions
What are the two types of presidential primaries and caucuses
State run elections held in months before the general election, and partisan; political party based elections (r vs r) (d vs d)
Presidential political party nomination
National party convention decides top choice. Nominee. Each party has a presidential and vice presidential nominee
How is the president elected
Not by popular vote.
What is each states electoral college vote equal to
The number of representatives and senators it has in Congress
Three flaws in the electoral college system
Popular vote and electoral vote can be different. It is an elitist, antiquated system that is no longer needed. The winner – takes – all system used in some states is unfair
What does the constitution say about executive power
Executive power shall be vested in the president of the United States
For reasons for presidential power expansion
Increased geographic size and population, increased economic influence, technological change: mass media/communications, presidential personalities: periods of crisis
Stewardship view
Teddy Roosevelt: the president has any power not specifically prohibited by the constitution
Restricted view
Taft: the president can exercise no power that is not written in the Constitution or granted by Congress
Executory power
The power to implement enforce and carry out laws. The most important aspect of the executive branch
Ordinance power
The power to create and administer executive agencies. This includes the power to issue executive orders: directives
Appointment power
The power to select individuals for certain positions. Must be confirmed by Senate vote to take affect
Removal power
The power to remove executive branch appointees. Does not include removal of supreme court justices
As chief diplomat the president has the power to
Negotiate treaties, enter into executive agreements, recognize foreign diplomats
Negotiate treaties
Establish formal agreements with one or more foreign nations. All treaties must get senate consent by two thirds vote. Treaties have the same legal standing as laws
Enter into executive agreements
An agreement between the president and the head of a foreign government. These agreements do not require Senate consent
Recognize foreign diplomats
Acknowledgement of another nation by sending ambassadors/receiving foreign diplomats. Recognition does not imply approval of that nation. Persona non grata: an unwelcome person
As commander in chief the president has the ability to
Making undeclared war, congressional resolutions, take other military actions, war Powers resolution
Making undeclared war
Presidents have used the armed forces abroad without declaration of war many times. 100+
Congressional resolutions
Congress has authorized military force by joint resolution over eight times since World War II
Take other military actions
The president has also used executive privilege to handle specific critical situations. Example: Korea, Grenada, Panama, Kosovo, etc.
War Powers resolution of 1973
Requires that the president may commit American military forces to combat only if Congress has made a declaration of war, Congress has authorized the military action through the passage of a congressional resolution, the US or its armed forces have been attacked
The legislative powers of the president include
Setting the congressional tone/agenda, recommending legislation, legislation options and the veto power, line item veto, signing statements
Setting the congressional tone/agenda
State of the union: presidential address/priorities. Preparing the budget: spending priorities
Recommending legislation
The president can strongly encourage Congress to act. The president may not introduce legislation in Congress
Legislation options and the veto power
Sign: bill becomes law. Not signed: bill becomes law after 10 days in session. Veto: rejected Bill, returned to Congress (2/3 override). Pocket veto: not signed; Congress adjourns within 10 days, the bill dies
Line item veto
What to give the president the power to veto only specific sections of a bill rather than the whole measure. Rider; an attachment to an existing bill or resolution. Earmarks; moneys appropriated for specific purpose. The Supreme Court determined this to be unconstitutional
Signing statements
Short statements of intent on application or interpretation. Used primarily to challenge constitutional matters.
The judicial powers of the president include
Reprieves, pardons, amnesty, commutations
Reprieves
Postponement of the execution of a sentence
Pardons
Legal forgiveness of a crime. Includes accusations of a crime. The power to pardon may not be applied to impeachments
Amnesty
A blanket pardon extended to an entire group or category of law violators. Example: immigration, polygamy, draft aviators A blanket pardon extended to an entire group or category of law violators. Example: immigration, polygamy, draft evaders
Commutations
The power to reduce a fine or length of a sentence
President age
35
Citizenship for president
Natural born citizen
US residency for president
Lived in the US for at least 14 years
Maximum term length for president
10 years
Annual salary for president
400,000 a year
Annual expenses for president
50,000 a year
Chief of state
Ceremonial head of government
Chief executive
Sees that the nations laws are carried out
Chief administrator
Heads the federal bureaucracy
Chief diplomat
Determines foreign-policy
Commander in chief
Commands the Armed Forces
Chief legislator
Proposes laws to Congress
Chief of party
Leads his or her political party
Chief citizen
Represents the American people
What is the plan that presidents in the late 20th century have suggested for changing the presidential term of office
One six-year term or an unlimited number of four-year terms
How does the constitution provide for situations in which the president is disabled
Sections 3 and four of the 25th amendment. The vice president will act if the current president informs Congress in writing or the vice president and the cabinet inform Congress
What’s duties are given to the vice President by the constitution
Preside over senate and help decide question of presidential disability
How are vice president’s usually selected
Balance the ticket
How can a vacancy in the vice presidency be filled
President nominates a vice president you shall take office on majority vote of both houses
A president his duties have been temporarily assumed by the vice president may reclaim his or her office bye
Informing Congress that he or she is no longer disabled provided the Vice President and a majority of the cabinet do not challenge his or her decision
Most of the framers were opposed to the proposal that the president to be selected by
Congress
The framers envisioned the ________ as A group of well-informed the citizens who could choose the best person for the presidency
Electoral college
In 1800 presidential electors were chosen by their
Political party
The _____ separated presidential and vice presidential elections
12th amendment
Before 1804 each _______ cast two votes for the president
Presidential elector
When a deciding how a president should be elected the framers considered all of the following plans
Popular election, electoral college, election by Congress
Most of the framers opposed choosing the president by popular vote because they
Did not think voters in such a large country would be able to learn a Knouff about the candidates to make an informed decision
If the presidential vote in the electoral college results in a tie
A runoff election is held in the electoral college
In the election of 1800 the newly formed political parties nominated not only ______ but _________, Who were pledged to vote for their partys ticket
Presidential and vice presidential candidates, presidential electors
The election of 1800 resulted in
A tie between Jefferson and Burr
Article 2 is known as
The executive article because it establishes the presidency
Article 2 establishes the following presidential powers
Command Armed Forces, make treaties, approve/Veto acts of Congress, send/receive diplomatic representatives, grant pardons/reprieves, take care that the laws be faithfully executed
Beginning at the Philadelphia convention of 1787 there has been a struggle between those who
Want a weak/subordinate and those who want a stronger/independent/co-equal executive branch
Throughout American history those who
Want a stronger presidency have usually prevailed
The frequent need for ___________ has also strengthened presidential power
Extraordinary and decisive action in emergency times
Critics of a strong presidential power call a strong presidency an
Imperial presidency
Mass media
Forms of communication including printed publications, radio, TV, Internet
Congress has delegated a great deal of authority to the president because
Congress has time to provide only general outlines for public policy
As American society has become more complex the American people have
Looked to the federal government into the president for leadership
Gives the president the power to appoint ambassadors
Constitution
Must confirm most of the presidents appointments
Senate
A presidential directive is called
Executive order
The president must take the ______ on the day he takes office
Oath of office
The _______ has ruled that the presidents _________ May be limited
Supreme Court, removal power
It’s a president does not agree with a federal law, he or she
Must carry it out, but has some leeway and how strongly he or she enforces it
The presidents ordinance power comes from
The constitution and Congress
The rule of senatorial courtesy means that
Before appointing an official who will serve any state, the president must gain the approval of his or her partys senators from that state
Of the federal civilian employees the president of Points
Only a handful
Under Humphreys executor versus United States, the president
Cannot remove a member of an independent agency except on the grounds of incompetence or malfeasance
Presidents Tyler and McKinley encourage Congress to pass
A joint resolution to annex territory after the approval of the treaty had been defeated in the Senate
An executive agreement is
A pact between the president and the head of a foreign state or between their submates
One difference between an executive agreement and a treaty is
Executive agreements do not require Senate consent
The most serious diplomatic rebuke one nation may give a Nother is
With drawl of recognition
The war Powers resolution in 1973 was passed in response to
The Vietnam war
The constitutionality of the war Powers resolution remains
In dispute
When Nixon excepted the pardon extended by Ford it was understood that
He was admitting guilt
A pocket veto is used only
At the end of a congressional session
In Clinton versus New York City the Supreme Court struck down the presidents
Authority to use the line item veto