America: A Narrative History – 9th Edition Chapter 6

Robert Morris
A financer of the revolution. First Treasurer of the U.S. Signed the Constitution and the Dec. of Indep.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Northwest Ordinance
1787 prohibited slavery in the Ohio River territory
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Shay’s Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
The Federalist
A series of eighty-five political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Anti-federalists
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution’s powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Federalists
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
James Madison
“Father of the Constitution”. His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
Virginia Plan
“Large state” proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress

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