American History 1 Test 1

Prince Henry the Navigator
-Prince of Portugal
-gave financial support to explorers
Vasco de Gama
-Portugese sailor
-first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Christopher Columbus
-Italian navigator
-discovered the New World in 1492
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Juan de Onate
-Spanish explorer and conquistador
-founder of the first Spanish settlement in New Mexico
Pope
-tried to organize an uprising to drive the Spanish from the colony and restore the Natives’ traditional autonomy
Walter Raleigh
-founded Roanoke
John Smith
-English explorer
-helped found Jamestown
-Pocahontas’ lover
Powhatan
-Native American chief
-Pocahontas’ father
– ____ Confederacy
Nathaniel Bacon
-Governor Berkley’s cousin
-started a rebellion
-worked with yeomen farmers, indentured servants, and slaves
-burned Jamestown to the ground
John Winthrop
-governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony
-Puritan
-“City on a Hill” = better society in the NW
Roger Williams
-wanted separation of church and state
-banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony
-founded the colony of Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson
-disagreed with the Puritan Church
-was banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony
-joined Rhode Island colony
King Phillip
-chief of the Wompanowogs
-led a series of battles against the colonists in New Hampshire
William Penn
-founded Pennsylvania so his people could live free from religious persecution
-Quaker
James Edward Oglethorpe
-founded Georgia
-wanted the poor people to have better lives
John Punch
-black indentured servant
-worked on a tobacco farm
-tried to escape
-sentence was enslavement for life
Frances Driggers
-won her case against her master, who wrongfully impregnated her
-was free until she became impoverished
-bound herself to another household
John Locke
-English philosopher
-thought people should criticize their government
-thought people had the natural right to “life, liberty, and property”
Jonathan Edwards
-preacher during The Great Awakening
-spoke of fire and brimstone, how sinners go to Hell
– wrote “Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God”
Benjamin Franklin
-led the Albany Congress
-helped navigate the French support for the American Revolution
George Washington
-1st president
-commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution
William Pitt
-Prime Minister of England
-won the French and Indian War
-increased British troops and military supplies in the colonies -known as the “Great Commoner”
Samuel Adams
-founder of the Sons of Liberty
-signed the Declaration of Independence
-John Adams’ cousin
The Atlantic World
-Western Europe, West Africa, and America
-creation began mid-1400s
-trade networks
Columbian Exchange
-biological exchange between Europe, Africa, and the Americas
-animals, plants, disease
Characteristics of Spanish Colonization
-Nuevo Mexico
-Spanish conquistadores conquered natives in the Americas
-encomienda system
-caste system based on race
-Christianization/Catholicization
-exportation of resources
Encomienda System
-the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area
Miscegenation
-the interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types
Characteristics of English Colonization
-mercantilism
-joint stock companies
-the Virginia Colony
–“Starving Time”
Mercantilism
-unfree trade, state regulated industry and commerce
–colonies supplised raw materials
–mother country made the products
–products sold to colonies for profit
Joint Stock Companies
-private corporations in which merchants pool their money and resources for investment purposes
–capital obtained by selling stock
–trade routes and new markets
–usually operated independently from government
Changes in Virginia after the “Starving Time”
-shift toward agriculture and unfree labor
-Headright system (land distribution)
-settlers have “rights of Englishmen”
-more English women and Africans come
-huge tobacco boom
Indentured Servant
-person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to America
Bacon’s Rebellion
-Virginia’s wealthy planters refused to improve interior lands
-unhappy farmers took up arms against natives
-rebels burn Jamestown to the ground
-most rebels pardoned, 23 hanged
Life in New England
-21,000 people came in the Great Migration
-population increased
-90% of all children reached adulthood
-wealthy families dominated the colonies
Woman in New England
-most were hardworking farm wives
– domesticity
-pretty much did everything on the farm while taking care of children
-homebound
-had legal disadvantages
–could not own land
Witches in New England
-thought to have signed a contract with Satan
-the accused were mostly the assertive, independent, or promiscuous
-Salem Witch Trials
–20 people were executed, 150 put in jail
–3/4 were women
Pennsylvannia’s Early Legal System
Slaves of New Netherland
-Atlantic creoles
1662 Virginia Slave Law
-determined whether someone was a slave or not by the condition of the mother
South Carolina’s Economy
-based on unfree labor
-slavery/plantation system came from the Caribbean
The Stono Rebellion
-some slaves broke into a gun store
-tried to escape to Florida
-more slaves join on the way
-were finally caught
-many were shot/decapitated to be made an example of
The First Great Awakening
-period of heightened religious activity in the colonies
Imperial Rivalries
-the clash between Britain and France for control in North America
-caused the French and Indian War
-Treaty of Paris
Consequences of the French and Indian War
-France had to surrender all major NW colonies to Britain and Spain
British Nationalism after the French and Indian War
-imperial oppression/imperial reform began
-thought colonists should help pay for the costs of the war
-The Coercive Acts
The Boston Massacre
-colonists and redcoats taunted each other
-British shots were fired, killed 5 colonists
The Sons of Liberty
-organization of men in Boston that protested the Stamp Act by inflicting terror upon stamp agents and burning stamps
First Continental Congress
-delegates from all colonies except Georgia met to discuss problems with Britain and to promote independence
-sought to repeal Coercive Acts
-adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Currency Act, Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Boston Port Act
-Coercive Acts
The Quebec Act
-prohibited local assembly
-made Catholicism the official religion
-gave control of the Ohio Valley
Creation of Race in the Colonial Americas
-caste system based on race
-slaves were the lowest, wealthy white men were the highest
Native American Resistance Colonization
-either peaceful (treaties, trading, etc.) or violent (wars, attacks, etc.).
-neither was ultimately successful as most native peoples lost their land
DNN: Atlantic creoles, half freedom, no interracial couples
V: slowly losing more rights, becoming harder to become free, if mother was a slave then child was too
SC: slaves were property and not people, task system, system came from the Caribbean
Comparison of Slavery in Dutch New Netherland, Virginia, and South Carolina

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