American History chapter 24

American History chapter 24

Versailles Treaty
the 1919 peace treaty at the end of WWI which established new nations, borders, and war reparations; caused anger and resentment with the german people because they were blamed for the war and responsible for paying it all back. they also had to give up all colonies
Totalitarianism
a government that tries to exert complete control over its citizens. Individuals have no rights, and the government suppresses all opposition.
Mein Kampf
Hitler’s book meaning “My Struggle” that told his basic beliefs of Nazism: 1) based on extreme nationalism–Hitler wanted to unite all German-speaking countries into the great German empire. 2) racial purification–Aryans should rule, inferior races should serve. 3) National expansion–more living space needed and “to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth”
Joseph Stalin
successor of Vladimir I. Lenin; wanted to create a model communist state by making agricultural and industrial growth the prime economic goals. He abolished all privately owned farms and replaced them with collectives; he was responsible for millions of deaths of people who opposed him.
Aryan race
blond-haired, blue-eyed “master race” that was supposed to rule the world as opposed to the “inferior races” such as jews, slavs, and all non-whites who were fit to serve Aryans.
Third Reich
third German empire, which would include extreme expansion and would last 1000 years
Fascism
political belief that stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of individuals. Power must rest with single strong leader and a small group of devoted party members.
Benito Mussolini
great speaker who established a fascist totalitarian state in Italy who used fears of economic collapse and communism to convince people to believe in him. Il Duce was his nickname
Neutrality Acts
acts passed by congress in 1935 that outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war, and extended the ban on arms sales and loans to nations engaged in civil wars.
Il Duce
literally means “the leader” and was used to describe Mussolini during his rule in Italy.
Spanish Civil War
rebellion led by Francisco Franco against spanish republic; Americans intervened; however germany and italy sent troops, weapons, materials, etc. over to help–> franco won–> fascist state w/him as fascist dictator.
Black Shirts
followers of Mussolini that wore black uniforms as they marched to Rome with him.
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
set of American troops that went to Spain during the Spanish Civil war
Nazism
German brand of Fascism, which was based on extreme nationalism and racism.
Francisco Franco
leader of rebellion against Spanish republic and eventual leader of fascist Spain after the Spanish Civil War
Adolph Hitler
leader of the Nazi party, also called der fuhrer, who established the Third Reich (third german empire)
Anschluss
union with Austria after German troops marched in unopposed Mar. 12, 1938
Blitzkrieg
newest German military strategy which means Lightning war; take the enemy by surprise and quickly crush all opposition with overwhelming force.
Sudetenland
part of Czechoslovakia with about 3 million Germans that Hitler wanted to annex, along with Czechoslovakia itself
Phony War
Phony War–France and Britain stared at Germany; Apr. 9, 1940: Hitler launched attack on Denmark and Norway then Belgium and Luxembourg–> all to strike Britain
Neville Chamberlain
Prime minister of Britain that appeased to Hitler’s annexation of Czechoslovakia
Winston Churchill
political rival of Neville Chamberlain who disagreed with appeasement and Munich Agreement; knew Hitler would not stop annexing land.
Appeasement
giving up principles to pacify aggressors
Charles DeGaulle
French general who fled to england where he set up government-in-exile after the fall of France
Munich Pact
turned Sudetenland over to Germany without single shot being fired b/c Hitler lied about this land being his “last territorial demand”
Battle of Britain
germany bombed britain to gain control of skies by destroying RAF; RAF fought back by destroying 185 german planes, leading to Hitler calling off invasion.
Non-Aggression Pact
signed by Germany and Soviet Union agreeing that neither side would attack the other
Luftwaffe
german air force
R.A.F.
Royal Air Force
Holocaust
the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, most of whom were Jews
Concentration Camp
labor camps
Schutzstaffle (SS)
rounded up Jews and shot them on the spot
Auschwitz
major death camp in Hitler’s “final solution”
Kristallnacht
“night of broken glass” where Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues across Germany.
Genocide
deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population
Elie Wiesel
girl who entered Auschwitz at age 14 who described it as the sun setting forever
Scapegoat
person/people who are blamed for the problems of a group of people, ex: jews were the scapegoat for Germans’ economic and political problems after WWI
“Final Solution”
Hitler’s desire to rid Europe of Jews and other races that were lesser than Aryans
Axis Powers
Germany, Japan, and Italy
Atlantic Charter
agreement b/w roosevelt and churchill for collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, freedom of seas
Selective Training and Service Act
16 million men, ages 21 to 35 were drafted
Allied Powers
nations that fought Axis powers
The Great Arsenal of Democracy
Roosevelt’s nickname for the United States during the beginning of WWII b/c they had to defeat Axis threat by sending supplies to countries fighting them
Hideki Tojo
prime minister of Japan; wanted attack on Pearl Harbor
Lend-Lease Act
U.S. policy of lending/leasing weapons to Allied powers against Axis powers; violated original Neutrality acts (which were changed for this reason)
U-Boats
German submarines that attacked ships in the Atlantic Ocean
December 7, 1941
the day that Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
Wolf Packs
large packs of German U-Boats that would attack American carriers or other ships in the Atlantic ocean
“Day of Infamy!”
pearl harbor–> what led U.S. to declare war on Japan