American History Chapters 1-7

salutary neglect
a term coined by british statesman edmund burke regarding the english colonies; idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much british interference
proclamation of 1763
a proclamation from the british government which forbade british colonists from settling west of the appalacian mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
french and Indian war
was a war fought by french and english on american soil over control of the ohio river valley– english defeated french in1763. historical significance: established england as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward england for the worse
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sam adams
a member of the sons of liberty who started the committee of correspondence to stir public support for american independence. member of the first and second continental congress, signed the declaration of independence, and served as governor of massachusetts. he was very supportive of a revolution.
poniacts rebellion
1763 – an indian uprising after the french and indian war, led by an ottowa chief named pontiac. they opposed british expansion into the western ohio valley and began destroying british forts in the area. the attacks ended when pontiac was killed.
popular sovereignty
the concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. people express themselves through voting and free participation in government
valley forge
place where washington’s army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, steuben comes and trains troops
townshend acts
laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
roger sherman
american revolutionary leader and signer of the declaration of independence and the articles of confederation and the united states constitution (1721-1793). he helped draft the great compromise that determined how states would be represented in congress.
edmund randolph
attorney general
alien and sedition act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government.
Marbury v Madison
the 1803 case in which chief justice john marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the supreme court to determine the meaning of the u.s. constitution. the decision established the court’s power of judicial review over acts of congress, (the judiciary act of 1789).
treaty of ghent
treaty that ended the war of 1812
prosser’s rebellion
failed slave rebellion in which a slave preacher tried to organize a group of a thousand slaves to revolt
Ft.McHenry
baltimore, site of a key battle in the war of 1812, about which the star spangled banner was written
judicial review
the right of the supreme court to determine if a law violates the constitution
delegated powers
powers specifically given to the federal government by the us constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
tenskwatawa
the prophet; inspired a religious revival that spread through many tribes and united them; killed by harrison at battle of tippecanoe
war hawk
a member of congress who wanted war with britain before the war of 1812
robert fulton
american inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
revivals
emotional gatherings where people came together to hear sermons and declare their faith
impressments
the practice of forcing people into service. british ships would stop american vessels and impress american sailors. this led to americans becoming extremely angry and eager for war with britain.
albany plan of union
plan proposed by benjamin franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the crown
olive branch petition
still pledge loyalty to king george iii but are still asking britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and british troops out of the colonies; george 3 didn’t want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion
first congressional congress
meeting of representatives from every colong except georgia held in philadelphia in 1774 to discuss actions to take in response to the intolerable acts
intolerable acts
a series of laws set up by parliament to punish massachusetts for its protests against the british
social contract
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
new jersey plan
opposite of the virginia plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. this created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn’t want to be bullied by larger states.
james madison
strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the constitution, leads nation through war of 1812
great compromise
compromise made by constitutional convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
XYZ affair
incident in which french agents demanded a bribe and loan from the u.s. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that french privateers would no longer attack american ships; led to an undeclared war between u.s. and france
vaginia and kentucky resolutions
written anonymously by jefferson and madison in response to the alien and sedition acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
misouri compromise
an agreement that added missouri as a slave state and maine as a slave free state. kept the balane plus banned slavery in northern loisiana territory
tecumseh
a famous chief of the shawnee who tried to unite indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
embargo of 1807
law that forbade american ships from sailing to foreign ports and closed american ports to british ships
concurrent powers
powers that the constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes.
daniel boone
famous early pioneer who cleared wilderness road, a new route to the west. wilderness road became the main route used to cross the appalachian mountains
noah webster
united states lexicographer (1758-1843), american writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. he also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the american language.
richard allen
an african american preacher who helped start the free african society and the african methodist episcopal church
evangelical
of or pertaining to or in keeping with the christian gospel especially as in the first 4 books of the new testament
battle of tippecanoe
1811 tecumseh and the prophet attack, but general harrison crushes them in this battle ends tecumseh’s attempt to unite all tribes in mississippi.
assimilation
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
declaratory act
act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the stamp act. stated that parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
common sense
a pamphlet written by thomas paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many american colonists of the need to break away from britain
ft. necessity
the fort which george washington built in the ohio valley to protect the english from the french.
virginia plan
virginia delegate james madison’s plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in congress based on their population
elastic clause
the part of the constitution that permits congress to make any laws “necessary and proper” to carrying out its powers
three fifths compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state’s representatives in congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
shay’s Rebellion
was led by daniel shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had just worked so hard to get rid of
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the united states president and vice-president
legislative branch
the branch of government that makes the laws.
executive branch
the branch of the united states government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
judicial branch
the branch of government that interprets laws
jay treaty
was made up by john jay. it said that britain was to pay for americans ships that were seized in 1793. it said that americans had to pay british merchants debts owed from before the revolution and britain had agreed to remove their troops from the ohio valley
northwest ordinance 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood.
treaty of greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
john marshall
United States jurist (supreme court)
whiskey rebellion
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington’s quick response showed the government’s strength and mercy
war of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
reserved powers
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
battle of thames
1813 British defeat by General William Henry Harrison’s army
pickney treaty
1795 – Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
samuel slater
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine.
john ross
Cherokee chief who went to court in Georgia to protect the Cherokees’ right to own their own land when the government gave the land to new settlers
cumberland gap
a pass through the Cumberland Mountains between Virginia and Kentucky that early settlers used in order to move west
second great awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
precedent
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
enlightment
movement that began in Europe in the late 1600s as people began examining the natural world, society, and government; also called the age of reason
henry clay
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)

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