American History Final Exam Study Guide

American History Final Exam Study Guide

Great Compromise
proposed by Roger Sherman and House of Congress, House of Representatives based on population, Upper House, Senate, solve conflict between VA and NJ plan
Reasons Antifederalists opposed the Constitution
*Weakened the States
*No bill of Rights
*President/King
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
*U.S. government will pay all federal and state debts
*create a national bank
*tax on imports
Republicans and Federalists
Two political parties and their beliefs that developed in the first half of the 1790’s.
French Revolution
called the blood thirsty monster killed 17,000 including King and Queen
George Washington’s Accomplisments
*US had functioning federal government
*economy was improving
*avoided war
*British forced to leave forts in NW Territory, safe for settlement
XYZ Affair
French government demanded the US pay a bribe of $250,000 to not be attacked. Agents in affair were known as X,Y,Z
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson referred to his election as
Laissez-faire
Means that the government should not interfere in the economy
Election of 1800
was decided by House of Representatives
Napolean Bonaparte
French ruler who tried to conquer Europe
Louisiana Territory
brought from France for $15 million
Lewis and Clark’s Expedition Goals:
*make contact with Native Americans
*find a waterway between Mississippi River and Pacific
*report on geography, plants, animals, and natural features
Barbary Pirates
pirates raiding European and American ships, taking property, and enslaving soldiers, and holding them for ransom
Embargo Act
total ban on American ships trading with any foreign country. people turned to smuggling repealed except with Britain and France
War Hawks
members of Congress who called for war with Britain prior to war of 1812
Impressment
practice of seizing sailors on American ships and forcing them to serve in the British army
“Old Ironsiders”
USS Constitution nickname because British artillery fire boured off the ships thick wooden hull
Francis Scott Key
wrote the Star Spangled Banner-national anthem
Era of Good Feeling
period of national unity after the war of 1812
Daniel Webster
spokesperson for NE supported high tariffs as a way of protecting industry
Henry Clay
spokesperson for the West. country needed better roads and canals to transport goods from one region to another
John C. Calhoun
spokesperson for the South. emphasized states rights
American System
proposed by Henry Clay-high tariffs and a federal program of public works
Adams-Onis Treaty
Spain gave FL to US because they couldn’t protect it
Monroe Doctorine
issued a message to Congress that the US would not allow European nations to create American colonies or interfere with free nations of Latin America
Andrew Jackson
President from 1829-1837, said to be tough as a hickory, called the “bank a monster”
“corrupt bargain”
John Adams appointed Henry Clay as secretary of state which was considered the stepping stone to presidency
Sequoyah
Cherokee leader who created their alphabet
Panic of 1837
Martin Van Buren took office when the economy was beginning a severe slump
Industrial Revolution
period when machines took the place of many hand tools
Examples of Harsh working conditions
*poorly lit
*little fresh air
*machines lacked protection causing injury
*long hours
Telegraph
device that used electrical signals to send messages quickly over long distances, invented by Samuel Morse
The Great Hunger
fungus that destroyed a potato chip in Ireland forcing immigrants to flee to the U.S.
Missouri Compromise
proposal by Henry Clay that persuaded Congress to add Maine as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Horace Mann
head of the MA Board of Education who trained teachers, raised salaries, and extended school year
Underground Railroad
network of people who secretly led slaves to the North
Manifest Destiny
extending the nation beyond it’s existing borders from sea to shining sea
Rio Grande
border between US and Mexico
Forty-niners
name given to people who troubled to CA in search of gold
Mormons
members of the church of Jesus Christ of later day saints
Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
South Carolina threatened to secede
William Henry Harrison
elected in 1840 but died a month later due to pneumonia
John Jay
first supreme court justice
“We the people” means
that the Constitution gets its power from the people
1st state to approve the Constitution
Delaware
1st amendment includes
freedom of speech, press, religion
Neutral
not favoring either side of a dispute
smuggling
the act of illegally importing or exporting goods
The Prophet
Tenskwatawa
Nicholas Biddle
Bank president
interchangeable parts
invented by Eli Whitney
Clerrmont
first steamboat
Joseph Smith
founded mormons
Daniel Boone
famous early pioneer
Harriet Tubman
underground railroad conductor
Nat Turner
led famous slave revolt
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Utopia
New Harmony Indiana
Turnpike
tollroad
Ralph Waldo Emerson
trancandentalist
Seneca Falls Convention
women’s rights movement