American History: The Modern Era Since 1865

American History: The Modern Era Since 1865

nationalism
feeling of loyalty and devotion to one’s country, honoring that nation above all others and promoting its culture and interests rather than those of other nations
internal improvements
roads, canals, and other transportation needs inside a nation’s boundaries
turnpike
road barricaded by spiked poles where travelers stop to pay a fee to use the road
toll
fee charged for a privilege such as the use of a means of transportation
ultimatum
a demand that would have serious consquences of ignored
textile
fabric, especially woven or knitted; cloth
closed shop
system where all workers in a particular industry are required to be union members or emplpoyer agrees to hire only union members
cotton gin
a machine that cleans the seeds from cotton fibers
faborite son
presidential candidate supported by the delegates of the candidate’s native state at a national political convention
spoils system
practice of dismissing government job holders affiliated with a defeated party and replacing them with supporters of the winning party
pocket veto
indirect rejection of a legislative bill by the president by retaining the bill unsigned until after Congress adjourns
abolitionist
1800s reformer who worked to end slavery
socialism
economic system in which government partly owns and controls production and sitribution of goods produced.
dark horse
political candidate unexpectedly nominated, usually as a compromise between groups
joint resolution
a resolution passed by both houses of Congress requiring only a simple majority vote
popular sovereignty
principle that the settlers within a federal territory have the power to decide the legality of slavery within that territory
platform
declaration of the principles and policies adopted by a political party or candidate
secession
formal withdrawal from an organization
conscription
compulsory enrollment of people for military service
blockade
to close off something
bounty
money paid to recruit soldiers for military service; payment to encourage an action
greenback
paper money that was not backed by gold or silver, leger-tender notes issued by the United States government
martial law
form of military rule that suspends Bill of Rights guarantees; law administered by teh military in an emergency situation when civilian lawenforcement agencies are not able to maintain order
habeas corpus
legal principle that requires that people who are arrested be brought to court to show why they sould be held; writ inquiring into the lawfulness of retaining a person who is imprisoned or detained in custody
forage
to live off the land
tenant farmer
agricultural worker who rents and farms land from another person and pays the rent either in cash or with a portion of the crop
sharecropper
agricultural worker who cultivates part of another person’s land, receives supplies and equipment from the landowner and, in return, gives the landowner part of the harvest
amnesty
act of a government by which pardon is granted to an individual or groups of persons
mandate
clear expression of the wishes of voters, as shown in elections results
disenfranchise
having had the legal right to vote taken away
impeach
to bring charges of a crime against a federal ofr state public offical with the intent of removing the official from office
segregation
enforced separation of racial groups in schooling, housing ,and other public areas
nomadic
frequent roaming from place to place without a fixed pattern of movement, usually following a food source
maverick
unbranded range animal or cattle, a motherless calf
long drive
cattle run in which a large herd is moved across great distances to a railroad where they are shipped to market
vigilance
committee- organization of citizens who take the law into their own hands for their protection
vaudeville
stage entertainment consisting of various acts
“Wester”
novel, story, or Hollywood motion pictures depicting life in the western United States dividing the latter half of the nineteenth century
meridian
line of longitude; a great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the poles
commodity
economic good, product of agriculture; article of commerce