American History UNIT 1

indentured servants
Voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a specified time in exchange for passage to America. Recieved dues after done.
mercantilism
The government should regulate economic activity to serve the interests national power.
headright
Virgina company awarding 50 acres of land to any colonist who paid for his own or another’s passage.
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House of Burgesses
Only landowners could vote, and the company and its appointed governor retained the right to nullify any measure the body adopted. But its creation established a political precedent that all English colonies would eventually follow.
Tobacco
Virginia substituded tobacco for gold. The spread of tobacco farming produced a dispersed society with few towns and little social unity. It inspired a get-rich-quick attitude and a frenzied scramble for land and labor.
Covenant Chain
The governor of New York formed this alliance in which the imperial ambitions of the English and Indians reinforced one another.
proprietor
holder of property
Society of Friends
Quakers, it created an elected assembly with a broad suffrage, established religious liberty, and divided the proprietors’ investment into 100 shares in the hope of promoting the development of a society of small farmers. William Penn
Puritism
predestination, Calvinists, “pure,” Congregationalists, literacy, no separation of church and state
Congregationalists
Only independent local congregations, they believed, should choose clergymen and determine modes of worship.
Calvinism
predestination, John Calvin’s ideas
The Great Migration
Right after the Massachusetts Bay Company tried to further Puritan cause, 21,000 Puritans came over to New England. They came because they had a desire to escape religious persecution, anxiety about the future of England, and the prospect of economic betterment.
Roger Williams
MA, He insisted that its congregations withdraw from the Church of England and that church and state be separated. The embrace of government, he insisted, corrupted the purity of Christian faith and drew believers into endless religious wars like those that racked Europe.
Anne Hutchinson
She accused ministers of Massachusetts were guilty of faulty preaching for distinguishing “saints” from the damned on the basis of activities such as church attendance and moral behavior rather than an inner state of grace. Persecuted
Antinomianism
a term for putting one’s own judgment or faith above both human law and the teachings of the church
Pequot extermination
Indians in New England lacked a paramount chief. Conflict became unavoidable and the Pequots killed a fur trader. A massacre started after this by Connecticut and Massachusetts. A treaty was signed
The Great Awakening
This reflected existing social tensions, threw into question many forms of authority, and inspired criticism of aspects of colonial society.
Bacon’s Rebellion
Effort to get land for former indentured servants, fought natives, class issue, land vs landless
Republic Liberty
rebulica “the public thing” (common good), republic form of government
Liberal Freedom
Individual rights, John Locke, consent of the governed
Land possession vs ownership
conquering vs settling,
Joint Stock Company
company owned by many people, they retrieve a land grant and get indentured servants
patroons
people who recieved land grant
God, Glory, Gold
3 Gs people came to America for
Royal Colony
Chartered by crown, goal is money, more exporting than importing, VA after Joint Stock failed
Charter of Virginia Company
Charter to begin Virginia
Catholic-Protestant conflict
Prostentants disliked the Catholic church and church of england
Modell of Christian Charity
love, “a city upon a hill”
utopia
Modell of Christian Charity, about America
Enlightenment
natural reasons for natural occurences, reasonable
Triangle Trade
America -> Europe -> Africa back to America
Middle Passage
from Africa to America, mostly slaves, hardest trip
Libel laws and freedom of expression
defame, libel/slander still prosecuted
Impact of Euopean Enlightenment
Reason for everything, God, was replaced with reason, included heliocentrism, and laws and motion. Spilt congregations into Old and New Lights
Salem Witch Trials
People who weren’t traditional were accused, accused the more economicaly sound, no longer pure
Noble Savages
suggest Indians are better, “savage” -> didn’t beat children, made women work, “noble” -> respect nature, traded
demography
English brought diseases, crippled Indian population
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement, failed because on swampy land
plantation
First used for a colony, Later used as a large agricultural enterprise that used unfree labor to produce a crop for the world market mostly in the south, usually tobacco
public sphere
the world of political organizations and debate in private associations and publications outside the control of government
Iroquois Confederation
5 Iroquois nations, came together to coordinate behavior toward outsiders
Northwest Passage
passage directly to Pacific ocean, many hoped to find this in the New World
Edict of Nantes
French law revocation in 1685 which was intented to extend religious tolenance to French Protestants
salutary neglect
when the colonies were left to gover themselves
Increase Mather
a prominent clergy published an influencial treatise warning that juries should not take seriousluy either the testimony of those who claimed to be possessed of the confessions and accusations of persons facing execution
Old and New lights
Traditionalists and revivalists respectively. This was an effect of the Enlightenment

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