American History, Unit 2 test, Merryhill

American History, Unit 2 test, Merryhill

Feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Nobles
persons of noble or ‘honorable’ rank or birth. Ranked as: King – Lord – Knight
Commoners
People who were not part of the nobility or the church. Ranked as: Free tenant/yeoman – serf – slave.
Yeoman
Of common birth. Yeoman farmed small sections of land that they owned, or rented land from a lord.
Slaves
Salves were the lowest level of the class system – usually prisons of war or criminals
“rights of Englishman”
rights/freedoms that American colonists expected, even though they were 3000 mi. away from england
Petition of Right
In 1620’s King Charles I began to abuse his royal authority. This document was prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings.
– King could not raise taxes without the consent of the Pariliament
-King could not force citizens to house soldiers
-Further established that English subjects had rights the government could not violate.
English Bill of Rights
Signed by King William III in 1689. It further limited the power of the monarchy. The King could no longer:
– prevent free speech
– keep a full army in peace time
– use cruel or unusual punishment
*This document made Parliament equal in power to the King and established England as a constitutional monarchy
Parliament
-A meeting of lords, knights and burgesses (leading citizens originally held in the late 1200’s to advise the King on taxation and financial affairs.
– Over the next 400 years, Parliament evolved into an ELECTED LEGISLATURE – who by the early 1700’s represented the people.
-LIMITED government and REPRESENTATIVE government were traditions established in England, and carried over to the English colonies n North America.
Charter
a document incorporating an institution and specifying its rights
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
French & Indian War
Britain goes to war with France to protect its northern territory.
1st Continental Congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
2nd Continental Congress
Congress of American leaders which first met in 1775, declared independence in 1776, and helped lead the United States during the Revolution
Loyalists
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Patriots
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Congress During the War
The Congress during the war wrote up the Articles of confederation
Minutemen
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds
“Shot Heard ‘Round the World”
The first shot fired of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord when a group of armed minutemen confronted a British column.
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
Diplomacy
negotiation between nations
Popular sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Legislative Supremacy
A system of government in which the legislative branch has ultimate power.
Massachusetts Constitution
A state constitution with clear separation of powers but considered to have produced too weak a government
National Government
A government that controls the whole country
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
Virginia Declaration of Rights
Served as a model for the Bill of Rights to the Constitution of the United States of America. Written by George Mason.
Shays’ Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
George Washington
1st President of the United States
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard’s Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Thomas Jefferson
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington’s staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Baron Von Steuben
volunteer, general in Prussia,offered help to Patriots after Washington won the battles at Trenton & Princeton, arrived at Valley Forge in the spring of 1778
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract” in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
What were the reasons for writing the Declaration of Independence?
The reason the colonists wrote the Declaration of Independence was that the colonists wanted to show the world that they were a free state and were no longer governed by Britain.
What are the four parts of the Declaration of Independence?
The four parts of the Declaration of Independence are the ideals, the arguments, the complaints and the conclusion.
What arguments does the Declaration make in support of the colonies’ independence?
The Declaration of Independence says that the King is violating the colonists’ natural rights and therefore the only way to regain their natural rights is to become independent and rule themselves as a sovereign state.
What complaints did the colonies have against the king of Great Britain?
The complaints against the King of Britain included the following:

• Refusing to approve laws necessary for the public good;
• Seeking to destroy colonial legislature;
• Obstructing justice for refusing to give certain powers to colonial courts;
• Keeping standing armies in time of peace;
• Requiring the courting or housing of British soldiers;
• Imposing taxes without the consent of the people being taxed;
• Cutting off trade between the colonies and all parts of the world; and,
• Denying colonists, in some cases, the right to trial by jury.

What is the purpose of government as described in the Declaration of Independence?
The purpose of the government, according to the Declaration of Independence, is to protect the people’s natural rights.
What does the Declaration say people have the right to do if a government does not protect their rights?
The Declaration of Independence states that the people have the right to abolish the government and make a new government if government fails to protect their rights.
“all men are created equal”
A basic belief of the Declaration of Independence. All people should have the same rights
“consent of the governed”
The idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people. The agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.
“self-evident”
Clearly true and needing no more proof or evidence.
“unalienable”
Natural rights that belong to everyone and cannot be taken away
Yorktown
in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops
Valley Forge
Place where Washington’s army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutrition, Steuben comes and trains troops
Concord
the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775)
Lexington
town in eastern Massachusetts near Boston where the first battle of the American Revolution was fought