Chapter 1 Summary Millions of years ago, the two American continents became geologically separated from the Eastern Hemisphere land masses where humanity originated. The first people to enter these continents came across a temporary land bridge from Siberia about 35,000 years ago. Spreading across the two continents, they developed a great diversity of societies based largely on corn agriculture and hunting, In North America, their societies were less numerous and urbanized than in South America, though some peoples like the Pueblo and Iroquois developed complex social orders.
The impetus for European colonization came from the desire for new trade routes to the East, the spirit and technological discoveries of the Renaissance, and the power of the new European national monarchies. The European encounters with America and Africa, beginning with the Portuguese and Spanish explorers, convulsed the entire world. Biological change, disease, population loss, conquest, slavery, cultural change, and economic expansion were just some of the consequences of the commingling of two ecosystems.
After they conquered and then intermarried with Indians of the great civilizations of South America and Mexico, the Spanish conquistadors expanded northward into the northern border territories of Florida, New Mexico and California. There they established small but permanent settlements in competition with the French and English explorers who were also venturing into North America Identification Chapter 1 1. Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American continent 2. Staple Crop that formed the economic foundation of Indian civilizations 3. Important Mississippian culture site, near present East St.
Treaty that secured Spanish title to lands in Americas by dividing them with Portugal 11. Wealthy capital of the Aztec empire 12. Person of mixed European and Indian ancestry 13. Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion 14. Indian people of the Rio Grande Valley who were cruelly oppressed by the Spanish conquerors 15. Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of missions in California Chapter 1 MC 1. The geologically oldest mountains in North America are A. the Appalachians B. the Rockies C. the Cascades D. he Sierra Nevada 2. The Indian peoples of the New World A. developed no advanced forms of civilization B. were divided into many diverse culture speaking more than two thousand different languages C. were all organized into the two large empires of the Incas and the Aztecs D. relied primarily on nomadic herding of domesticated animals for their sustenance 3. The Iroquois Confederacy remained a strong political military influence until A. The Spanish conquest of the Americas B. The fur trade was wiped out in the early 1700s C. The French and Indian War D. The American Revolution . Among the important forces that first stimulated European interest in trade and discovery was A, the Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices of Asia B. the Arab slaver traders on the east coast of Africa C. the Scandinavian sailors who had kept up continuous trade contacts with North America D. the division of Spain into small kingdoms competing for wealth and power 5. Among the most important American Indian products to spread to the Old World were A. animals such as buffalo and horses B. technologies such as the compass and the wheel C. conomic systems such as plantation agriculture and livestock raising D. foodstuffs such as maize, beans, and tomatoes 6. The primary staples of Indian agriculture were A. potatoes, beets, and barley B. rice, manioc, and peanuts C. maize, beans, and squash D. wheat, oats, and corn 7. The number of Indians in North America at the time Columbus arrived was approximately A. one million B. four million C. twenty million D. two hundred and fifty million 8. Before Columbus arrived, the only Europeans to have temporarily visited North America were A. The Greeks B. The Irish C. The Norse D. The Italians 9.
The Portuguese were the first to enter the slave trade and establish large-scale plantation using slave labor in A. B. C. D. West Africa The Atlantic Sugar Islands The West Indies Brazil 10. Much of the impetus for Spanish exploration and pursuit of glory came from Spain’s recent A. successful wars with England B. national unification and expulsion of the Muslim Moors C. voyages of discovery along the coast of Africa D. conversion to Roman Catholicism 11. A crucial political development that paved the way for the European colonization of America was A. the rise of Italian city-states like Venice and Genoa
B. the feudal nobles’ political domination of the merchant class C. the rise of the centralized national monarchies such as that of Spain D. the political alliance between the Christian papacy and Muslim traders 12. The primary reason for the drastic decline in the Indian population after the encounter with the European was A. the rise of intertribal warfare B. the Indian’s lack of resistance to European diseases such as smallpox and malaria C. the sharp decline in the Mexican birthrate D. the sudden introduction of the deadly disease syphilis to the New World 13.
Cortes and his men were able to conquer the Aztec capital Tenochitlan partly because A. They had larger forces than the Aztecs B. The Aztec ruler Montezuma believed that Cortes was a god whose return had been predicted C. The Aztecs were peace-loving people who did not believe in war or conquest D. The city of Tenochitlan already had been devastated by a disease epidemic 14. The primary early colonial competitor with Spain in the New World was A. Portugal B. Italy C. France D. England 15. The belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good is called A. he encomienda B. the mission of civilization C. the Evil Empire D. the Black Legend D. Matching people, places, and Events Chapter 1 __1. Ferdinand and Isabella A. Female Indian slave who served as an interpreter for Cortes __ 2. Cortes and Pizarro B. Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy __ 3. Lake Bonneville C. Wealthy capital of the Aztec empire __ 4. Dias and da Gama D. Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus’s voyages to the New World __ 5. Columbus E. Portuguese Navigators who sailed around the African coast __ 6. Malinche F. Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited
European settlement in United States territory __ 7. Montezuma G. Italian-born navigator sent by English to explore North American Coast in 1498 __ 8. Hiawatha H. Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents __ 9. Tenochtitlan I. Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors __ 10. St. Augustine J. Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations __ 11. John Cabot K. Franciscan missionary who settled California __ 12. Junipero Serra L. Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake