American Pageant Chapter 7: APUSH IDs

American Pageant Chapter 7: APUSH IDs

Virtual Representation
British claimed tht the colonists were represented by the House of Commons, colonists claimed they were not because they did not choose their representitives
“No taxation without representation”
colonists did not like being taxed when they felt they had no say in British government, and Britain refused to recognized their local governments
Admiralty Courts
juryless courts in British colonies that held jurisdiction over maritime activities
Baron von Steuben
foreign advisor who helped train American soldiers during the revolution
Boston Massacre
colonial agitators provoked British troops with rock-filled snowballs, soldiers shot into the crowd, became an important piece of anti-British propaganda
Boston Tea Party
group of colonists disguised as Indians boarded ships in Boston Harbor and dumped the tea into the ocean, led to Boston Port Act
Boston Port Act
response to Boston Tea Party, outlawed use of Boston harbor until damages were paid to the crown
Boycott
First Continental Congress called for a boycott of all British goods in 12 of 13 colonies, showed a growth in unity
Charles Townshend
British Prime Minister, convinced Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts
Committees of Correspondence
organized by the Sons of Liberty to spread spirit of resistance
Crispus Attucks
slave killed in the Boston Massacre, became an icon of the anti-slavery movement
Declaration of Rights
drafted at a Virginia Convention, proclaimed the inherit rights of man
Declaratory Act
issued to confirm the British government’s right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists, used to save face when the colonies refused the Stamp Act
English Whigs
Parliament party who contested the Tories, took control of the government until King George III took the throne
Enumerated Products
gods not produced by the mother country, could only be shipped from the colonies to England or other English colonies
First Continental Congress
response to the Intolerable Acts, called for a complete boycott of all British goods in 12 of 13 colonies, showed better colonial unity
Gaspee Incident
schooner was beached in Rhode Island, upset Americans because it was one of the last customs racketeering ships, burned down by locals, showed how militant the colonists were becoming
George Grenville
Prime Minister, architect of the Sugar Act and Stamp Act, his methods of taxation and crackdown on smuggling were widely disliked by Americans
George Washington
commander in chief of the Continental Army
Hessians
German mercenaries hired by the British to put down the rebellion in the colonies, showed the colonists that the British had only military action in mind, as a solution to current problems
External Taxation
placed on an item coming into the colony
Internal Taxation
direct tax paid by the consumer
Intolerable/Coercive Acts
composed in response to colonial rebellion, included Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Quartering Act, and Quebec Act
John Adams
Federalist, second president of the US, responsible for the Alien and Sedition Acts which hurt the popularity of the Federalists and himself, prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair
John Hancock
won his fortune by smuggling, rebel ring leader at Lexington and Concord
Lord North
Prime Minister during the Revolution, passed the Intolerable Acts and supported the king to the extent that Britian was ruled only by the king
King George III
king of Britian during the revolution, Declaration of Independence was directed specifically at him
Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
written by John Dickinson, united the colonies against the Townshead Acts
Lexington and Concord
first battles of the revolution, militias were massacred at Lexington but won at Concord
Loyalists
also called Tories, American colonists who were loyal to Britain and the king
Marquis de Lafayette
French nobleman, major general in the colonial army who trained the militiamen
Mercantilism
economic system with three main points:
– exports should be greater than imports
– a nation’s weath is measured in gold
– colonies exist as captive markets to make money for the mother country
Minute Men
colonial militias
Molasses Act of 1733
imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported form non-British colonies, aimed to reserve a monopoly of the colonies
Non-importation Agreements
colonial boycotting of imported goods
Patrick Henry
orator and statesman, member of House of Burgesses, attended Continental Congress
Quartering Act
required certain colonies to provide food and quartering for British troops
Quebec Act
allowed French Quebec to keep its customs and religion, but did not include a representative assemply or trial by jury
Radical Whigs
British political commentators who warned the colonies to be on guard against political corruption and conspiracies that would take their liberties
Republicanism
defied a just society as one in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good
Rights of Englishmen
what the American colonists wanted (not revolution at first)
Royal Veto
British crown could nullify any legislation passed by the colonial assemblies if they interferred with mercantilism
Samuel Adams
attended the Continental Congress, ringleader at Lexington and Concord, propagandist and engineer of rebellion, organized committees of correspondence
Sons of Liberty
colonial protest group, formed to protect the rights of the colonists
Stamp Act
all legal documents, contracts, licenses, pamphlets, and newpapers must carry a taxed stamp, means of raising revenue in the colonies
Stamp Act Congress
held as an outcry against the Stamp Act, one more step towards colonial unity
Sugar Act
increased the duty on foreign sugar
The Association
created by the Continental Congress, called for a complete boycott of British goods, including exportation
Thomas Huchinson
Massachusetts governor, refused to be pushed around by colonial protestors, butt heads with Sam Adams
Tories
British political party, came back into Parliament when King George III took the throne
Townshend Acts
duties on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea
Valley Forge
winter camp of a colonial army led by Washington