America's History, 8th Edition Chapter 28

Great Society
President Lyndon B. Johnson’s domestic program, which included civil rights legislation, antipoverty programs, government subsidy of medical care, federal aid to education, consumer protection, and aid to the arts and humanities
Economy Opportunity Act
1964 act which created a series of programs, including Head Start to prepare disadvantaged preschoolers for kindergarten and the Job Corps and Upward Bound to provide young people with training and employment, aimed at alleviating poverty and spurring economic growth in impoverished areas
medicare
a health plan for the elderly passed in 1965 and paid for by a surcharge on Social Security payroll taxes
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medicaid
a health plan for the poor passed in 1965 and paid for by general tax revenues and administered by the states
equal pay act (1963)
law that established the principle of equal pay for equal work. trade union women were especially critical in pushing for, and wining, congressional passage of the law
The Feminine Mystique
the tile of an influential book written in 1963 by Betty Friedan critiquing the ideal whereby women were encouraged to confine themselves to roles within the domestic sphere
National Organization for Women (NOW)
women’s civil rights organization formed in 1966. Initially, it focused on eliminating gender discrimination in public institutions and the workplace, but by the 1970s it also embraced many of the issues raised by more radical feminists
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
resolution passed by Congress in 1964 in the wake of a naval confrontation in the Gulf of Tonkin between the United States and North Vietnam. It gave the president virtually unlimited authority in conducting the Vietnam War. The Senate terminated the resolution in 1971 following outrage over the U.S. invasion of Cambodia
Operation Rolling Thunder
Massive bombing campaign against North Vietnam authorized by President Johnson in 1965; against expectations, it ended up hardening the will of the North Vietnamese to continue fighting
New Left
a term applied to radical students of the 1960s and 1970s distinguishing their activism from the Old Left- the communists and socialists of the 930s and 1940s who tended to focus on economic and labor questions rather than cultural issues
Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)
the largest student political organization in the country whose conservative members defended free enterprise and supported the war in Vietnam
Counterculture
a culture embracing values or lifestyles opposing those of the mainstream culture. Became synonymous with hippies, people who opposed and rejected conventional standards of society and advocated extreme liberalism in their sociopolitical attitudes and lifestyles.
Tet offensive
major campaign of attacks launched throughout South Vietnam in January 1968 by the North Vietnamese and Vietcong. A major turning point in the war, it exposed the credibility gap between official statements and the war’s reality, and it shook American’s confidence in the gov’t
1968 Democratic National Convention
A 1968 convention held in Chicago during which numerous antiwar demonstrators outside the convention hall were tear-gassed and clubbed by police. Inside the convention hall, the delegates were bitterly divided over Vietnam
Title IX
a law passed by congress in 1972 that broadened the 1964 Civil Rights Act to include educational institutions, prohibiting colleges and universities that received federal funds from discriminating on the basis of sex. By requiring comparable funding for sports programs, it made women’s athletics a real presence on college campuses.
Silent Majority
the term derived from the title of a book by Ben J. Wattenberg and Richard Scammon (called The Real Majority) and used by Nixon in a 1969 speech to describe those who supported his positions but did nor publicly assert their voices, in contrast to those involved in the antiwar, civil rights, and women’s movement
Vietnamization
a new U.S. policy, devised under President Nixon in the early 1970s, of delegating the ground fighting to the South Vietnamese in the Vietnam War. American troop levels dropped and American casualties dropped correspondingly, but the killing in Vietnam continued
My Lai
the 1968 execution by U.S. Army troops of nearly five hundred people in the South Vietnamese village of My Lai, including a large number of women and children
Détente
the easing of conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union during the Nixon administration, which was achieved by focusing on issues of common concern, such as arms control and trade
Warren Court
the Supreme court under Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953-1969_, which expanded the constitution’s promise of equality and civil right. it issued landmark decisions in the areas of civil rights, criminal rights, reproductive freedom, and separation of church and state
Ngo Dinh Diem
1901-1963, South Vietnamese statesman: president of the Republic of South Vietnam 1956-63
George Wallace
an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat
Henry Kissinger
an American diplomat and political scientist. He served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as United States Secretary of State in the administrations of presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford
Barry Goldwater
an American politician and businessman who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona and the Republican Party’s nominee for President of the United States in the 1964 election
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese political leader: president of North Vietnam 1954-69

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