America’s History: Eighth Edition Chapter 30

The Conscience of a Conservative
Barry Goldwater’s 1960 book attacking the New Deal state and its government involvement as nearing absolutism. In his next book, “Why Not Victory?”, He criticizes containment for not being militant enough.
National Review
William F. Buckley’s conservative magazine criticizing liberal policy.
Religious Right
Part of the conservative coalition that emerged in the 1970s against the new immorality of America and a new generation of popular ministers. They pushed government legislation to protect religion. They condemned divorce, abortion, premarital sex, and feminism.
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Reagan coalition
Reagan’s supporters included white Protestants (balanced budgets, opposed government activism, feared communism, strong national defense) and middle class suburbanites (Against crime, limiting social welfare spending), whose economic comfort and homogeneity made them good targets.
Moral Majority
A political organization established by evangelist Jerry Falwell in 1979 to mobilize Christian conservative voters for Ronald Reagan.
Reagan Democrats
Blue collar voters, mostly Catholic, moving from the Democratic Party due to anti war protests and rising welfare expenditures.
Reaganomics
A set of policies set up by Reagan to increase the production of goods to increase the supply of goods in effect.
Supply-side economics
An economic policy for Reaganomics that was supposed to bolster investment by reducing taxes paid by corporations and wealthy Americans who would then be able to use their funds to expand production. This expansion would increase government revenues which would cover the loss from taxes, and the increasing supply would make consumers want to buy more.
Economic Recovery Tax Act
A massive tax cut that embodied supply side economics. It reduced income tax rates for most Americans by 23 percent over three years. The annual revenue for the federal government was cut by $200 billion.
National debt
The cumulative total of all budget deficits. Military spending constituted for a fourth of federal spending under Reagan and was $2.8 trillion by the time he left. It went up by $1.87 trillion.
Deregulation
Started under Carter. Expanded under Reagan to cut back in government protections of consumers, workers, and environment. Bureaucracies like Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Environmental Protective Agency and the U.S. Department of Labor were cut off from federal spending because they increased costs for businesses.
HIV/AIDS
A new virus that came from chimpanzees in Africa to America through Haiti. It killed more than 100,000 in America, especially gay men. The Reagan administration delayed federal resources and research for treatment due to the main victims being homosexuals.
Service industries
In the late 80s and early 90s, economic growth was at 2 to 3 percent a year due to financial services, medical services, and computer technology becoming the new direction of growth.
Leveraged buy out
When a financier borrows heavily to buy a company, restructures the company to make it look profitable, then sells it immediately at a higher price.
Sandinista
The democratically elected group in Nicaragua that president Reagan accused of threatening business interests. Reagan attempted to overthrow them by ordering the CIA to assist an armed opposition group called the Contras.
Contras
Congress banned the CIA from providing military support to the Contras, but Oliver North from the U.S. Marines used profits from the Iranian arms deal to assist the Contras.
Iranian Contra Affair
Reagan administration scandal that involved the sale of arms to Iran in exchange for its efforts to secure the release of hostages held in Lebanon and the redirection of the proceeds of those sales to the Nicaraguan Contras.
glasnost
Gorbachev’s policy that involved greater openness and freedom it expression that contributed unintentionally to the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
perestroika
The economic restructuring policy introduced by Gorbachev that lead unintentionally to the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Persian Gulf War
The 1991 war between Iraq and a UN coalition that was sparked by the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. A four day bombing campaign followed by coalition troops storming into Kuwait brought a quick coalition victory.
“Family values”
George H.W. Bush selected an inexperienced senator, Dan Quayle from Indiana, to uphold the traditional nuclear family and Christian morality.
Palestine liberation organization
The Reagan administration supported Israel’s invasion of Lebanon, which would destroy them. That killed 241 American marines. 3 years later Palestinians in the Gaza strip and West Bank that were occupied by Israel were fought for by uprising Palestinians.
Globalization
The spread of political, cultural, and economic influences and connections among countries, businesses, and individuals through world trade, immigration, communication, and other means. In the 90s huge increases in global trade and commerce and a diffusion of communications technology connected people and spread capitalism.
World Trade Organization
Seattle protesters tried to shut down their meeting in 1999. They evolved from the General agreement on tariffs and trade.
Group of Eight
United States, Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, and Russia who controlled the Bretton Woods system.
North American Free Trade Agreement
A treaty ratified by the U.S. That envisioned the eventual creation of a free trade zone in North America to match the European Union.
multinational corporations
Corporations with factories in multiple countries which expanded to find new markets and cheaper sources of labor. Globalization occurred.
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
A decentralized computer network developed in the late 1960s by the Department of Defense in conjunction with the Massachusetts institute of Technology. The internet grew out of the ARPANET.
World Wide Web
A collection of servers that allowed access to millions of documents and enhanced popular appeal and commercial possibilities of the internet.
Culture war
Since the 1920s, there was a political struggle between religious traditionalists and secular liberals.
multiculturalism
The idea that Americans comprised a diverse set of ethnic and racial groups living and working together while still sharing a set of public values.
Proposition 209
California voted this which would outlaw affirmative action in state employment and public education.
Operation Rescue
Activist Randall Terry mounted protests in 1987 outside of abortion clinics and harassed their staff and clients.
Defense of Marriage Act
Congress allowed states to refuse to recognize gay marriages it civil unions formed in other jurisdictions.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
A Supreme Court decision that allowed state governments to limit the use of public funds and facilities for abortion.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
The Court upheld a law requiring a 24 hour waiting period prior to an abortion.
Lawrence v. Texas
The Court limited the power of states to prohibit private homosexual activity between consenting adults.
Windsor v. United States
Overturned the Defense of Marriage Act.
“Contract with America”
Newt Gingrich, Republican Senator of Georgia, revived calls for significant tax cuts, reductions in welfare programs, anticrime initiatives, and cutbacks in federal regulations when Republicans took over the Senate in 1994.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
Clinton signed a bill to get rid of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program to get Republicans, who thought females to advantage of the program, on his side.
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act
George W. Bush. It slashed income tax rates, extended earned income credit for the poor, and marked the estate tax to be phased out by 2010. It mostly cut taxes for stock and big estate owners.
Abu Ghraib prison
American guards during the Iraq war abused suspected insurgents. The scandal leaked and turned most Muslims against America.
Great Recession
In 2007, the Dow Jones lost half its value, major banks, insurance companies, financial institutions, and the whole automobile industry was near bankruptcy. Housing prices dropped down to 40% and the unemployment rate was about 10%.
Emergency Economic Stabilization Act
George W. Bush. Secretary of Treasury, Henry Paulson. It dedicated $700 billion to rescuing many of the nation’s largest banks and brokerage houses.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Obama. An economic stimulus bill that provided $787 billion to state and local governments for schools, hospitals, and transportation projects.
Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
Obama. A law that added new regulations limiting the financial industry and new consumer protections.
Tea Party
Far right opposition groups giving voice to extreme individualism and antigovernment sentiment. They opposed Obamacare.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Obama. Health care reform bill that established neatly universal health insurance by providing subsidies and compelling larger businesses to offer coverage to employees.
Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell
The military policy that didn’t allow gays to serve openly in the armed forces. Obama repealed in 2011.
Arab Spring
A series of protests and demonstrations in 2010 that toppled countries’ autocratic rulers and called for greater democracy in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Yemen. Obama supported.
USA PATRIOT Act
Allowed the government to monitor citizens and apprehend suspected terrorists.

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