AMSCO AP World History Chapter 1 Key Terms

AMSCO AP World History Chapter 1 Key Terms

overfarming
taking too much from the farmed land
overgrazing
grazing the land so heavily that the vegetation is damaged and the ground becomes liable to erosion
artifacts
an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest
Homo sapiens sapiens
humans
Paloelithic Period
a period of time that began 2.5 million years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago; because stone tools and weapons in this period, it is often called the Stone Age
Neolithic Period
a period of time about 10,000 years ago, as the climate was warming up from an Ice Age, where a collection of social and political developments coalesced
monotheism
the belief that there is only one God
Bronze Age
generally between 3300 BCE and 2300 BCE, a period of weapon evolution; from stone to copper to bronze
civilization
a large society with cities and powerful states
Jericho
built on the west bank of the Jordan river with artifacts dating 9000 BCE
Catal Huyuk
in present day Turkey; founded in 7500 BCE and existed for 2000 years
textiles
a type of cloth or woven fabric
specialization of labor
the process of allowing people to focus on limited tasks
copper
a metal found in a pure state in the ground in
bronze
a melted metal composed of tin and copper
hunter-forager
a person living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging
agriculture
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products
surplus
an amount of something left over when requirements have been met
domestication
the process of adapting wild plants and animals for human use
nomadic pastoralism
a way of life based on people moving herds of animals from pasture to pasture
kinship group
several related families that moved together in search of food
clan
a large group of relatives
tribe
multiple clans combined
patriarchal
of, relating to, or characteristic of a system of society or government controlled by men
artisans
a worker in a skilled trade
merchant
a business person who trades in commodities produced by other people in order to earn a profit
social stratification
refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
preists/preistesses
the ordained church leader who serves a congregation of believers is called a priest; administer the sacraments, preach, and care for the needs of their congregations