AMSCO World History Chapter 01 Vocabulary

AMSCO World History Chapter 01 Vocabulary

overfarming
harvesting to the point of reducing soil fertility and subsequent yields
overgrazing
the continual eating of grasses or their roots
artifacts
objects made by people in the past
Homo sapiens sapiens
modern humans
Paleolithic Period
also called the Stone Age; 2.5M-10K years ago; people used stone, wood, and bone tools
Neolithic Revolution
a set of dramatic changes in how people lived based on the development of agriculture
monotheism
worshipping or belief in one deity
Bronze Age
began between 3300 and 2300BC; marked the beginning of the widespread usage of bronze
civilization
a large society with cities and powerful states
core and foundational
having heavy influence on successor civilizations
Jericho
one of humankind’s first cities; built on the Jordan River in 9000BC
Catal Huyuk
an ancient city in modern-day Turkey founded in 7500BC
textiles
items made of cloth
specialization of labor
allowing peope to focus on limited tasks
copper
a metal found in its pure state in the ground
bronze
an alloy of tin and copper that makes a metal stronger than copper
hunter-foragers
people who survive by hunting animals and foraging for seeds, nuts, fruits, and edible roots
agriculture
the practice of raising crops or livestock on a continual and controlled basis
surplus
more than needed
domestication
taming wild animals so they can be brought up to live with humans
nomadic pastoralism
leading animals from one grazing land to another
kinship group
several related families that moved together in search of food
clan
larger group of relatives; composed of several kinship groups
tribe
larger units of structures composed of multiple clans; led by chiefs and priests
patriarchal
dominated by men
artisans
people who make objects people need
merchants
people who buy and sell goods for a living
social stratification
some people accumulate more wealth than others
priests
(m) a special class that conducted elaborate religious ceremonies to please the spirits of nature
priestesses
(f) a special class that conducted elaborate religious ceremonies to please the spirits of nature
metallurgy
the science of the study of metals