Analyses on different recruitment and selection approaches and case study Abstract This report introduces several methods recruitment and selection approaches in HRM and discussed their advantages and disadvantages, as well as cultural differences. While external recruitment is applied widely, internal recruitment is better used in large scaled companies. Personal reference can be applied in emergency situation regardless of its drawbacks. 1. 0. Introduction The importance of recruitment and selection cannot be overstated. The recruitment and selection policies and practices can be perceived as integral.
Recruitment and selection not only seek to attract and select applicants for a certain position to achieve the certain objective or strategic goals, but may also have significant influence on the whole composition of the workforce (Beer et al. 1984). There is no perfect recruitment and selection method for every situation. In this report, approaches of recruitment and selection are introduced and discussed. Recruitment in HRM is defined as “the different activities of attracting applicants to an organization, and the selection of people to fill vacancies. ” (Bloisi, 2007: p. 07) and selection is defined as “the process ‘by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants’” (Bratton and Gold, 2003: p. 221). 2. 0. Analyses on different recruitment and selection approaches In this section, approaches of recruitment and selection are both discussed. Section 2. 1 mainly highlights internal recruitment approaches and cultural differences through the process. Section 2. 2 focuses on some traditional selection approaches and personal reference, illustrating their application, pros and cons. 2. 1. Recruitment approaches
Recruitment in HRM includes two important parts: job analysis and person specification. The ultimate target is to combine these two parts, thus selecting the right person for the right position. To accomplish this goal, two basic methods are introduced: internal recruitment and external recruitment. They both have their own pros and cons, and should be carefully applied to different situation. To better analyse the problem, this section only focuses on the methods of internal recruitment approaches. In addition, since the cultural influences on recruitment should never be underestimated especially, arguments are also made in this section.
Looking for the right person for a vacancy within company can not only reduce advertisement fees on media, but also provide a good way for current staff to further considering about and acting on their careers in the company, improving their passion for career. The relationship between internal and external recruitment can be viewed in two perspectives: substitute and complementary (Matias-Reche et al. 2006). Today’s large number of staff that are considered as good candidates in internal promotion and reassignment are contingent workers who are initially hired for multiple results.
According to studies and research, relationship between the proportion of contingent workers and the level of internalisation of employment practices within company is complementary and positive (Abraham 1990; Gramm and Schnell 2001; Ko, 2003). For these contingent workers, they already had some basic knowledge both for their current job and the company, thus making the further investment and especially trainings fewer, compared with those on a new employee. This advantage is more evident in large scaled companies, since there would be much more rules and standards for operation to learn in big companies (Matias-Reche et al. 006). However, for small companies, the save on further training may not seem evident and the promotion of these contingent workers has possibility of triggering dissatisfaction among current workers, who have managed to enter the company through formal recruitment process. It also reduces the possibility of outside recruitment, narrowing down the range of choice of HRM. For large scale companies especially international conglomerates, cultural difference should also be taken into accounts in recruiting.
Realistic job preview, which has been regarded as one of classical techniques used in recruitment in Western, turned out to be a moderately important one in Taiwan (Hsu and Leat 2000). This fact may result from that in late 1990s, realistic job preview was still new for Taiwanese, and companies were not willing to expose too much and too explicitly about themselves especially those negative information. 2. 2. Selection approaches Traditional selection process include application forms, shortlist, interviewing and etc.
These fundamental methods can help HR managers get to know the applicant in a short time. As information is clear, there is no need to consider cultural differences in these processes. However, to cater HR managers’ expectancy, the content in application form or the answers in interview can be exaggerated by applicants, which can hardly be distinguished immediately. A survey in 1985 showed that over 85% applicants in the USA have ever tried to “polish” at least one critical item on their CVs (Li 2006). In this way, background investigation can be used to diminish such situation.
However, as background investigation can cost a lot manpower and material resources, it’s only preferred in final selection (Li 2006). Interview is one of the most frequent selections in practice. Through observation and communication, HR managers can evaluate the applicant both rationally and emotionally. While questions about applicants can be answered immediately, applicants can get to know the company by asking back, which provide a multi-way communication. However, a well-structured interview requires well preparation and due to limited interviewees at one time, the whole interview can last for a long time.
Also, biased opinions may be made by interviewers who are inclined to be attracted by certain personal traits, which don’t have much relation to the job requirement. Personal reference is also an efficient way especially when the vacancy is an emergency. The applicant recommended by current staff is usually more acknowledged with the whole situation, job description and proper expectation to the company than an applicant who just “hears of” the company, which can decrease the length of adaptive phase, being more suitable for emergency.
Also, being responsible for the company, the referrer is always cautious and considerate when s/he recommends. However, it also has disadvantages. The authenticity of applicant is not as high as those selected through applicants’ pool, increasing the possibility that the ability of applicant is exaggerated by referrer as a result of personal relationship. Furthermore, the position of referrer is also play an important part in the selection, and even in future work, especially when the referrer is in comparatively high position. Problems can appear as the manager of the applicant (future subordinate) has o consider more on punishment or critique for the referrer’s sake. Last, not all positions are suitable to this method. When it comes to managerial and professional recruitment, companies usually prefer to use external recruitment such as advertisement in the media and direct applications more frequently (Hsu and Leat 2000) since the skills and professions can easily be distinguished in those selection process. Culture differences still exist in selection especially in Eastern cultures, where guanxi (a personalized networks of influence) relationship can influence the choice especially for entry-level positions (Fan, 2002). . 0. Reward strategies on real-life job advert 3. 1. Case description In the case, the company is looking for an ideal junior executiv. S/he has to work 37. 5 per week, in which 4 days in PR and 1 day Marketing, which means that s/he has to be both capable of these two fields. His/her job is to support the Head of PR to increase public awareness and understanding of the organisation as well as assist the Marketing Manager in developing marketing materials and literature . The salary is ? 18,000 per year and base in London. No specific potential career development is mentioned. . 2. Reward strategies For new comers, the most important reward may not have to be material one since most of them are young. Good opportunity and promising future both in promotion in the company and in this working field seem more attractive. Thus, professional work trainings and expected promotion are good rewards. Besides, since this job first requires the staff to do both works in PR and Marketing, the company can offer the free choice of either of these two fields to the staff as a reward after working for a certain period of time.
This would not only be beneficial to the staff, but also better for the company to develop talent. Also, emergencies and accidents often happen in PR field especially in important events. Rewards can be offered to the staff when the accidents are solved perfectly and more importantly, if s/he finds a perfect way to prevent the accidents from happening again. This evaluation of performance is also in accordance to LeBoeuf (1984)’s ten ways to motivate staffs. The company wish the staff to be able to work during evenings and weekends when it is necessary.
As a reward, extra vacations and bonus can be offered according to staff’s performance and the scale of the project. Also, as the staff is supposed to be working overtime, a supplement life insurance and annual physical exam can be provided, as research shows that they are also top choices in rewards and perks (www. hrmguide. com). 4. 0. Conclusion The methods for recruitment and selection should be considered in different situations. Specifically, cultural differences should be taken into consideration. For entry-level jobs, the material reward is not most important.
Leaving more space for the staff to grow and showing respect to his/her choice is also a way of reward. References Abraham, K. G. 1990. , Restructuring the employment relationship: the growth of market-mediated work arrangements, in Abraham, K. G. and McKersie, R. B. (Eds), New Developments in the Labour Market: Toward a New Institutional Paradigm , MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, p 85-120. Beer, M. et al. , 1984. Managing Human Assets, New York: Free Press. Fan, Y. 2002. Guanxi’s consequences: Personal gains at social cost. Journal of Business Ethics, 38 ,p. 371–380 Gramm, C.
L. and Schnell, J. F. 2001, The use of flexible staffing arrangements in core production jobs, Industrial and Labour Relations Review 4 (2), p 245-258. Hsu & Leat, M. 2000. A Study of HRM and Recruitment and Selection Policies and Practices in Taiwan. Int. J. of Human Resource Management 11(2) p. 413-435 Ko, J. R. (2003, Contingent and internal employment systems: substitutes or complements?. Journal of Labour Research, 24 (3), p 473-490. Li, D. , 2006. The Recruitment and Selection Methods in HR. Science and Technology Literature Press LeBoeuf, M. , 1984.
How to Motivate People. Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd Matias-Reche, F. , & MarFuentes-Fuentes, M. , 2002. The Internal Labour Market and The Employment of Temporary Help Workers in Spain. Personnel Review, 35 (4) p. 378 – 396 Appendix (including job advert) The Sick Children’s Trust – PR ; Marketing Junior Executive http://www. graduate-jobs. com/job/the_sick_childrens_trust_pr_and_marketing_ju nior_executive_50615 Salary: ?18,000 Location: London Date posted: 2 November 2012 Job start date: 7-Jan-2013 ————————————————-
Application close date: ————————————————- 17-Nov-2012 The Sick Children’s Trust – PR & Marketing Junior Executive (Four days PR and one day marketing) Hours: 37. 5 per week/FT (Four days PR and one day marketing) Reports to: Head of PR Job purpose • To support the Head of PR in the development and implementation of a successful media relations programme to increase public awareness and understanding of the organisation • To assist the Marketing Manager in developing marketing materials and literature
Responsibilities • • Assist Head of PR in securing maximum publicity of community events, SCT events, corporate support • Ensure that high quality news releases and statements on the organisation’s activities are researched, produced and disseminated to appropriate media contacts to generate maximum coverage • Develop and maintain relationships with targeted media contacts • Assist the Head of PR on publicity of national campaigns and fundraising appeals when necessary • Assist on the night of events by assisting Head of PR in o-ordinating press activity and ensure photo-calls are organised where appropriate • When needed assist the Head of PR in rolling out the social media campaign and updating SCT website • Assist Head of PR in celebrity liaison role. • Assist the Marketing Manager on the design and production of marketing materials and literature such as the Direct Mail, Annual Report, Newsletter and charity promotional literature and merchandise. General • Represent the organisation at agreed events organised by the organisation and others e. g. aunches on behalf of the organisation • Build an understanding, as far as possible, of the work, requirements and priorities of the other department teams Administration • Take responsibility for own administration, including filing and handling a range of telephone enquiries • Ensure that The SCT’s internal database is kept up to date and add media and celebrity contacts according to the database policy • Ensure media/photo consent forms are completed and filed Duties may vary from time to time with development of the post.
The post holder will be required to carry out such duties as receiving general telephone enquiries and dealing with general office administration as befits a small office environment. Experience • Degree educated, preferably in relevant subject such as English, Media or Communication Studies (E) • Experience of managing own workload effectively, planning and organising a number of projects at one time to set timescales (E) • Experience of working effectively without close supervision, dealing with problems as they arise (E) • Experience of working in the voluntary sector (D)
Abilities ; Skills • Able to produce correspondence and written work using good compositional skills and to produce accurate work to a high standard at all times (E) • Good oral communication skills (E) • Able to prioritise workload and manage own time effectively to meet deadlines (E) • Can communicate clearly and assertively with a wide range of people at all levels (E) • Ability to generate and identify hard news angles and react where possible (D) • Ability to think creatively (D) Ability to develop and maintain sensitivity, respect and understanding of people linked with the organisation (E) • Uses initiative to perform tasks well and demonstrate pro-active thinking(E) • Work as part of a Team (E) Knowledge • Kowledge of Microsoft Office software in particular, Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook, In-design, PR Max and Photoshop (E) • Good working knowledge of how the media works, including social media (E) • Good working knowledge of marketing (E)
Education/Training • Educated to A Level standard at least including English (E) • A journalistic qualification would be an advantage (D) Other Requirements • Able to work evenings and weekends when necessary (D) • Commitment to work within the principles of the equal opportunities policy (E) • Results orientate approach to working (E) • Represent The SCT according to the values of the organisation (E)