Analysing A Contract Of Affreightment Engineering Essay

Analysing A Contract Of Affreightment Engineering Essay

This is Scenario where we have to analyse one-year Contract of Affreightment ( COA ) to provide 1,750,000 metric tons of Fe ore to the Isdemir Fe & A ; steel work, Turkey. COA contract where ship proprietor agrees to transport a series of lading packages for a fixed monetary value per ton ( Stop Ford M, 2009, pg.183 ) or it is an understanding between an proprietor and a charterer to transport a given measure of lading or measure as required by the charterer during a given period of clip. The proprietor is free to make up one’s mind which vas he will utilize. As Operation director of Company we have to happen out whether to offer for this contract or non. In the contract two burden ports are Ponda district attorney Madeira ( Brazil ) for 810,000 metric tons and East intercourse Is, Dampier ( Australia ) for 940,000 Fe ore.

Based on the appraisal, Manager has to happen the low Time charter rate by best possible operation of the majority bearer. For happening Time charter tantamount value we have to see several factors sand traps, port charges, canal dues. Stowage factor for Fe ore is 0.40 M3 per metric ton. All Cargo holds are of equal volume and surrogate holds 2, 4, 6 & A ; 8 are empty. In this scenario port charges for Isdemir and Ponta da Madeira is given. Dampier port cost to be calculated merely sing port dues and navigation merely. Ship sand trap is to be planned one time in a unit of ammunition ocean trip. It is to be taken wherever monetary value is cheaper. Current market value is attached in appendix.

Now, I will discourse the each inquiry in item one by one as follows.

Undertaking 1:

Calculate the maximal measure of Fe ore that can be carried from each lading port, based on the ship ‘s design bill of exchange deadweight, and the ship ‘s clasp use

For the computation of Maximum measure of Fe that ship can transport depends on the deadweight of the ship. Deadweight is normally denotes Ship transporting capacity in metric tons.Deadweight includes weight of Fuel, shops, H2O, changeless which required onboard ship.

Deadweight of this majority bearer is given as 137,000 metric tons

Dwt of ship =137,000t

Changeless = 500t

Fresh H2O = 300t

Since Constant and Fresh H2O required all the clip on-board ship. So, we subtract it from ship transporting capacity.

Now, Ship can transport = 136, 200t

This value besides includes the Fuel weight for one unit of ammunition ocean trip

Round ocean trip ponta district attorney Madeira ( Brazil ) -Isdemir ( Meleagris gallopavo ) -ponta da Madeira ( Brazil ) :

Sea Distance between Isdemir- ponta district attorney Madeira = 5201 nanometer ( via Gibraltar )

( Please refer to http: //e-ships.net/dist.htm viewed on 24th Sep. 2010 )

Round the ocean trip distance = 10,402 nanometer

Ship speed= 14.2 — — — — ( Given )

Entire Sea clip required cover above distance = 30.5 yearss

Sing 10 % possible delay’s= 33.6 yearss — — — — — ( 1 )

Port Time

Harmonizing to the Appendices 1 & A ; 2 of the contract loading/Discharging rate shall be 40,000 W.M.T ( Wet Metric Tonnes ) per conditions working twenty-four hours.

If we consider ladings that ship can transport with changeless and fresh Water = 136, 200t — — — — — – ( 3 )

Loading rate at Ponda district attorney Madeira = 40,000 w.m.t.

Approximate laytime in port Ponda district attorney Madeira = 3.05 yearss

Dispatching rate at Isdemir = 40,000 w.m.t

Approximate Laytime in Isdemir = 3.05 yearss

Entire clip in ports = 6.1 yearss

Sing 10 % possible hold ‘s = 6.7 yearss — — — — — — – ( 2 )

From ( 1 ) and ( 2 )

Entire figure of yearss for one ocean trip = 40.3 yearss

As chief engine fuel ingestion is 42.4t of IFO per twenty-four hours at MCR and 10t of MDO per twenty-four hours at sea and in port.

IFO required for 33.6 yearss = 1424 T — — — — — — — — — — – ( 1a )

MDO required for 33.6 yearss = 336 T — — — — — — — — ( 2a )

MDO required in port for 6.7 yearss = 67 T — — — — — – ( 2c )

Entire Tonnes of fuel Required =1826 T — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 4 )

From ( 3 ) & A ; ( 4 )

Now, Maximum Fe ore that Ship can transport for this routes = 134, 374t

( B ) Round ocean trip Dampeir ( Australia ) — Isdemir ( Meleagris gallopavo ) — Dampier ( Australia )

Sea Time

Sea Distance between Isdemir- Dampeir ( Australia ) = 6479nm ( via Suez )

( Please refer to http: //e-ships.net/dist.htm viewed on 24th Sep. 2010 )

Round the ocean trip distance = 12,958 nanometer

Ship speed = 14.2 — — — — ( Given )

Entire Sea clip required cover above distance = 3 8.0 yearss

Sing 10 % possible hold ‘s = 41.8 yearss — — — — — ( 5 )

Port Time

Harmonizing to the Appendices 1 & A ; 2 of the contract loading/Discharging rate shall be 40,000 W.M.T ( Wet Metric Tonnes ) per conditions working twenty-four hours.

If we consider ladings that ship can transport with changeless and fresh Water = 136, 200t

Loading rate at Dampier = 40,000 w.m.t.

Approximate laytime in port Dampier = 3.05 twenty-four hours

Dispatching rate at Isdemir = 40,000 w.m.t

Approximate Laytime in Isdemir = 3.05 yearss

Entire clip in ports = 6.1 yearss

Sing 10 % possible hold ‘s = 6.7 yearss — — — — — — – ( 6 )

From ( 5 ) and ( 6 )

Entire no of yearss for one ocean trip = 48.5 yearss

Entire Requirement of Fuel for One Round Ocean trip:

At Sea:

As chief engine fuel ingestion is 42.4t of IFO per twenty-four hours at MCR and 10t of MDO per twenty-four hours at sea and in port.

IFO required for 41.8 yearss = 1424 T — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 7a )

MDO required for 41.8 yearss = 336 T — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 7b )

MDO required in port for 6.7 yearss = 67 T — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 7c )

Entire Tonnes of fuel Required =2,258 T — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 7 )

From ( 3 ) & A ; ( 7 )

Now, Maximum Fe ore that Ship can transport for this routes = 133, 942t

Undertaking 2:

Calculate the cost per metric ton of lading from each lading port to Isdemir. The circular ocean trip costs per metric tons are required for and ‘up and running ‘ service, get downing at the burden ports.

For the computation of Cost per tones in each ocean trip we have to happen out cost incurred by port operation, fuel use, canal theodolite, running the vas. On the footing of Voyage cost, running cost and lading carried by ship we can happen the Cost per metric ton. Now we will happen Voyage cost and running cost based on given informations and consequences of inquiry 1.

( a ) Ponda district attorney Madeira -Isdemir-Ponda district attorney Madeira:

We will happen the Fuel cost foremost. We know Entire tones of IFO and MDO required for one unit of ammunition ocean trip

From ( 1a ) , ( 2b ) & A ; ( 2c )

Entire tones of IFO required = 1424 T

Entire tones of MDO required =403 T

IFO= $ 435 /tones

MDO= $ 640 /tones

( Please refer hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bunkerworld.com viewed on 24th Sep.2010 )

Cost for 1424 T of IFO = $ 619, 440

Cost for 403 T of MDO = $ 257, 920

Entire fuel cost = $ 877, 360 — — — — — — — — — — ( 8 )

Port Cost:

Port cost given for these two ports are as follows:

Ponda district attorney Madeira ( Brazil ) = $ 45,000

Isdemir ( Turkey ) = $ 35,000

Entire port cost = $ 80,000 — — — — — — — — — — – ( 9 )

On this path at that place will non be any canal dues as vas will sail via GIBRALTAR, so there is no canal cost on this path.

There is no CANAL DUES

So, from ( 8 ) & A ; ( 9 )

Ocean trip Cost = $ 957, 360 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 10 )

Runing Cost:

AS Ship running cost given as $ 6000 per twenty-four hours which include rewards of crew, care of ship, shop, insurance, disposal etc.

From ( 1 ) & A ; ( 2 ) entire no of yearss for one unit of ammunition ocean trip = 40.3 yearss

Runing cost for 40.3 yearss = $ 241,553 — — — — — — – ( 11 )

From ( 10 ) & A ; ( 11 )

Run COST + VOYAGE COST = $ 1, 19 8,193 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 12 )

Now from ( 3 ) & A ; ( 4 )

Maximum lading that ship can transport = 134, 374t — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 13 )

So, from ( 12 ) & A ; ( 13 )

We have entire ocean trip cost, running cost and lading that ship can transport for unit of ammunition the ocean trip.

Cost per metric ton = $ 8.91

( B ) Ocean trip Dampier ( Australia ) -Isdemir ( Turkey ) – Dampier ( Australia ) :

Fuel Cost:

From the ( 7a ) , ( 7b ) , ( 7c ) we can easy happen the entire measure of IFO and MDO required for one unit of ammunition Ocean trip

Entire tones of IFO needed =1773 T

Entire tones of MDO needed=485t

Taking market mean sand trap monetary value as follows ;

IFO= $ 435 /tones

MDO= $ 640 /tones

( Please refer hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bunkerworld.com viewed on 24th Sep.2010 )

Entire cost for 1773t of IFO = $ 771, 255

Entire cost for 485 T of MDO= $ 310, 400

Entire fuel cost = $ 1081655 — — — — — — — — — — — ( 14 )

PORT Cost:

Port cost for Isdemir ( Turkey ) = $ 35,000 — — — — — — — — — — — — ( given )

Port cost Dampier is to be calculated on the sing port dues and navigation charges merely. We can entree agenda charges by Dampier port authorization by sing following site which is besides attached in appendix and mentioned in mentions.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dpa.wa.gov.au/Port-Facilities/Schedule-of-DPA-Charges.aspx/ HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dpa.wa.gov.au/Port-Facilities/Schedule-of-DPA-Charges.aspx/ Access on Sep. 24 ” Entree on Sep. 24, 2010 )

As GT of ship is given 73,999t

Port due charges are to be calculated=0.1916/tonnes

Port dues will be= $ 14178.20 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 15 )

We will non see Lay-up fee as vas has order does n’t necessitate to be at ground tackle

Navigation CAHRGES ;

For the vas entrance and going from the port greater than 10,000 GRT the navigation charges are $ 8,846.64 for both ways. We will besides see the navigation Exemption fee $ 810.

So, Entire navigation charges would be = $ 9656.64 — — — — — — — — — — — ( 16 )

From ( 15 ) & A ; ( 16 )

Port cost at Dampier = $ 23, 834 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 17 )

So when calculate the Port cost for Isdemir ( Turkey ) with Port cost at Dampier

Entire port cost round the ocean trip = $ 58834 — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 18 )

Canal Cost:

On this routes vas would be go throughing through Suez Canal, so we have to happen the Toll charges by canal authorization on both manner that is with loaded ship and ballast ship.

Suez Canal net tunnage ( SCNT ) =67,109t

( Mentioning hypertext transfer protocol: //www.suezcanal.gov.eg/calc.aspx Access on Sep. 24th 2010 )

On this official site of Suez Canal 1 can happen approximative toll charges per theodolite based on SCNT. These are as follows:

Dampier – Isdemier ( loaded ship ) = $ 151, 995,

Isdemier – Dampier ( ballast ship ) = $ 129, 288

These values are calculated with the aid of official Suez Canal site which attach in appendix of this study.

Entire cost Canal dues round the voyages= $ 281283 — — — — — — — — — – ( 19 )

From ( 14 ) , ( 18 ) , ( 19 ) .

Voyage cost= $ 1, 421, 772 — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 20 )

Run Cost:

Entire no of yearss for one unit of ammunition ocean trip =48.5 yearss

As running cost per twenty-four hours for ship= $ 6000 — — — — – ( given )

Runing cost for ocean trip for 48.5 days= $ 291, 000 — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 21 )

Ocean trip cost + Running cost together will give entire disbursals for coveted figure of lading.

From ( 20 ) & A ; ( 21 )

Ocean trip cost + Running cost= $ 1, 712, 722 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 22 )

Now, we have Voyage cost, running cost, Fe ore that ship can transport so we can happen out the Cost per unit.

Maximum lading that ship can carry=134, 374t

From ( 22 )

Cost per metric ton = $ 12.75 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 23 )

Undertaking 3

Calculate the clip charter equivalent ( TCE ) for each path, presuming a COA cargo rate of $ 15 per metric ton ( antique Ponta da Madeira ) and $ 20 per metric ton ( ex Dampier ) ( include 3 % agent ‘s committee on the clip charter ) .

Ponda district attorney Madeira -Isdemir-Ponda district attorney Madeira:

Freight rate given for this Voyage is $ 15 per metric ton. If we consider that ship carries Maximum lading in a ocean trip.

From ( 13 )

Maximum lading that ship can carry= 134, 374t

Rate = $ 15per metric ton

So, Entire cargo for 134, 374t of Fe ore = $ 2, 015, 610 gross — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 24 )

This Gross value includes the 3 % agent committee, therefore subtracting that from gross value.

Net cargo value = $ 1, 955, 142 cyberspace — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( 25 )

Now, in order to happen out Time charter equivalent ( TCE ) that includes the ocean trip cost and does n’t include the running cost. TCE is a standard industry step of the mean day-to-day gross public presentation of a vas. The TCE rate achieved on a given ocean trip is expressed in US $ /day and is by and large calculated by deducting ocean trip disbursals, including sand traps and port charges, from ocean trip gross which will give Gross ocean trip excess. Then spliting by entire no of yearss in ocean trip will give Gross day-to-day excess.

From ( 10 ) & A ; ( 25 )

Gross Voyage surplus= $ 997, 782

Dividing this value by no of yearss in ocean trip will give us Gross day-to-day excess

Entire no of yearss 40.3 yearss

Gross day-to-day excess = $ 24, 758

Now, if we include 3 % agent committee so it will give us

Time charter Equivalent = $ 742, 74 per twenty-four hours

( B ) Ocean trip Dampier ( Australia ) -Isdemir ( Turkey ) – Dampier ( Australia ) :

Freight rate for this ocean trip given is $ 20 per metric ton ; in the same we can happen the Time charter value for this path

Maximum lading that ship can carry=133, 942t

Rate= $ 20 per metric ton

Freight earned in one unit of ammunition voyage= $ 267, 8840 gross

Subtracting 3 % agent committee from above gross value = 259, 847, 5 — — — — — — — — – ( 26 )

Subtracting ocean trip disbursals from above will give us gross ocean trip excess

From ( 20 ) & A ; ( 26 ) 1, 421, 772

Gross ocean trip excess value= $ 1, 176, 703

If we divide this by no of yearss in a ocean trip so it will give us

Gross day-to-day excess = $ 24, 261

Adding 3 % agent committee to above will give us Time charter tantamount value

Time charter value= $ 7, 278, 3 per twenty-four hours

Undertaking 4

Calculate the figure of the cargos needed to finish the entire Fe ore tunnages from each lading port and the ship velocities required for every bit spaced seafarings throughout the twelvemonth.

( a ) Ponda district attorney Madeira -Isdemir-Ponda district attorney Madeira:

Number of cargos needed on this path to finish the contract can establish on the footing of ship transporting capacity.

On this path upper limit lading that ship can transport = 134, 374t

Iron ore to transported through this path = 810,000t — — – ( Given )

If we divide Iron ore measure to the maximal lading that ship can transport, that will give us figure of cargos required to finish the contract.

No of cargos = 7

Here, Ship requires seafaring of 7 times with laden lading and 6 times as ballast ship in order to finish the contract.

Ship velocity on this path can be adjusted to 14.0 knots which will give 44 twenty-four hours ‘s unit of ammunition ocean trip seafaring. This manner, it can be 44 yearss of every bit spaced seafaring over about 295 yearss.

( B ) Ocean trip Dampier ( Australia ) -Isdemir ( Turkey ) – Dampier ( Australia ) :

Same manner, we can happen for this path excessively.

Maximum lading that ship can carry=121102t

Entire measure of Iron ore to be transported=940,000t

Dividing measure of Fe ore by maximal lading that ship can transport will give us:

No of shipments=8

In this instance ship is required to pass through Suez Canal 8 times with laden lading and 7 times as ballast ship for the completion of contract. So, canal dues are different for laden ship and ballast ship, hence to be considered carefully.

Ship velocity on this path can be adjusted to 14.1 knots with laden lading and 14.2 knots with ballast ship which will give 52 yearss of circular ocean trip seafaring. So, each ocean trip could be of every bit separated 52 yearss. On this path, at least one cargo required to be completed by another ship which could be the ship on Ponda district attorney Madeira path. . If 52 yearss round ocean trip seafaring is to be considered with one ship, it will take about 395 yearss which is beyond the contracted period. Initially, one ship can get down the lading work on this path and subsequently, can be joined by ship which will run on the Ponda district attorney Madeira path.

Entire 2 ships will be required for completion of needed tunnage of Fe ore and contract.

Undertaking 5

Sum up the bearer ‘s contractual duties in respects of:

A A A A a ) Requirements for ships on the contract

A A A A B ) Nominating ships for each cargo

A A A A degree Celsius ) Keeping the loading ballad can schedule and effects for non

A A A A vitamin D ) Delays and divergences en path

A A A A vitamin E ) Presentment on reaching at burden and discharge ports.

This is contract issued by General board of directors of ISDEMIR for pellets, ball and all right Fe ore. Duration of the contract is clearly mentioned in the contract. Quantity tunnage allowance is given as A±10 % to be considered for reasoning the contract between ISDEMIR and Carrier. There are several issue which may impact the services over the period of clip. It may be type of vas, cargo, punishment, cargo rate, payment, and 3rd party engagement, cancellation of contract, force majeure, and public presentation bond. This issue can be discussed in summarized signifier as below:

Requirement for ships on the contract:

Carrier has to utilize the ship which he enlisted in his offer or any change should be done with permission of ISDEMIR and marketer. If ship is of foreign flag so it will requires blessing of Import section. Ship should non be of south Cyprus flag in any instance. Ship has to be with clean holds and ready for lading in all facets. Ship ‘s lading clasp hatches should be certified for H2O stringency by categorization of society. Vessel should hold P & A ; I club insurance to cover the charter period. Concluding demand for ship is that it should hold category throughout the contractual period certified by categorization of society.

Nominating ship for each cargo

Nomination of vessel shall take topographic point 20 yearss prior to commencement day of the month of lading laycan. In failure to make so ISDEMIR has wholly right to impact the conveyance on the footing of name and history of bearer. All the right to sing cancellation of day of the month of ballad yearss is reserved by ISDEMIR, Carrier has agreed to revised ballad yearss. Loading laycan agenda has to be agreed by three party ISDEMIR, marketer and bearer. Loading laycan agreed upon by ISDEMIR and bearer before contract should non divert. However, if bearer request change of lading laycan so ISDEMIR will hold all right to accept or reject it. It will be treated as without lading laycan even if it is approved by ISDEMIR. The full demurrage claim by marketer which may originate due to change in lading laycan agenda shall be borne bearer. If ISDEMIR rejects the change so bearer has to follow original laycan otherwise it may take heavy punishment, cancellation of contract. It is discussed in following subdivision.

Keeping the loading laycan agenda and effects for non

Loading laycan factor is really of import in this contract as it is involved with keeping agenda, change of vas, or any hold which may impact agenda of peculiar vas. Any hold which is caused by vas without informing ISDEMIR may ensue in terrible punishment or expiration of contract. All the losingss, amendss or any claim by marketer should be borne by bearer under this status irrespective of original laycan. If the burden laycan is affected except the force majeure, bearer will be apt to pay USD $ 3,000 for each twenty-four hours up to 5 yearss, from 5th twenty-four hours onwards he will pay US $ 6,000 per twenty-four hours. If the hold period exceeds 15 yearss ISDEMIR has right to call off the contract. ISDEMIR has the right to acquire the same conveyance trade done by another ship-owner/charterer. If loading laycan agenda is effected by force majeure event so vas will non invalidate any liabilities due to this. Any hold should non transcend more than 15 yearss otherwise ISDEMIR will hold all right and same trade may be fulfilled by same bearer or another ship-owner/charterer. Any hold occurred should be approved by ISDEMIR and invariably reported to them otherwise once more bearer will be apt for all losingss, amendss and claims.

Delaies and divergences en path

Any hold which will happen during the contract period excepting force majeure event apt for punishment if it is non approved by ISDEMIR. Carrier should do certain that any alteration in lading laycan reported to ISDEMIR punctually approved. In any instance hold period should non transcend 15 yearss if this happens ISDEMIR will hold all right to take any action which they think appropriate. If the hold occurred at lading port bearer shall be apt to pay US $ 5,000 per twenty-four hours and US $ 10,000 per twenty-four hours after 10th twenty-four hours.

In the contract under General term subdivision 12 it is clearly mentioned that divergence from direct path should non happen except for the fuel replenishment or force majeure without ISDEMIR blessing. Once vas is loaded it should direct canvas to droping port without naming any port.

Presentment of reaching at burden and discharge ports

Carrier or shipmaster has to give the definite ETA and tunnage to be loaded. Vessel geting at lading port should give the verification to ISDEMIR, marketer of 10 yearss, 7days, 48 hour, 24 hour prior reaching to lading port. In instance of dispatching port it has to follow same process that is inform marketer and ISDEMIR, sum loaded unequivocal ETA for ISDEMIR port prior 10 yearss, 7days,48 hour and 24 hour.

All the presentment or preparedness at burden port should be received during weekdays Monday-Friday between 08:00 to 17:00 hour and on Saturday between 09:00 to 13:00 hours. Any notice after 13:00 hours on Saturday shall be count as 08:00 hours of following on the job twenty-four hours. Notice of preparedness can be tendered mundane between 08:00 to 17:00 hours and any notice after this clip will considered at 08:00 hours of following twenty-four hours. Laytime will be counted after 24 hours of tendering and credence of the notice of preparedness.

Undertaking 6

Sum up your reserve sing costs and gross, finishing the cargos to agenda and the suitableness of the ships for the COA. Recommend, with ground, whether the company should or should non subject a command for this contract, based on current cargo market conditions and any other relevant considerations.

The contract invites freight offers $ 15 per metric ton ( antique Ponda da Madeira ) and $ 20 per metric ton ( ex Dampier ) for the 810,000 and 940,000 tunnage of Fe ore severally. In the ocean trip appraisal cost per metric ton for antique pool district attorney Madeira and ex Dampier comes $ 10.57 and $ 16.65 severally ( delight see the excel sheet ) . Gross ocean trip excess for antique Ponda district attorney Madeira path is $ 748,623 and gross day-to-day excess is $ 16,983 per twenty-four hours whereas Gross ocean trip excess on ex Dampier path is $ 644,958 and gross day-to-day excess is $ 12,412 per twenty-four hours. Now, if Net ocean trip excess to be discussed on ex Ponda district attorney Madeira path once more it gives really sound figure with $ 484,138 while on ex Dampier path it is $ 333,175.The net day-to-day excess on antique Ponda district attorney Madeira path is $ 10,983 per twenty-four hours and on the ex Dampier path it is $ 6,412 per twenty-four hours ( delight see excel sheet ) Here, this is clear that antique Ponda district attorney Madeira path is more profitable asnet day-to-day excess on this path higher than ex Dampier path. Ex Ponda district attorney Madeira path more money generating and can be easy completed with every bit spaced seafaring over the contract period.

Cargos required on the both the path ex Ponda district attorney Madeira and ex Dampier path are 7 and 8. On the ex Ponda district attorney Madeira path it will take 295 yearss with 44 yearss every bit spaced sailing which can be easy fulfilled. On the other manus, on the ex Dampier path it will take 395 yearss complete the contract with one ship. So, it is required to hold one cargo acquire done with another ship. This could be the ship which runs on ex Ponda da path. The ship which will run on the ex Ponda district attorney Madeira path will hold adequate clip to finish the needed tunnage of Fe ore hence can be easy do one cargo on the ex Dampier path. Capsize ship will be most suited for this contract as they can easy raise the over 100,000 metric tons of lading. Capsize ship