Analysis Of Array Waveguide Based Interleaver Engineering Essay

In the 20 first century, has monolithic demands in the usage and handiness of digital communicating systems transmittal ability, it has happen to an important issues to construct up thin channel spacing and larger channel figure multiplexers/ demultiplexers ( MUXs / DEMUXs ) for dense wavelength division multiplexing ( DWDM ) structures. In the contemporary, panoplied wave guide grate ( AWG ) , thin-film coating, and fibre Bragg grate are major engineerings for manufacturing MUXs / DEMUXs. [ 1 ]

This study covers the basic operation and rules of ( AWG ) Array Wave Guide Based Interleaver. And the study covers the basic rule of array theory. And the public presentation analysis of AWG with utilizing opti system softwear.

And besides in communicating webs, fibre optics webs are most rewarding communicating webs. Fibre optics is channelled the transmittal of visible radiation through thin glass.

The purpose of this undertaking is to look into of the operation and map of the panoplied wave guide grates ( AWG ) . And the understand the public presentation of parametric quantities in the device, and so we investigate those public presentation of parametric quantities and seek to happen how those parametric quantities can impact of the device.

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Specifically, the base on balls set edges is more hard to command in optical constituents, such as panoplied waveguide grating ( AWGs ) , ensuing in interior XT public presentation. Interleavers assure that the originally next channels are no longer present at the concluding filter. In add-on the usage of interleavers is really effectual for the decrease of Rayleigh noise in bidirectional webs.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Understand and familiarise the cardinal constructs and features of AWG Based Interleaver

Develop and implement of AWG Based Interleaver

2. ABOUT OPTICAL FIBER

2.1 History

Fibre optics is used circumstantial in the modern universe as modern engineering. The rule of guiding of visible radiation through the storytellers optics possible was explained by Jacques and Mr. Daniel in Paris in 1840. [ 8 ]

In practically optical fibers are made by glass. And fiber is covered with a diaphanous shell to more correct of refractile index. [ 8 ]

Development of fiber so focused on fiber packages for image transmittal. Image transmittal through tubing was found individually by telecasting laminitis John Logie Baird and the discoverer of wireless Clarence Hansel in 1920. [ 8 ]

2.2 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION

Fibre optics used for communicating, as transmit signals. Fibers are used as a medium for telecommunication webs. Optical fiber is really utile for transmit signals of the far off distance communications. There are benefits of utilizing optical fibers for easy to convey signals, [ 2 ]

High flexibleness

High dependability

Adequate to its strong velocity

Distance of communicating web and Limit the practical velocity because of fading and the scattering jobs in the fiber. [ 2 ] To work out and cut down fading job can use of the Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier ( EDFA ) .To resolved scattering of optical fiber still coerce a via media between the transmittal distance and the bandwidth is doing it is mandatory to review high velocity of the signals at intervals utilizing opto electronic repeaters. [ 2 ]

That public presentation usage for particularly long-distance communications. When compared with electrical wires little fading occurred in visible radiation propagates through the fiber. And the Repeaters usage for long distance to modulate to convey signal. Because they are losingss signal. One fiber can be transporting many channels with different moving ridge lengths.

Optical fibres are largely make used of fiber ocular communications or can be transmitted signals through the fibres. Because of that signals can be travel with low losingss and the besides opposition to electro magnetic mediation. Here fiber ocular communicating signals allow transmittal more than higher bandwidths or informations rates and longer distance. And besides fibres are doing usage of lighting and the wrapped in clump of fibres and they can be applied to transport images. In the short distance communicating networking within a edifice or little country.single fibre can be transmit big figure of informations than the electrical wires. And besides fibre has electrical intervention. [ 8 ]

Fibers can be prepared by crystalline plastic, glass or a mixture of the two stuffs. When long-distance telecommunications fibres make usage of merchandise is ever glass, ground of minor optical fading in fibres. together of the single-mode and the multi-mode fibres are doing usage of communicating links. Largely Multi-mode fibres are doing usage of the short infinites ( 550m ) . And the single-mode fibre devising used for long distance communicating links. [ 8 ]

The best solution for that expeditiously improves the functional bandwidth in a construction non including electronic repeaters, and permits realisation of photonic webs by utilizing Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing ( DWDM ) . [ 2 ]

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing ( DWDM ) is best efficient procedure. Reason of a figure of channels can be carried. Each channel carried by dissimilar wavelengths, and they are transmitted throughout the individual optical fiber. Avail of the DWDM used more available bandwidth non including scattering consequence. And the channels using each channel, efficaciously separated from the other channels. And it can non be dependant of the velocities, protocols and the way of the communicating webs. [ 2 ]

And besides DWDM helps to the all optical fiber webs architectures. Where on signals are routed by utilizing their wavelengths. As the consequence of that, this type of webs are likely more flexible and faster, and that can be low dearly-won to maintain up when the compared with other ways. [ 2 ]

3. ARRAY WAVEGUID GREATINS

3.1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT AWG

Arrayed Waveguide Grating ( AWG ) is multiplexers / demultiplexers are two-dimensional waveguide devices.Image and diffusing belongingss are basic foundation on an array wave guides. They imaging the field in an input and end product waveguide on to range wave guides in such a manner that the assorted wavelength signals are presented. [ 3 ]

In recent old ages, Arrayed Waveguide Grating ( AWG ) was foremost discovered by Smit in 1988 and subsequently by Takahashi in 1990 and after that Dragone in 1991. They are known by under different names: Phased Arrays ( PHASARs ) , Arrayed Waveguide Gratings ( AWGs ) , and the Waveguide Grating Routers ( WGRs ) . [ 3 ] And wave guide grate router ( WGR ) has happen to more and more trendy as wavelength multiplexers / demultiplexers ( MUX / DEMUX ) for dense wavelength division multiplexing ( DWDM ) applications ( Vellekoop and Smit, in 1991 ) .

The acronym AWG invented by Takahashi is the most usually used up name now a yearss. Fibre Bragg Gratings and Thin-Film Filters, AWGs are the chiefly important sort of filter type used in WDM webs. They are accepted bend out to be the chiefly important develop of Photonic Integrated Circuits ( PIC ) engineering. [ 4 ]

Recent universe the chiefly important engineerings are used for AWGs.

Indiumphosphide ( InP ) based semiconducting material engineering

Silica-on-silicon engineering

Equally good to that they investigate on Li niobate and silicon-based polymer engineerings have been shown up every bit good. Silica-on-silicon ( SoS ) AWGs have been presented to the sell in 1994 and at present clasp the major portion on the AWG market. [ 3 ]

This average peers with fiber and so it relatively simple to partner off them to fibers. High fibre-coupling efficiency of ( losingss in usage of 0.1 dubnium ) and low extension loss ( less than 0.05 dB/cm ) with they joined. [ 3 ]

The major trouble is they are relatively large because of their fiber compared waveguide belongingss. They are forbiding the usage of little curves. This is for the present being got better by utilizing upper index disparity and the doted-size convertors to maintenance fibre matching low losingss. [ 3 ]

3.2 ABOUT AWG

This is a latest engineering make utilizations of an incorporate array of wave guides as a interleaving and grate. [ 5 ] The panoplied wave guide grate ( AWG ) is a two-dimensional wave guide device. [ 6 ] And the beam traveling from side to side a device grating shall make an intervention sample, meaning the beam is diffracted merely at clear angles.

The spacial strength of giving out is a map of the grate, the wavelength and the angle of happening. In here different wavelengths will be diffracted in the different angles ( spatially separated ) . Arrayed waveguide grating ( AWG ) is bring forthing a bantam grate with lithographic engineering and with low losingss. [ 5 ]

Functions in AWG: –

Transmissive diffraction and grate in largest portion of fibre optics

Harmonizing o the moving ridge length diffracting the beam at the angle

The primary application of panoplied waveguide grates is WDM. By developing AWG, used for demultiplexing and WDM wavelength-division multiplexing ( WDM ) . Initially, developers are identified that AWGs could be mix with other two-dimensional wave guide setup. And the other assorted maps like, [ 6 ]

Wavelength-selectable optical masers.

Including dynamic addition

Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers

Equalization

Figure 3.2.1 In an panoplied wave guide grating [ 6 ]

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing ( DWDM ) is an effectual manner. Where the figure of channels, but different wavelengths are in each channel. Through a individual optical fiber allows transmitted signals, without raising the cause of scattering by utilizing to boot on manus bandwidth. [ 2 ]

Each channel, while it is expeditiously divided from the others, could be free in protocol, way of communicating and velocity, all-optical web architecture are understood by aid of DWDM without want for electro-optical transition where transmit signals are routed harmonizing to wavelength. Therefore, this sort of web has below characterises when compared to other types, [ 2 ]

Less dearly-won to keep

More flexible

Potentially faster

Figure 3.2.2 An Add / Drop Multiplexer ( ADM ) . [ 2 ]

Figure 3.2.3 An Optical Cross Connect ( OXC ) utilizing a infinite division exchange [ 2 ]

In DWDM is done optical wavelength multiplxers / demultiplexers by Arrayed Waveguide Gratings ( AWG ) . Equally good as multiplexing and the demultiplexing maps are executing by DWDM. It can be joint with other setup to do put or out multiplexers, used to shriek one wavelengths on and off the web, and the brand usage of for the routing, and Cross Connects. These constituents can be inert, harmonizing to wavelength where the signal routing should be fixed, or activated. Where the optical switches are utilized to dynamically route the signals. [ 7 ]

Both circuits are shown evident to the format of informations, can allow map wholly in the optical field and both directional transmit of information. These undertakings permit the creative activity of dissimilar evident optical web. Examples of the three chief sorts of these are explained in the approaching subdivisions. [ 2 ]

It can set up several input fibers same clip. Input and end product port nexus policy were by experimentation verified and formulated. The device same clip removes the two chief mistakes observed in the before built up device ; decrease of every wave guide crossings between AWGs and taking off of the status to accurately match the features of the two AWGs. This suggestion will be helpful in cut down device cost. [ 9 ]

This is because of the information that AWG based constituents that have been shown to be able of the precisely demultiplexing and a big figure of channels, with relatively small loss. Main characters of the N ( end product ) ten N ( input ) AWG MUX / DEMUXes are small loss of fiber to fibre, accurate and the narrow channel spacing, and the polarisation insensitiveness, so the large channel figure, high dependability and stableness, and being appropriate for the immense production ( Dragone in 1991 ) . [ 4 ]

Because of the industry the AWG is established on graded photolithographic engineering, in the combination of the AWG gives so many benefits. Such as,

Reduced packaging and fiction costs

Dependability

Large fiction

Tolerances

Concentration

The most valuable benefits of the AWG besides include the controlled channel and exactly and the spacing, uniform the interpolation loss and simple and accurate wavelength in stabilisation. [ 4 ]

3.3. ABOUT INTERLEAVER

3.3.1 INTERLEAVER FUNCTIONL TYPES

All maps and filter types are common and periodic in frequence

( a ) Partition of channels end product to 1:4 or higher

( B ) Two different ports are used to divide even and uneven channels from Original interleaver.

( degree Celsius ) Asymmetric interleaver separates one channel.

( vitamin D ) Separates even and uneven sets of channels from banded interleaver,

Figure 3.3.1.1 ( a ) Partition of channels end product to 1:4 or higher [ 10 ]

Figure 3.3.1.2 ( B ) Two different ports are used to divide even and uneven channels from Original interleaver. [ 10 ]

Figure 3.3.1.3 ( degree Celsius ) Asymmetric interleaver separates one channel. [ 10 ]

Figure 3.3.1.4 ( vitamin D ) Separates even and uneven sets of channels from banded interleaver [ 10 ]

In the optical communicating the effectual method for addition the transmittal capacity, was Dense wavelength division multiplexing ( DWDM ) . [ 10 ]

The cyclic signals of the interleaver can be filter decreases the figure of channels. Fourier setup are necessary to the level base on balls set ( out put signal ) and high isolation rejection set. [ 10 ]

These intreleavers contrasts in to merely impart bead and add filters. It can be making a individual narrow set of the filter more than a big rejection set. As a consequence of the interleaver needs for lesser Fourier setup, so the crisp border response higher order and same level top and narrow set filters can be understood with usage few subdivisions. [ 10 ]

There are many assortments of the blocks of the interlever harmonizing to their maps. The initial design of combines ( or separates ) an uneven channels from even channels through the DWDM combiner. It is indicated by a 1:2 interleaver. In every channel there is cyclic separation and logical extension. Like as the 1:4 map Shown. The dissimilar discrepancy of the banded interleaver. Where the channel sets are separated and sporadically. [ 10 ]

This is the really difficult to make and filtrate due to filters are roll off must be steeper in the relation to the filter clip. At last, in comparison with the old in three filters. The asymmetric filters can cyclically divide one channel. [ 10 ]

Array Waveguide Gratings ( AWG ) s, and the DWDM devices such as thin movie filters ( TFFs ) and Fibre Bragg Gratings ( FBG ) s, are chiefly used for in systems with channel spacing to the no less than 100 GHz. [ 11 ]

Can be spread out the transmittal ability, with lessening in the channel spacing. It is besides named interleaver. The input of the DWDM wavelengths can be separated by utilizing Interleaver. Each single channel is transmitted really high spot rate of traffic channels. Besides the chromatic scattering of the constituent is really low. [ 11 ]

4. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF AWG

The panoplied wave guide grating base interleaver is includes of an array of narrow wave guides. Between a brace of Coupling zones or blending parts the signals are running closed each other. When cyclic wave guides running up to the 2nd commixture part, that input signals foremost enter the commixture part and where they are coupled. [ 6 ]

After that the light transmitted to the 2nd commixture part. That part the moving ridge signal diffraction and in different angles of different wavelengths, it is similar to a diffraction grate. [ 6 ]

The uniting part works as a lens to concentrate the diffracted beam in to a series of end product ports on the opposed side. Helpful mediation focuses beam of a uneven wavelength at merely one place on the opposite side, with the ports set up to garner beam at the expected wavelength span, such as typical optical channel slots for WDM. [ 6 ]

The figure of channels and the figure of end product ports are divided ; when the channel spacing is multiplied by the figure of channels can be obtained free spectral scope of the device. The wave guides traveling among the two combination parts is larger than the figure of channels. [ 6 ]

AWG is a planar-waveguide devise transporting out of high transmittal grates. Arrayed wave guides made in plastic, Si, silicon oxide or semiconducting material stuffs like as In phosphates. AWG as a planar wave guide device, it could be made monolithically and integrated with other constituents. [ 6 ]

4.1 MULTIPLXER / DEMULTIPLEXER

Arrayed waveguide grates have obtained blessings for WDM with high channel calculates as their agreements permit low cost per channel than the methods footing on distinct optics. When in the research lab editions have reached really finally high channel calculates and the spacing, with channel spacing to 10 GHz and 100s of channels in a individual device. [ 6 ]

Demultiplexing is the chief intent of the AWGs, with utilizing a individual input presenting a WDM signal and which is demultiplexed and the end product of the optical channels are divided among assorted end product wave guides. For multiplexing in AWGs, the constituent could be reversed with signals at stray wavelengths. And incoming stray port combined inside of the AWG. [ 6 ]

Typical AWGs have base on balls sets. It is closely in Gaussian signifier. They are powerful faded beam from the nearby base on balls sets. Though, the perfect base on balls set for WDM has a level top conversely than the arched Gaussian extremum. The simplest channel to smoothing the extremum is convenient filtering by rectifying manner beam of visible radiation is carried to the input port, or by rectifying the lengths of the array weaponries of the AWG. [ 6 ]

One option is to stick on an interleaver to split signals between brace of AWGs. Once is accepting the even channels and the other uneven channels. Another waveguide constituent or AWG is for excess filtering. [ 6 ]

As the AWG demultiplexer Wavelength routing is the same rules. The of the panoplied wave guide grates diffraction angle depends geometry of the grating engineering every bit good as on the angle of the incidence. All the optical channels have to the same angle of incidence when they are come ining through the individual fibers. [ 6 ]

On the other manus, those inputs signals have different incidence angles if the light enters to the input sociable through the two or more input ports, hence they are diffracted at the dissimilar angles as they appear from the panoplied wave guides grates in the end product of the sociable. When reroute and the rearrange to optical channels delivered by multiple inputs of fibers this consequence can be used to be easy. [ 6 ]

Harmonizing to that the routing agreement is stiff, channels with the same wavelength wo n’t interfere with the each other or to be routed in out of the same wave guide. [ 6 ]

4.2 APPLICATIONS OF AWG

Arrayed wave guide grates ( AWG ) s are chiefly experimental used in optical fibre communicating systems or webs. In peculiar those based on the multi-channel transmittal with wavelength division multiplexing ( WDM ) .

In single wavelength channels or channels must be used in combined or separated. It can be the portion of the more complex photonic integrated circuits ( e.g. WDM senders ) .

Arrayed waveguide grating can be used for dividing or interleaving the lines in the spectrum of a ace continuum beginning, or in a pulse maker for extremist short pulsations.

5. Operation OF AWG

Figure 5.1 Array waveguide Gratings [ 10 ]

Figure 5.2 Lens apparatus of an AWG [ 10 ]

Waveguide constellation is formed on a substrate in the Arrayed wave guide grating. Include the undermentioned options in the wave guide constellation.

In to the first slab can be arranged One or more optical input wave guides, and the end product side can be connected in to the first slab, one or more optical end product channel Arrayed wave guides, and that waveguides connected to the input side of the 2nd slab.

From the catching visible radiation get downing the outside to the first slab and the waveguide propagate visible radiation at that place through. In the panoplied wave guide plenty many of wave guides in assorted lengths.

And the 2nd slab wave guides are linked to end product border of the panoplied waveguide.Then the individual or more of the optical end product wave guides can organized.

In the array waveguide grate of claim ( fibre optics ) where different in length from each other. And fibre optics is ( skiding ) concept in mutually-different stuffs.

In the panoplied wave guide grate, fibres are separate from each other.

Figure 5.3 Conventional representation position of the N X N AWG. [ 33 ]

Figure 5.4 The Input / Output Free Propagation Region. [ 34 ]

In usually AWG appliances such as serve the multiplexers, add-drop devices, demultiplexers and filters and the optical Wave Division Multiplexing ( WDM ) and the Dense Wave Division Multiplexing ( DWDM ) uses.

Figure 5.3 shows a conventional illustration of the N x N AWG. The instrument includes of two curved in slab waveguide star couplings ( free infinite scope or free extension ranges, FSR ) , linked by a spell off array wave guide with the same length fluctuation among nearby Array wave guides. [ 4 ]

The processing theory of the AWG multiplexers/demultiplexers can be explained in brief as below. In the input waveguide Light propagating is diffracted in coupled into the panoplied wave guide and the slab part by the 1st FSR. The panoplied wave guide has been planned like as the optical tract of the length fluctuation between nearby array wave guides equivalent an figure many of in-between wavelength of the demultiplexer. As a consequence, the field bringing at the input gap will be recreated at the end product opening. [ 4 ]

So, at this in-between wavelength, the beam of light dressed ores in the center of the image surface ( presented that the input wave guide is in-between in the input surface ) . If the input wavelength is re tuned from this in-between wavelength, alterations of stage happen in the array subdivisions. Because of this steady tract of the length in fluctuation between nearby wave guides, this stage vary get higher linearly array wave-guides from the inner to outer, That may go on the moving ridge forepart to be slanting at the end product opening. [ 4 ]

As a consequence, the cardinal point in the plane of image is moved left from the Centre. The pointing of the end product wave guides in the plane of image permits the suited farewell of the assorted among wavelengths. The input includes of a figure of channels, usually among 8 or 40 in industrial devices, transmitted on single frequences. Channel spacing is common in commercial devices. [ 2 ]

Frequency spacing in has been attained harmonizing to laboratory state of affairss. The functioning wavelength is normally approximately 1.55 I?m which fading is least in fibre optics. Every wave guide in the AWG be probably to one manner to do certain expected extension throughout the machine. [ 2 ]

5.1 BASIC DESIGN PARAMETERS OF AWG

When knowing of the working theory of AWG take in, it depends on the assorted stuffs, like as polymeric stuffs or silicon oxide, and design conditions. like as diffraction, length difference of nearby panoplied wave guides, chief length of the slab wave guide, free spectral scope ( FSR ) , and maximal value of input and the end product wavelength channels, the maximal figure of the array wave guides. The basic design parametric quantities are summarized in analytical equations as follows: [ 28 ]

5.1.1 LENGTH DIFFERNCE OF AJACENT ARRAY WAVEGUID

The way length fluctuation among nearby arrayed wave guides a?†L is given by the below look [ 13 ]

Where

nc – is the effectual refractile index of AWG,

a?†L – is the way length difference between next arrayed wave guides

i?¬0 – is the centre wavelength of the panoplied wave guide,

m – is the diffraction order,

5.1.2 Free SPECTRAL RANGE ( FSR )

Free spectral scope ( FSR ) is a important belongings of the AWG, demultiplexer cyclicity is the similar name to the FSR. This cyclicity is because of the information that create interface at the outside FSR can go on for a sum of wavelengths. The free spectral span indicates the frequence spacing and the wavelength among the upper limit of the interface theoretical account due to the cyclic qualities of the AWG transportation map, and could be get as follows. [ 4 ]

Where,

FSR – free spectral scope

nc – effectual refractile index of AWG

m – order of diffraction

ng – group refractile index

i?¬0 – Centre wavelength of the panoplied wave guide

5.2 TECHNICAL FIELD

In the communicating field of optical fiber, there can be used an panoplied wave guide grating while specified. In the current innovation connects for panoplied wave guide grate is pull offing the undertaking of the wavelength demultiplexing and multiplexing of optical signals of many wavelengths. [ 14 ]

In the panoplied waveguide grating can be arranged one or more optical fiber input wave guides.In the first slab wave guides are linked to the optical input wave guides which is in the end product sides. And panoplied wave guide is linked to the end product side wave guides of first slab. And the 2nd slab wave guide are linked to the end product side of the panoplied wave guides. And there can be

Arranged one or more optical fiber end product wave guides. [ 14 ]

The panoplied wave guide is provided by the propagating of the light end product from and the plurality of wave guides and the first slab waveguide arranged. Nearby channel wave guides are assorted in lengths by predefined lengths. And the panoplied wave guide provides to the each one of signal for a stage fluctuation is in the panoplied wave guide grates. Normally, a big figure of channel wave guides are included the panoplied wave guide. [ 14 ]

On the array wave guide grate, when the wavelength division multiplexed of optical signal including signals can be holding wavelengths I»1, I»2, I»3… … to… . I»n. One optical input wave guide can be entered those wavelengths. Then after that this signal forwards to the optical input wave guides and in to the first slab wave guides. Then the signal is diffracted and spread by the first slab wave guide and it is transmitted to the panoplied wave guide to propagate there through. [ 14 ]

After arrayed wave guide go throughing through, the signals enter the 2nd slab of wave guide in articulation of and so the end product from the optical wave guides. And the channel of the wave guides in the panoplied wave guides are all different in lengths, the stage difference between appears in each of the signals are that have passed through out of the panoplied wave guides. In Oder to this stage differences, the moving ridge forms foreparts of the signals are tilt. And this tilt angles are determines of the focal points of the signals. [ 14 ]

In this ground of the central points of the signals are holding different different wavelengths differ from each other and the consequently optical end product of the wave guides are formed at the respective in the focal points. Within this constellation, the signals are different the wavelengths are an extracted by the optical end product wave guides severally. Then the completing of the map as a wavelength division demultiplexer of an panoplied wave guide grate. [ 14 ]

The panoplied wave guide grates are taken by advantage of rule and the reversibility of optical circuits. And the panoplied wave guide grate besides handles in the map of the wavelength division multiplexers. And every bit good as wavelength division demultiplexer. The reversing in the above described in the process, when the signals are holding differing wavelengths I»1, I»2, I»3… to… .I»n enter several optical end product of the wave guides. The signals are passes through the above mentioned of the extension way in contrary. And in the 2nd wave guide slab, signals are multiplexed. And the panoplied wave guide and the first slab wave guides and end product of the optical fiber input wave guides.

In by and large, as an panoplied wave guide grates are chiefly made of the silicon oxide based with glass. [ 14 ]

6. Lab Experiment

In the research lab experiment Opti system package was used to analyzing public presentation of Array Waveguide Based Interleaver. In here I used to AWG N x N multiplexer.

An AWG N x N multiplexer construction is shown in Figure 6.1

Figure 6.1 Soft ware construction of AWG.

Figure 6.2 Soft ware belongingss of AWG

Chiefly in AWG can be configure as,

Size – with N inputs between 2 and 1000

Configuration – Mux and De-mux

Frequency – Between 30 and 300000 THz.

Bandwidth – Numeral value between 0 and 1e+100 GHz.

Frequency Spacing – Numeral value between -10000 and 10000 GHz.

In practically we use of following sets and the wavelength ranges,

Set

Description

Wavelength Range

O set

Original

1260 to 1360 nanometer

Tocopherol set

Extended

1360 to 1460 nanometer

S set

Short Wavelengths

1460 t0 1530 nanometer

C set

Conventional ( “ Er window ” )

1530 to 1565 nanometer

L set

Long Wavelengths

1565 to 1625 nanometer

U set

Ultra long Wavelength

1625 to 1675 nanometer

* ( 1530 nm t0 1650 nm Dense WDM )

Table 6.1 Wavelength scopes [ 8 ]

To the AWG can be input in N frequences. Each channel will go out through a different end product, harmonizing to its wavelengths and frequence. AWG input with an suited design, the channels will be issue and separated through assorted end products.

In this experiment used the C set for practical.

6.1 AWG WORK AS MULTIPLEXER

Figure 6.1.1 Setup of AWG usage as Multiplexer

Figure 6.1.2. End product of the five channels

This subdivision, is described the experimental consequences of the multiplexer utilizing an AWG. Figure 6.1.3 shows of the experimental apparatus in rudimentss. In the experiment, separated two channel optical signals ( With utilizing optical Trans metres ) multiplexed by utilizing AWG. And the observation can be taken by the optical spectrum analyser.

Figure 6.1.3 simple construction of the Simulation of AWG usage as mux.

Figure 6.1.4 one of the end products of the two channels with spacing.

Figure 6.1.5 one of the end products of the two channels with addition spacing.

Input frequencies- 1530nm & A ; 1565nm

In AWG,

Configure Mux, Frequency- 1550nm.

Change the frequence spacing of the optical sender.

Wavelength ( Aµm )

Frequency spacing ( nanometer )

Figure 6.1.6 frequence spacing and wavelength diagram

The diagram shows the fluctuation of frequence spacing and wavelength. That is additive diagram.

6.2 AWG WORK AS DE-MULTIPLEXER

Figure 6.2.1 Setup of AWG usage as De Multiplexer

Figure 6.2.2 End product of the three channels

In this subdivision, described the experimental consequences of the AWG utilizing de multiplexer. Figure 6.2.3. shows the simple experimental apparatus. In this experiment, separated two channels input the multiplexer. In the end product of multiplexer in put the AWG.After that observes the end product of signal diagrams of optical spectrum analyser.

The bearer wavelength of the channels 1 and 2 are 1530 nanometer and 1540 nanometer severally. For the Demux strategy, we used opt system soft ware a commercially available in AWG.

The centre frequence of the AWG was set to the 1560 nanometer. And they perform desired to the Demux operation.

Figure 6.2.3 simple construction of the Simulation AWG usage as de mux.

Figure 6.2.4 two optical end product of the AWG de mux

The figure shows the Separation between the bearers and the two sidebands. There can be seen by a considerable sum of the unsuppressed optical bearers.

In this experiment, foremost filtered the bearer signal and the lower sideband of the channels 1 and 2 with utilizing the AWG as shown in Figure6.2.3 because we used an AWG, each demultiplexed channel can non be at the same time detected. The channel choice was made by seting the input ports of the AWG. The bearer and the sideband of the unsought channel are suppressed by the desired bearer and the sidebands of the channels severally.

Figure6.2.5 frequence spacing and wavelength diagram

The diagram shows the fluctuation of frequence spacing and wavelength. That is additive diagram.

In here more clearly and shows the shifted in end product signals of the in-between wavelength through to the outside ushers. Figure proves the hypertrophied version of the in-between channel.

AWG is includes of a diffraction of the lens and the grate and the slender end product split with a spatially modeled of the mask on extremum of the grates. This needed provides an end product of the temporal wave form. But that is a precisely scaled version of the input spacial profile at the grate. [ 15 ]

In cherished of a cyclically ailing input of the spacial form creates a on a regular basis separated explode of pulsations. An AWG could be thought about to the incorporated pulsation signifier where the array wave guide relates to the grates of the lens grouping in the majority equipment and the AWG end product waveguide groups to the greater portion optics end product. [ 15 ]

The spacial wave guide theoretical account next to the end product of the AWG array portion is correspondent to the cyclically moderated spacial visible radiation on the greater portion grating the optics ; this clarifies the close lucifer among the highly high velocity pulsation explodes made here via lighting of an AWG and antecedently utilizing pulse makers. And besides the greater portion optics such as the AWG is able of bring forthing legion spatially divided and wavelength moved but else the same transcripts of the pulse explode. [ 15 ]

As this attitude for brand usage of an AWG is earlier undiscovered, it is important to in brief express the optical power effectivity. Mentioning to the effectivity for a lone end product channel is approximately known by the base on balls set breadth separated. When the setup is planned so that end product channels are spaced by, the legion end product channels is approximately. So, the entire optical power effectivity is known by the efficiency for a individual channel period the figure of channels as the consequence. [ 15 ]

In reappraisal of the experiment, we have to uncover in the first clip for our acquisition, the coevals of trains of the pulsations at terahertz repeat velocity is likely from an AWG. The cardinal conditions are that the device must be modified. And the multiple filters of base on balls sets of the signal tantrum within the input of the optical maser bandwidth. And the end product pulse repeat frequence is equal to the free spectral scope, or every bit the antonym of the hold of an addition per direct in of the array waveguide part. [ 15 ]

The end product temporal profile is invariant across different end products of the same device, but the in-between wavelength moves from one end product to the following with the measure of displacement given by the channel spacing of the device. [ 15 ]

In the pulsation spectrum breadth of an single pulsations in the end product train is verified by the input pulse breadth. These sole belongingss are license for coevals of the same wavelength shifted and really high velocity of the pulsation trains for intercrossed TDM ( Time Division Multiplexing ) and the WDM ( Wavelength Division Multiplexing ) communications and photonic signal processing. In the hereafter, we anticipate that similar experiments may be performed with a high-repetition-rate of the beginning ( 10s of GHz ) , which lead to really closely spaced or even uninterrupted THzs pulse should split. [ 15 ]

6.3 AWG WORK AS INTERLEAVER

Figure 6.3.1 simple construction of the simulation of AWG usage as Interleaver.

In this simmulation input the sevaral frequncy by utilizing optical transmetters. And fall in the ideal mux and AWG. Out put of the ideal mux showen in figure 6.3.2. there is seven ( 7 ) frequncies with multiplexed out put.

Figure 6.3.2 optical end product of Mux

Figure 6.3.3 optical end product of optical spectrum Analyzer.

In this figure can place chief end product of four ( 4 ) frequences are interleaving.

Figure 6.3.3 optical end product of optical spectrum Analyzer-1.

In this figure can place chief end product of other three ( 3 ) frequences are interleaving.

7. TIME PLANE

8. CONCLUTION

In the changing universe, most things are altering into electronic based systems and the easy portion of the operations. As the consequence of this, optical fibres are usage to communicating. Now a twenty-four hours ‘s optical fibres are overlap with applied scientific discipline and technology designs and the applications of the equipments.

In this undertaking is investigated theoretically the basic design parametric quantities of panoplied wave guide grate ( AWG ) with utilizing opti system package. In the experiments used the C-band ‘s spectral scope ( from 1530 nanometer to 1565 nanometer ) . And have been demonstrated theoretically that the lower limit of the diffraction order and the maximal figure of the input and the end product wavelength channels, and so the maximal figure of the panoplied wave guides. Besides have to look into the optimisation design and the parametric quantities of AWG for a C-band application.

By utilizing opti system package comparing the fluctuation of frequence spacing and wavelength constellation with AWG. That configures with two types, multiplexer and the de multiplexers. Got readings with altering frequence spacing. Those are additive diagrams. The ground for that frequence spacing fluctuation is additive for both multiplexrs and de multiplexer constellations in AWG. The cognition was addition about the how to work with the soft ware and the constituents can be use in imitating procedure by utilizing opti system package.

9. Reference

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