Analysis of Divisional Performance of Asian Paints Ltd

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENT ON ADVANCED COST ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS OF DIVISIONAL PERFORMANCE OF ASIAN PAINTS LTD SUBMITTED TO: -SUBMITTED BY: – DR. G. SHANMUGHASUNDARAM A. PURUSHOTHAMAN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR M. COM (BUSINESS FINANCE) DEPT. OF COMMERCE 2nd YEAR PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY REG. NUMBER: 11351059 INTRODUCTION DIVISIONAL PERFOMANCE OF COST CENTRE AND PROFIT CENTRE A profit centre is a unit of a company that generates revenue in excess of its expenses. The main aim of profit centre is to earn profit.

The performance of profit centre is evaluated in terms of whether the centre has been achieved its budgeted profit A cost centre is a business unit that is only responsible for the costs that it incurs. The manager of a cost centre is not responsible for revenue generation or asset usage. The performance of a cost centre is usually evaluated through the comparison of budgeted to actual costs. The costs incurred by a cost centre may be aggregated into a cost pool and allocated to other business units. Investment centre is responsible for both profit and investment.

The investment centre manager has control over revenue, expenses and the amount invested in the current assets. The following are the techniques used to measure the divisional performance of cost centre and profit centre * Variance analysis * Profit * Return on investment * Market share COST PER UNIT: Cost refers to the total cost incurred for the production. So cost per unit refers to the cost incurred for producing 1 unit. Normally we used the below formula to calculate the cost per unit Cost/unit = total cost / No. of unit produced COST PER UNIT year| Production| Total expenses| COST PER UNIT| 008| 40946. 7| 559586| 0. 073173203| 2009| 50418. 7| 602922| 0. 083623918| 2010| 57937. 2| 732142| 0. 079133829| 2011| 72582. 9| 849056| 0. 085486587| Interpretation: The above table and chart shows the cost per unit of Asian paints India ltd. They incurred highest cost per unit in the year 2011. This may because increasing the cost of raw material or other charges etc. It is better to have lower cost per unit because when cost per unit increases the total cost will increase. That in turn reduces the profitability of a firm. In the 2008 the firms have lower cost per unit of production compared to other years.

So may be this year the profit is increased. The cost per unit is higher in the years 2011 and 2009. COST VARIANCE Cost variance (CV) is the amount of money that was actually spent on a project or a part of a project compared to the amount of work that was actually accomplished. Cost variance = Budgeted cost of work performed – The actual cost of work performed. YEAR| TOTAL COST| STANDARD| COST VARIANCE | DECISION| 2008| 40946. 7| 61276. 54| -20329. 84| A| 2009| 50418. 7| 61276. 54| -10857. 84| A| 2010| 57937. 2| 61276. 54| -3339. 34| A| 2011| 72582. 9| 61276. 54| 11306. 6| F| 2012| 84,497. 20| 61276. 54| 23220. 66| F| Interpretation: Here from 2008 to 2010 there is a favorable situation because in these years actual cost is less than standard cost. In 2011 and 2012 actual cost exceeds standard cost. That may be because of increase in the cost/unit in these years. SALES VARIANCE Sales variance is the difference between actual sales and budget sales. It is used to measure the performance of a sales function, and/or analyze business results to better understand market conditions. Sales variance = Actual sales – standard sales Segment 1= Paint

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YEAR| SALE| STANDARD| SALES VARIANCE| DECISION| 2008| 39062. 2| 51731. 3| -12669. 1| A| 2009| 48641. 9| 51731. 3| -3089. 4| A| 2010| 56135| 51731. 3| 4403. 7| F| 2011| 63086. 1| 51731. 3| 11354. 8| F| Segment 2= Others YEAR| SALE| STANDARD| SALES VARIANCE| DECISION| 2008| 1731. 7| 1717. 375| 14. 325| F| 2009| 1634. 5| 1717. 375| -82. 875| A| 2010| 1774| 1717. 375| 56. 625| A| 2011| 1729. 3| 1717. 375| 11. 925| A| TOTAL SALES VARIANCE YEAR| TOTAL SALES| STANDARD| COST VARIANCE | DECISION| 2008| 40,946. 70| 62,655. 72| -21,709. 02| A| 2009| 50,418. 70| 62655. 72| -12,237. 02| A| 2010| 57,937. 0| 62655. 72| -4,718. 52| A| 2011| 72,582. 90| 62655. 72| 9,927. 18| F| 2012| 91,393. 10| 62655. 72| 28,737. 38| F| INTERPRETATION Sales variance is higher in the year 2012 which means that company sold more than standard sales in the year 2012. And the 2011 also have the favorable value but it is lower than 2012. From 2008 to 2010 company cannot sold more than standard sales. That is an unfavorable situation for the company. MARKET SHARE The percentage of an industry or market’s total sales that is earned by a particular company over a specified time period is known as market share.

Market share is calculated by taking the company’s sales over the period and dividing it by the total sales of the industry over the same period. This metric is used to give a general idea of the size of a company to its market and its competitors. Market share Year| Total sales| Industrial sales| Market share | 2008| 40,946. 70| 348047| 11. 76| 2009| 50,418. 70| 393266| 12. 82| 2010| 57,937. 20| 260717| 22. 22| 2011| 72,582. 90| 834703| 8. 70| 2012| 91,393. 10| 868,234. 00| 10. 53| Interpretation: Company has highest market share in the year 2010. It is decreased in the subsequent years may be because of increased price of the products.

WORKING CAPITAL TURN OVER RATIO A measurement comparing the depletion of working capital to the generation of sales over a given period called as working capital turn over ration. This provides some useful information as to how effectively a company is using its working capital to generate sales. WORKING CAPITAL TURN OVER RATIO YEAR| TOTAL SALES| CURRENT ASSETS| CURRENT LIABILITIES| WC| WCTOR| 2008| 40,946. 70| 8,686. 30| 8018. 6| 667. 70| 61. 32| 2009| 50,418. 70| 10,403. 70| 7811. 4| 2,592. 30| 19. 45| 2010| 57,937. 20| 11,981. 00| 10588. 7| 1,392. 30| 41. 61| 2011| 72,582. 90| 15,475. 70| 11952. | 3,522. 90| 20. 60| 2012| 91,393. 10| 19,927. 70| 16008. 9| 3,918. 80| 23. 32| Interpretation: Here working capital ratio is higher in the year 2008. This means that company may have adequate working capital for their operation in 2008. Working capital to ratio is very lower in the subsequent years (i. e. 2009 to 2012), it shows that company is struggled with inadequacy of working capital in that years. INVENTORY TURN OVER RATIO Inventory Turnover Ratio is one of the efficiency ratios and measures the number of times, on average, the inventory is sold and replaced during the fiscal year.

Inventory Turnover Ratio formula is: year| Total sales| opening stock| closing stock| Avg stock| ITOR| 2008| 40,946. 70| 40,946. 70 | 42,954. 70 | 41,950. 70 | 97. 61| 2009| 50,418. 70| 50,418. 70 | 52,427. 70 | 51,423. 20 | 98. 05| 2010| 57,937. 20| 57,937. 20 | 59,947. 20 | 58,942. 20 | 98. 29| 2011| 72,582. 90| 72,582. 90 | 74,593. 90 | 73,588. 40 | 98. 63| INTERPRETATION

A low inventory turnover ratio is a signal of inefficiency, since inventory usually has a rate of return of zero. It also implies either poor sales or excess inventory. A low turnover rate can indicate poor liquidity, possible overstocking, and obsolescence, but it may also reflect a planned inventory buildup in the case of material shortages or in anticipation of rapidly rising prices. In our case the 2008 has the lower turnover rate. A high inventory turnover ratio implies either strong sales or ineffective buying (the company buys too often in small quantities, therefore the buying price is higher).

A high inventory turnover ratio can indicate better liquidity, but it can also indicate a shortage or inadequate inventory levels, which may lead to a loss in business. Here the years from 2009 to 2011 there is constant turnover rate. RETURN ON INVESTMENT A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. The objective of every firm is to earn a satisfactory return on capital invested. This is the measure of success i. e. it shows the overall profitability of the firm. ROI = PAT/ cap. Employed YEAR| PBIT| CAPILAT EMPLOYED| ROI| 2008| 5925. | 9,285. 00| 63. 81583199| 2009| 6075. 9| 10,944. 70| 55. 51454128| 2010| 10526. 9| 15,572. 20| 67. 60059593| 2011| 11636. 7| 19,753. 20| 58. 91045501| 2012| 14,086. 30| 24,877. 80| 56. 62196818| INTERPRETATION The above table and chart implies us, The ROI is higher in the year 2008. The Company gets 63. 82% as return on investment. This may because; in this year company sold more than the standard sales. So return on investment is increased. Company received lowest ROI in the year 2009 CONCLUSION: The Asian paints ltd is having an indifferent performance levels, they have both positive and negative performance indicators.

The sales variance is for the last two years is favorable for the company, and also all other indicators such as cost variance favorable for the firm. Another thing is that market share of the company shows a decreasing trend due to decrease in sales. The inventory and working capital of the company is also not good. So it is important for the company to focus on to improve sales volume with higher turnover, better maintenance of working capital. And to try to get more return on investment by adopt necessary measure and techniques.

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