Anthropology Exam 1

Anthropology
the holistic, scientific study of humankind- holistic study of all humankind from its origin to the present
Archaelogy
the subfield of anthropology that recovers evidence of the human cultural past and reconstructs past cultural systems- study of material remains of past human behavior- get materials from: refuse- trash, architecture- foundations or stains, shipwrecks- see what’s being traded- can trace routes- development of ships, landscapes- where people choose to settle- how people manipulated it
Biological Anthropology
the subfield of anthropology that studies humans as a biological species. Focus on physical, biological human- genetics, evolution, fossil record, modern primates
Physical anthropology- the impact of culture on the human body
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Culture anthropology
the subfield of anthropology that focuses on human cultural behavior and cultural systems and the variation in cultural expression among human groups. Study of culture and behavior- all aspects of life have affects and are culture- done in living communities
How people’s behaviors adapt to different situations
How people will interpret there cultural upbringing
ethnographic fieldwork
going into living communities- description of a cultural system based on fieldwork within that culture
ethnocentrism
making value judgments about another culture from the perspective of one’s own cultural system
cultural relativism
studying another culture from its point of view without imposing our own cultural views
Franz Boas
father of American Anthropology- redefined race
Participant Observation
In ethnography, the technique of learning a people’s culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time.
Frequency seriation
changes in frequency (number) over time
Linguistics
the subfield of anthropology that studies language as a human characteristic and attempts to explain the differences among human languages and the relationship between a language and the society that uses it
study of language as a human characteristic and attempt to explain the differences among the 3,000 or so existing human languages
Physical features- mouth, throat, brain
Historical linguistics- how language has changed over time and how that reflects our different culture
Culture- how culture effects language- texting, internet
Forensic anthropology
the subfield of anthropology applied to legal matters. Usually involved in identifying skeletal remains and assessing the time and cause of death.
world view
the collective interpretation of and response to the natural and cultural environments in which a group of people lives- their assumptions about those environments and values derived from those assumptions- a set of assumptions about the way things are
Hutterites
focused on living in a community of goods and absolute pacifism, 19th century found a new home in North Ameria
Holistic approach
assuming an interrelationship among the parts of a subject
Biocultural perspective
focusing on the interaction of biology and culture
comparative approach
comparing cultures or societies- similarities and differences
culture
ideas and behaviors that are learned and transmitted. Nongenetic means of adaptation.
society
a group of organisms living together in an ordered community. In the case of humans, a group with a shared culture.
material culture
physical, tangible aspect of culture- desk, phone- how we interact with material affects how we behave
scientific method
the process of conducting scientific inquiry- use a theory to develop a hypothesis- testing hypothesis
induction
the process of developing a general explanation from specific observations
deduction
suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true. Works from the general to the specific
belief system
ideas that are taken on faith and cannot be scientifically tested
behavior
how people interact with the world, people and their environment
fieldwork
field- place you go to do observations- fieldwork involves a goal or a question and collecting data- often among a single culture or site but can be multi-sited
active learning
extragenetic transmission
passive learning
observed transmission, imitation
biological determinism
the idea that human behaviors have a biological basis with minimal influence from culture
cultural constructionism
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas as shaped mainly by learning
prehistoric archaeology
pre written record
historical archaeology
the archaeology of a society that has written records- spread of Europeans- 1492 on
symbols
something that stands for something else, with no necessary link between the symbol and its meaning
artifacts
any object that has been consciously manufactured. Usually refers to human made objects but now includes some items made by other primates.
archaeological methods
-a set of scientific procedures for recovering evidence from the ground
survey
plot a map of (land)
excavation
the systematic removal of layers of earth
stratigraphy
the study of the earth’s strata, the layers of rock and soil under the surface of the earth or the socioeconomic levels within a society
law of superposition
youngest layers on top and oldest on the bottom
relative dating
dating that indicates the age of one item in comparison to another
absolute dating
dating that gives a specific age, year, or range of years for an object or a site. – radio carbon dating- C14
seriation
chronological sequence- assume gradual change- similar objects closer together
taxonomy
a classification using nested sets of categories of increasing specificity
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish botanist (1707-1778) devised a system of names that would reflect the relationship of plants and animals- system of nested categories of increasing specificity
Cladogram
a tree diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships
Protoculture
a behavior having most but not all of the characteristics of a cultural behavior
primates
a large-brained, mostly tree-dwelling mammal with three dimensional color vision and grasping hands. Humans are primates. A primate is a mammal adapted to an arboreal environment through well-developed vision, manual dexterity, and large, complex brains that rely on learned behavior. The latter is aided by the birth of few offspring and the direct and extensive care of those offspring during a long period of dependency while they socialized into groups based on differential relationships among individuals.
new world monkeys
located in the Americas, 2133 dental structure, with gripping tails includes Spider, Howler, Capuchin, Squirrel Monkeys, Tamarins, and Marmosets
old world monkeys
located in asia and africa, 2123 dental structure, non-gripping tails, include Baboons, Mandrills, Macaques, and Colobus monkeys.
chimpanzees
Found in Equatorial Africa Knuckle-walking, brachiation, sometimes bipedal Less sexually dimorphic Omnivores, organized hunts: M and F group hunting effort Small – large mammals Share meat
great apes
a category of large and tailless primates that includes orangutans, gorillas, chimps, and bonobos and humans
lesser apes
gibbons and siamongs; arboreal, brachiators (hand over hand swinging); small body size, extremely long arms relative to body and legs;
prehensile
having the ability to grasp, especially by wrapping the hand or foot around an object
opposability
the ability to touch the thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand
brachiation
moving using arm over arm swinging
dentition
the kind and number and arrangement of teeth (collectively) in a person or animal
binocular vision
ability to merge visual images from both eyes, which provides depth perception and a three-dimensional view of the world
arboreal
adapted to life in the trees
omnivore
an animal that feeds on both animal and vegetable substances
herbivore
any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants
Charles Darwin
(1809-1871)- idea of natural selection- evolutionary change based on the differential reproductive success of individuals within a species
Alfred Wallace
(1823-1913)- English naturalist- came up with evolution at the same time as Darwin
Natural selection
evolutionary change based on the differential reproductive success of individuals within a species
Uniformitarianism
the idea that present day geological process can also explain the history of the earth. Can be applied to biological change as well.
Catastrophism
the idea that the history of the earth and its life is accounted for by a series of global catastrophes
Jean Baptiste Lamark
inheritance of acquired characteristics- the incorrect idea that adaptive traits acquired during an organisms lifetime can be passed on it its offspring
Thomas Malthus
principles of population (1798)- all organisms out produce their food supply- when this occurs population check must happen- a high degree of mortality keeps population growth at an even rate
Four Forces of Evolution
mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, natural selection
Herbert Spencer
used the phrase survival of the fittest
“survival of the fittest”
cultural/ social- used to show superiority
Archaic Humans
• Modern body proportions
• Increased brain size (within range of modern humans, with Neandertals actually having larger average brain size)
• Neanderthals – cave paintings, buried dead away from camp site (Lascaux)
• Limited evidence of symbolic behavior seen in later forms (e.g., Neandertals) – huge bodies.
• Range expanded into northern portions of Europe and western Asia
Hominid
modern humans and African apes and their direct ancestors.
Hominins
under the cladistic taxonomy, humans and our direct ancestors. Habitually bipedal primates
bipedalism
walking on two legs
Homo florensis
Very small hominin found in Indonesia. They show a combination of modern and australopith characteristics. Small size could be due to island dwarfism or microcephalism
Homo erectus
extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain
Genus Homo
the genus of bipeds that appeared 2.5 million years ago characterized by increasing brain size compared to earlier bipeds. The genus is divided into various species based on features such as brain size, skull shape, and cultural capabilities
Austrolopithicine
The first to walk on two feet,
Stone tools
They were the most common technology until about 12,000 years ago.
Human Origins debate
multiregional (originate in lots of places) vs recent African origins (modern humans walked out of Africa) vs genetic replacement (modern humans walked out of Africa and could interbreed with regional archaic humans)
Neanderthal culture
Care of old and sick, cosmology and ritual (burial) art and andornment (pierced teeth, incised tooth)
Race
in biology, the same as subspecies. In culture, categories that classify and account for human diversity
Clines
a geographic continuum in the variation of a trait
skin
skin color is adaptive to the physical environment
polygenism
human differences= separate human species- origins in different places around the world
monogenism
origin from a single source- degeneration- decline to various degrees
hypodescent
A rule that automatically places the children of a union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in the less privileged group.
Wycliffe mounds
Paleoanthropology
human ancestors and human evolution
Primatology
studying our closest relatives to learn about our ancestors or to learn about disease
Forensics
crime scene- why the person did something?-the subfield of anthropology applied to legal matters. Usually involved in identifying skeletal remains and assessing the time and cause of death.
Medical anthropology
how people try to treat illness
Culture
the ideas and behaviors that are learned and transmitted between generations- culture is a set of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society – use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which we live- learned and involves concepts, generalizations, abstractions, assumptions, and ideas and shared through the extra genetic transmission of symbols and realized through the use of artifacts, both concrete and abstract
stylistic seriation
based on presence or absence
Applied Anthropology
fifth field- specialize in different areas- practical application- often part of development studies
Reflexivity
how people reflect on their own culture
Taxonomy
a classification using nested sets of categories of increasing specificity- 7 categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species- reflects evolutionary relationships
Phonetics
a classification system based on existing phenotypic features and adaptions
Cladistics
a classification system based on order of branching rather than on present similarities and differences
Ecofacts
an unmodified natural object used as a tool
R-complex
first, deepest, and oldest part in self- preservation behaviors like mating, aggressiveness and territoriality
Limbic system
a portion of the brain involved in emotions such as fear, rage, and care of young- also areas dealing with basic sexual function and sense of smell- also involved with some aspects of memory
Neocortex
a portion of the brain involved in conscious thought, spatial reasoning, and sensory perception
Evolution
idea that species change over time and have a common ancestry
Fossils
remains of life forms from the past
Strata
layers of rock and soil under the earth’s surface
Natural Selection
differential success to survive and reproduce
mutation
random change in the inheritance of material, affecting genes, chromosomes- spontaneous, unpredictable change
gene flow
interbreeding of populations- often in geographic proximity
genetic drift
changes in allele frequencies due to random events- fission and founder effect
Sagittal Crest/ Sagittal Keel
how strong the jaw muscles
foramen magnum
how standing
brow ridges
muscle attachments
length, width
brain size
teeth
specialized or generalized

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