AP Art history 1-11

AP Art history 1-11

Apollo 11
Date: c. 25,500-25,300 B.C.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist or Architect: N/A

Original Location: The Apollo 11 Cave in the Huns Mountains of southwestern Namibia

Material/technique: Charcoal on stone

Function: N/A

Context: Found in the Apollo 11 Cave in the Huns Mountains of southwestern Namibia with unusual precision for ancient rock art. The stones are engraved with geometric line designs and representations of animal.

Descriptive Terms: Stone, charcoal, geometric line designs, animal representations, realistic

Great Hall of the Bulls
Date: 15,000-13,000 B.C.E

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist or Architect: N/A

Patron: Early humans in Lascaux, France

Original Location: Cave walls near Lascaux, France

Material/Technique: Natural rock contours to show volume of the animals

Function: Prehistoric hunters believed that they had control of the animals by painting them on the walls. They also believed the more lifelike the animal was, the more magical power the animal had.

Context: The painting took place in France, and has to do with hunter-gatherer society, concerns with food, survival, and procreation.

Descriptive terms: Profile, contour, limited color, rock walls

Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine
Date: 14,000-7000 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist or Architect: N/A

Patron: Early humans in Mesoamerica

Original Location: Tequixquiac, central Mexico

Material/Technique: Carving of animal pelvic bones

Function: To house the spiritual essence of a hunted animal, a ceremonial mask

Context: used as a mask, traditionally thought to be simultaneously located in an Otherworld.

Descriptive terms: Carved, bones, rough, spiritual, symbolic

Running horned woman
Date: 6000-4000 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist or Architect: N/A

Patron: N/A

Original Location: Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria

Material/Technique: Pigment on rock

Function: Some scholars have interpreted the woman as a horned deity instead of a human wearing ceremonial headgear. The meaning of most African rock art remains uncertain.

Context: on the rock walls and displays varied human and animal activities.

Descriptive Terms: Rock wall, pigments, supernatural beings, symbolic

Bushel with ibex motifs
Date: 4200-3500 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist/Architect: N/A

Patron: Inhabitants of Susa

Original Location: Susa, Iran

Material/technique: Painted terra cotta

Function:Funerary object

Context: Given to the deceased during a secondary burial.

Descriptive Terms: Painted, decorated, large, vase

Anthropomorphic stele
Date: Fourth Millennium B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist/Architect: N/A

Patron:the Nabataeans

Original Location: Arabian Peninsula

Material/Technique: Sandstone

Function: unknown, but associated with religious or burial practices

Context: some are carved in surrounding sandstone cliffs by many Arabian tombs. Earliest known works of art from the Arabian Peninsula

Descriptive Terms: Sandstone, carved, distinctive belted robe and double-bladed sword (may have been unique to this region)

Jade Cong
Date: 3300-2200 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist/Architect: N/A

Patron: Liangzhu inhabitants

Original Location: Liangzhu, China

Material/technique: Carved Jade

Function: Completely unknown

Context:The principal decoration on cong of the Liangzhu period was the face pattern, which may refer to spirits or deities

Descriptive Terms: Carved, cong, jade, Liangzhu culture

Stonehenge
Date:2500-1600 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist/Architect: N/A (unknown)

Patron: N/A

Original Location: Wiltshire, UK

Material/Technique: Sandstone

Function:Marker of the midsummer solstice.

Context: worked within the context of existing archaeological knowledge.

Descriptive Terms: Stiff, rigid, stone, simple, mathematical

The Ambum Stone
Date: c. 1500 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist/Architect: N/A

Patron:N/A

Original Location: Ambum Valley, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea

Material/technique: Greywacke

Function: Considered sacred and credited with supernatural powers by present day people of the region.

Context: Ambum stone has a higher level of figurative qualities than other pestles and may be in a unique class of its own. Discovered in a cave, it is one of the earliest known Pacific works of art.

Descriptive terms: birds, stone, pestles, different depictions

Tlatico female figurine
Date: 1200-900 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist/Architect: N/A

Patron: N/A

Original Location: Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco

Material/Technique: Ceramic and paint

Function:suggested they are related to women’s roles in regards to nature.

Context: The figure is completely nude and revealing an exagerrated contrast in proportions. Tlatico figurines show a fascination with physical deformities.

Descriptive Terms: traces of pigment, exagerrated, fertility, symbolism

Terra cotta fragment
Date: 1000 B.C.E.

Period/Style: Global Prehistory

Artist/Architect: N/A

Patron: N/A

Original Location: Solomon Islands, Reef Islands

Material/Technique: Terra cotta (incised)

Function: piece of pottery used for cooking, serving, and storing

Context: Lapita refers to an ancient Pacific culture that archaeologists believe to be the common ancestor of the contemporary cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and some areas of Melanesia. Lapita art is known for ceramics, which have intricate repeating geometric patterns that sometimes include anthropomorphic faces and figures.

Descriptive Terms: Ceramic, pottery, geometric patterns