AP Art History-Final Exam

AP Art History-Final Exam

fibula
decorative pin used to fasten a cloak or cape
cloisonné
enamel work; glass on a metal base
Sutton Hoo purse cover
Sutton Hoo purse cover
625 CE
Suffolk, England
-from Sutton Hoo burial…ship used as coffin (transportation to the next world)
-red and gold (power colors)
>>geometric elements, animal motifs (birds and lions), and curved, linear interlace become characteristic
-symbolism as a way to communicate
-ducks and eagles attacking, man b/w two lions fending them off >> POWER
Merovingian (Frankish) fibula
Merovingian (Frankish) fibula
mid 6th century
France
-made from gold, garnets, and enamel (cloisonné)
-functional, but decorative
-geometric curved lines that resolve in circles forming eyes of animals
-abstract zoomorphic motifs
-fish>>Christianity
-birds (eagles)>>power
-animal style art was the dominant trend from 5-9th centuries
St. Matthew page, Book of Durrow
St. Matthew page, Book of Durrow
660-680
Scotland
-pattern, interlace on boarder and on cloak
-no classical sense of body
-Matthew
carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels
carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels
697-721
England
-carpet page
-repetition and symmetry (dynamic tension, state of equilibrium)
-minerals for color are expensive and must be imported; gold leaf also expensive
-intricate…took a long time to produce. Production regarded as a form of meditation/worship…done to glorify God
-interlace is symbolic of eternity…also is a trap for evil
-many animal motifs…more subdued
Chi Rho Iota page, Book of Kells
Chi Rho Iota page, Book of Kells
late 8th or early 9th century
Scotland
-not a carpet page…words
-repeated curves and interlace
-Jesus in center (blonde)
-animals:
-otter
-cats with mice (mice=evil…eating communion bread, cats are going to attack! Good v. Evil)
-4 evangelists
High Cross of Muiredach
High Cross of Muiredach
923
Ireland
-exception to small items and manuscripts
-grave marker
-celtic cross
-episodes of Jesus’ life
west: crucifixion (sunset)
east: resurrection (sunrise)
Charlamagne equestrian sculpture
Charlamagne equestrian sculpture
9th century
France
-Roman equestrians, but now SMALL…tabletop size
-cross, orb
-bronze…metal (like earlier Middle Age)
Coronation Gospels
Coronation Gospels
800-810
Germany
-shaped by COLOR
-drapery…see his body
-illusionism and realism, naturalistic
Ebbo Gospels
Ebbo Gospels
816-835
France
-shaped by LINE
-adapt Roman stuff…but proportions are wrong and it’s not very naturalistic
-in front of a landscape (perspective, illusionism)
-lines are diagonal>>dynamic…especially b/c it changes diagonal
-emotional/expressive
Lindau Gospels
Lindau Gospels
870
Switzerland
-manuscripts=a HUGE investment…protect them!
-front: Jesus’ crucifixion, angels crying
-back (pictured): butterfly (resurrection), 4 heads=4 gospels, lots of interlace in the wings
Palatine Chapel, Aachen
Palatine Chapel, Aachen
792-805
Aachen, Germany
-Roman semicircular arch…big open space in the middle…enclosing large volumes of space (Roman)
-columns literally=Roman
-1st stine vaulted builing in centuries
Bronze doors, St. Michael's, Hildesheim
Bronze doors, St. Michael’s, Hildesheim
1015
Germany
-commissioned by Bishop Bernward
-16′ tall
-symbolic (Middle Age population was mostly illiterate)
-shows key stories of Christian doctrine
left: fall of man (sinfulness, expulsion serpant=lizard…top to bottom)
right: salvation (annunciation to resurection…bottom to top)
Column of Bishop Bernward
Column of Bishop Bernward
1015-1022
Germany
-originally guess a crucifix adorned the top
-tells stories of Jesus NOT told on the door
-influence of Trajan’s Column!!
-bronze
Gero Crucifix
Gero Crucifix
970
Cologne, Germany
-wood
-large scale
-German expressionism>>emotional, dramatic
-very graphic (earlier, crucifixion never shown)…martyrdom…inspire
Hiberno Saxon
(aka Insular) an art style that flourished in the monasteries of the British Isles in the early Middle Ages
carpet page
In early medieval manuscripts, a decorative page without any text
Matthew
angel (earlier a man)
Mark
lion
Luke
ox
John
eagle
chi rho iato
XPI, monogram, Greek for Christ
celtic cross
cross with a ring surrounding the intersection
Carolingian Era
700-900, associated with Charlamagne who wanted to revive Roman imperial artistic traditions
renovatio
renevalto; renewal, renovation, restoration of the Roman empire…renew tradition, not copy
Ottonian
900-1000; evolved during the reign of the “Otto’s”. Inspired by carolingian and byzantine architecture. Found in Germany.
Romanesque
1050-1200, “Roman-like.” A term to describe the history, culture, and art of medieval western
Europe.
St. Sernin
St. Sernin
1070-1120
France
-monastery of town
-pilgrimage site (to visit relics)>>effects architecture…more room for more people
-basilican w/transept, cruciform
-two aisles (more room)…aisles direct traffic to chapels, keep out of the way of service
-radiating chapels
-crossing (where altar is)=square…dimensions set proportions for the rest of the church
-no lights>>few wall decorations
Church of St. Pierre, Miossac
Church of St. Pierre, Miossac
1115-1135
Miossac, France
-portal
-Christ in Majesty…throned, usually judge at the las judgement
-surounded by angels
-row of Old Testament figure…Jesus is fulfillment
Church of St. Pierre, prohet
Church of St. Pierre, prohet
1115-1130
Miossac, France
-Jeremiah?
-body is more of a pattern that physical body
-lots of angles…forms X
-floating
-elongated
Church of La Madeline, Vezelay
Church of La Madeline, Vezelay
1120-1132
France
-Jeus is central
-Pentecost (sending out apostles to spread the faith)
-infidels on lintel
-outer achivolt shows figures of different labor activities…labors of the months
>ackowledgment of society
>applicability of Christianity throughout the year
-in between labors are signs of the zodiac
>all times and all people for Christianity
Moralia of Job
Moralia of Job
1115-1125
France
-historiated initial
-knight=good Christian soldier v. evil
Morgan Madonna
Morgan Madonna
12th century
France
-small 3D object, appear later
-image of Mary with Jesus as a baby
-for private use
-owned by J. P. Morgan
-Jesus is both human and divine, baby with adult proportions and features
-emphasis on line and pattern…pleats on her arm, linear pattern
Pisa
Pisa
1063-1174
Pisa, Italy
-Leaning Tower=a bell tower (ITALIAN)
-rounded arches
-fairly plain
-few windows
-baptistry (as move up, more decorative)
-cruciform with a dome at the crossing (ITALIAN)
St. Entienne, Caen
St. Entienne, Caen
1067
Caen, France
-Norman style
-towers are more decorative, still plain
-divided into 3 (frames are buttresses)
-lots of 3!
-ribs help to distribute weight
Durham
Durham
1093
Durham, England
-Norman style
-later…fancier
-ribs are visible
-rose window
-designs on columns
-alternate support system
Bayeaux Tapestry
Bayeaux Tapestry
1070-1080
France
-not actually a tapestry…embroidered
-largest surviving secular work of art
-tells Battle of Hastings: William the conqueror conquers England, brother (bishop) commissions
-contemporary event…tells why won the battle
-propaganda, shows moral justification for victory
-made by nuns
Gothic
1140-1500
Originally dero, a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by height, pointed arches, flying buttresses, and light
St. Denis
St. Denis
1140-1144
Saint-Denis, France
-church of patron saint of France
-pilgrimage place, where kings are buried
…rebuild, Suger wants to reflect grandeur, surround by beauty to become closer to God
-pointed arches and ribs>>more windows!
Chartres
Chartres
1145-1155
Chartres, France
-best example or early Gothic architecture
-two different towers
-3 portals, rose window, lancets
-pointed arches, ribs, and maze on the floor (journey of a pilgrim)
-windows use primary colors, Mary=blue, Jesus=red
-remove stained glass
-south transept is 60-70 yrs later, more realistic…almost contrapposto
Chartres, jambs
Chartres, jambs
1145-1155
Chartres, France
-look very Romanesque
-depicts Old Testament Queens and Kings
-very straight and cylindrical
-figures are more 3D
-not naturalistic yet
Laon
Laon
1190
Laon, France
-early, undecorated around windows
-rose window, 2 tall towers (FRENCH)
Laon, interior
Laon, interior
1190
Laon, France
-4 division>>added a triphorium, fills the space because it’s taller
(later find ways to fill the space…doesn’t last long…make other parts larger)
Notre Dame, Paris
Notre Dame, Paris
1163-1225
Notre-Dame
-flying buttresses (support only at need, thinner walls, more windows
Amiens
Amiens
1220
France
-towers different sizes
-later, more decoration, sculpture expanding past the portals
-one of tallest!
-lots of sculpture in the portals
Ameins, Beau Dieu
Ameins, Beau Dieu
1220-1225
France
-more realistic physical form
-almost separate from architectural setting
-beautiful God (v. Romanesque judge…now blessing)
>trying to draw people into the church
-standing on a lion and a dragon (Christianity overcomes secular and evil)
Reims, jamb statues
Reims, jamb statues
1220-1255
France
-more detached
-2 pairs by two different artists
-anunciation
St. Chapelle
St. Chapelle
1243-1248
Paris, France
-basically no walls…3/4 are windows
Virgin of Paris
Virgin of Paris
early 14th century
Paris, France
-kind of contrapposto…Gothic “S” curve
-Jesus=more baby like…proportions are better
-more emotional
Salisbury
Salisbury
1320-1330
England
-lower height
-longer
-fewer flying buttresses
-no rose window
-2 transepts
Gloucester
Gloucester
1332-1357
England
-fanned vaulting
radiating chapels
In medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept; “radiate” out of the apse
Church of St Lazare, Autun
Church of St Lazare, Autun
1120-1135
-France
-by Gislebertus (only portions, but designer)
-Jesus is central and LARGE
-last judgement
-heaven=left, damned=far right in “hell mouth”
-written inscription…”may this frighten those…”
-seams camouflaged
-extenuation of figures and emphasis on pattern (=Romanesque)
campanile
freestanding bell tower, common in Italy
Madonna
representation of the Virgin, usually with the infant Jesus
lux nova
(“new light”) the colored light that pours in through stained glass windows
rose window
a circular stained-glass window
lancet window
a tall, narrow window crowned by a sharply pointed arch
tracery
ornamental stonework for holding stained glass in place
Cycladic Figurine of a Woman
Cycladic Figurine of a Woman
Cycladic male lyre player
Cycladic male lyre player
Palace at Knossos
(Minoan)
Palace at Knossos
(Minoan)
La Parisienne
(Minoan)
La Parisienne
(Minoan)
Fisherman Fresco
(Minoan)
Fisherman Fresco
(Minoan)
Bull-Leaping Fresco
(Minoan)
Bull-Leaping Fresco
(Minoan)
Spring Fresco
(Minoan)
Spring Fresco
(Minoan)
Minoan Pottery
(Minoan)
Minoan Pottery
(Minoan)
Snake Goddess
(Minoan)
Snake Goddess
(Minoan)
Harvesters Vase
(Minoan)
Harvesters Vase
(Minoan)
Citadel at Tiryns
(Mycenean)
Citadel at Tiryns
(Mycenean)
Lion Gate, Mycenae
Lion Gate, Mycenae
Treasury of Atreus
(Mycenean)
Treasury of Atreus
(Mycenean)
Funerary Mask (
Funerary Mask (“Mask of Agamemnon”)
(Mycenean)
inlaid dagger blade
(Mycenean)
inlaid dagger blade
(Mycenean)
Warriors Vase
(Mycenean)
Warriors Vase
(Mycenean)
Palette of Narmer
(Early Dynastic Periods)

(Egypt)
Palette of Narmer
(Early Dynastic Periods)

(Egypt)

Stepped Pyramid of Djoser
(IMHOTEP)
(Early Dynastic Periods)

(Egypt)
Stepped Pyramid of Djoser
(IMHOTEP)
(Early Dynastic Periods)

(Egypt)

Pyramids at Gizeh
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Pyramids at Gizeh
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Sphinx
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Sphinx
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Khafre
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Khafre
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Menkaure
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Menkaure
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Seated Scribe
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Seated Scribe
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Rahotep and Nofret
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Rahotep and Nofret
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Ti and the Hippopotamaus Hunt
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Ti and the Hippopotamaus Hunt
(Old Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Hatshepsut's Temple
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Hatshepsut’s Temple
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Hatshepsut
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Hatshepsut
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Karnak
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Karnak
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Fowling scene, Tomb of Nebamun
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Fowling scene, Tomb of Nebamun
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Garden of Nebamun
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Garden of Nebamun
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Akhenaton
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Akhenaton
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Nefertiti
(THUTMOSE)
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Nefertiti
(THUTMOSE)
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Queen Tiye
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Queen Tiye
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Akhenaton and Family
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Akhenaton and Family
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

Book of the Dead
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)
Book of the Dead
(New Kingdom)

(Egypt)

White Temple, Uruk
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)
White Temple, Uruk
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)

Warka Vase
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)
Warka Vase
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)

Eshnunna Statuettes
(Sumerian) 

(Ancient Near East)
Eshnunna Statuettes
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)

Standard of Ur
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)
Standard of Ur
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)

bull lyre
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)
bull lyre
(Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)

Akkadian king
(Akkadian)

(Ancient Near East)
Akkadian king
(Akkadian)

(Ancient Near East)

Stele of Nara-sim
(Akkadian)

(Ancient Near East)
Stele of Nara-sim
(Akkadian)

(Ancient Near East)

Ziggurat at Ur
(Neo-Sumeriain)

(Ancient Near East)
Ziggurat at Ur
(Neo-Sumeriain)

(Ancient Near East)

Gudea
(Neo-Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)
Gudea
(Neo-Sumerian)

(Ancient Near East)

Stele of Hammurabi
(Babylonian Art)

(Ancient Near East)
Stele of Hammurabi
(Babylonian Art)

(Ancient Near East)

citadel of Sargon II
(Assyrian)

(Ancient Near East)
citadel of Sargon II
(Assyrian)

(Ancient Near East)

lamassu
(Assyrian)

(Ancient Near East)
lamassu
(Assyrian)

(Ancient Near East)

lion hunt relief
(Assyrian)

(Ancient Near East)
lion hunt relief
(Assyrian)

(Ancient Near East)

Ishtar Gate
(Neo-Babylonian)

(Ancient Near East)
Ishtar Gate
(Neo-Babylonian)

(Ancient Near East)

Persepolis
(Persian Art)

(Ancient Near East)
Persepolis
(Persian Art)

(Ancient Near East)

Geometric Diplon Krater
(Geometric)

(Greece)
Geometric Diplon Krater
(Geometric)

(Greece)

Hero and Centaur
(Geometric)

(Greece)
Hero and Centaur
(Geometric)

(Greece)

Mantiklos Apollo
(Orientalizing)

(Greece)
Mantiklos Apollo
(Orientalizing)

(Greece)

Lady of Auxerre
(Orientalizing)

(Greece)
Lady of Auxerre
(Orientalizing)

(Greece)

New York Kouros
(Archaic)

(Greece)
New York Kouros
(Archaic)

(Greece)

Calf Bearer
(Archaic)

(Greece)
Calf Bearer
(Archaic)

(Greece)

Kroisos
(Archaic)

(Greece)
Kroisos
(Archaic)

(Greece)

Peplos Kore
(Archaic)

(Greece)
Peplos Kore
(Archaic)

(Greece)

Temple of Hera
(Archaic)

(Greece)
Temple of Hera
(Archaic)

(Greece)

Temple of Artemis
(Archaic)

(Greece)
Temple of Artemis
(Archaic)

(Greece)

Temple of Aphaia
(Early Classical)

(Greece)
Temple of Aphaia
(Early Classical)

(Greece)

(West) Dying Warrior
(Archaic)

(Greece)
(West) Dying Warrior
(Archaic)

(Greece)

(East) Dying Warrior
(Early Classical)

(Greece)
(East) Dying Warrior
(Early Classical)

(Greece)

Pediment sculptures, Temple of Zeus
(Early Classical)

(Greece)
Pediment sculptures, Temple of Zeus
(Early Classical)

(Greece)

Kritios Boy
(Early Classical)

(Greece)
Kritios Boy
(Early Classical)

(Greece)

Riace Warrior
(Early Classical)

(Greece)
Riace Warrior
(Early Classical)

(Greece)

Zeus
(Classical)

(Greece)
Zeus
(Classical)

(Greece)

Diskobolos
(MYRON)
(Classical)

(Greece)
Diskobolos
(MYRON)
(Classical)

(Greece)

Doryphoros
(POLYKLEITOS)
(Classical)

(Greece)
Doryphoros
(POLYKLEITOS)
(Classical)

(Greece)

Parthenon
(IKTINOS & KALLIKRATES, PHIDIAS)
(Classical)

(Greece)
Parthenon
(IKTINOS & KALLIKRATES, PHIDIAS)
(Classical)

(Greece)

Erechtheion
(Classical)

(Greece)
Erechtheion
(Classical)

(Greece)

Temple of Athena Nike
(Classical)

(Greece)
Temple of Athena Nike
(Classical)

(Greece)

Stele of Hegeso
(Classical)

(Greece)
Stele of Hegeso
(Classical)

(Greece)

Aphrodite of Knidos
(PRAXITELES)
(Late Classical)

(Greece)
Aphrodite of Knidos
(PRAXITELES)
(Late Classical)

(Greece)

Hermes and Dionysus
(PRAXITELES?)
(Late Classical)

(Greece)
Hermes and Dionysus
(PRAXITELES?)
(Late Classical)

(Greece)

grave stele of a young hunter
(Late Classical)

(Greece)
grave stele of a young hunter
(Late Classical)

(Greece)

Apoxymenos
(LYSIPPOS)
(Late Classical)

(Greece)
Apoxymenos
(LYSIPPOS)
(Late Classical)

(Greece)

Weary Herakles
(Late Classical)

(Greece)
Weary Herakles
(Late Classical)

(Greece)

Battle of Issus
(PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA)
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Battle of Issus
(PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA)
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Altar of Zeus, Pergamon
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Altar of Zeus, Pergamon
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Dying Gaul
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Dying Gaul
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Nike of Samothrace
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Nike of Samothrace
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Venus de Milo
(ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER)
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Venus de Milo
(ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER)
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Babernini Faun
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Babernini Faun
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Seated Boxer
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Seated Boxer
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

old market woman
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
old market woman
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Laocoon and Sons
(ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, & POLYDOROS OF RHODES)
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)
Laocoon and Sons
(ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, & POLYDOROS OF RHODES)
(Hellenistic)

(Greece)

Temple of Portunus
(Republic)

(Rome)
Temple of Portunus
(Republic)

(Rome)

Temple of Sibyl
(Republic)

(Rome)
Temple of Sibyl
(Republic)

(Rome)

Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia
(Republic)

(Rome)
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia
(Republic)

(Rome)

Head of a Roman Patrician
(Republic)

(Rome)
Head of a Roman Patrician
(Republic)

(Rome)

Forum - Pompeii
(Republic)

(Rome)
Forum – Pompeii
(Republic)

(Rome)

Amphitheater - Pompeii
(Republic)

(Rome)
Amphitheater – Pompeii
(Republic)

(Rome)

First Style Painting

(Rome)
First Style Painting

(Rome)

Second Style Painting

(Rome)
Second Style Painting

(Rome)

Third Style Painting

(Rome)
Third Style Painting

(Rome)

Fourth Style Painting

(Rome)
Fourth Style Painting

(Rome)

Portrait of a Husband and Wife

(Rome)
Portrait of a Husband and Wife

(Rome)

Still Life with Peaches

(Rome)
Still Life with Peaches

(Rome)

mosaics

(Rome)
mosaics

(Rome)

Augustus Primaporta
(Early Empire)

(Rome)
Augustus Primaporta
(Early Empire)

(Rome)

Ara Pacis Augustae
(Early Empire)

(Rome)
Ara Pacis Augustae
(Early Empire)

(Rome)

Maison Carree
(Early Empire)

(Rome)
Maison Carree
(Early Empire)

(Rome)

Pont du Gard
(Early Empire)

(Rome)
Pont du Gard
(Early Empire)

(Rome)

Colosseum
(Early Empire)

(Rome)
Colosseum
(Early Empire)

(Rome)

Arch of Titus
(Early Empire)

(Rome)
Arch of Titus
(Early Empire)

(Rome)

Timgad
(High Empire)

(Rome)
Timgad
(High Empire)

(Rome)

Trajan's Column
(High Empire)

(Rome)
Trajan’s Column
(High Empire)

(Rome)

Arch of Trajan
(High Empire)

(Rome)
Arch of Trajan
(High Empire)

(Rome)

Pantheon
(High Empire)

(Rome)
Pantheon
(High Empire)

(Rome)

Hadrian's Villa
(High Empire)

(Rome)
Hadrian’s Villa
(High Empire)

(Rome)

Marcus Aurelius
(High Empire)

(Rome)
Marcus Aurelius
(High Empire)

(Rome)

Caracella
(Late Empire)

(Rome)
Caracella
(Late Empire)

(Rome)

Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
(Late Empire)

(Rome)
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
(Late Empire)

(Rome)

Tetrarchs
(Late Empire)

(Rome)
Tetrarchs
(Late Empire)

(Rome)

Arch of Constantine
(Late Empire)

(Rome)
Arch of Constantine
(Late Empire)

(Rome)

Basilica Nova
(Late Empire)

(Rome)
Basilica Nova
(Late Empire)

(Rome)

Colossus of Constantine
(Late Empire)

(Rome)
Colossus of Constantine
(Late Empire)

(Rome)

Robed Male Figure
(Indus Valley Civilization)
Robed Male Figure
(Indus Valley Civilization)
male torso from Harappa
(Indus Valley Civilization)
male torso from Harappa
(Indus Valley Civilization)
Harappan seals
(Indus Valley Civilization)
Harappan seals
(Indus Valley Civilization)
Ashokan pillar
(Mauryan Dynasty)
Ashokan pillar
(Mauryan Dynasty)
Sarnath Capital
(Mauryan Dynasty)
Sarnath Capital
(Mauryan Dynasty)
Great Stupa at Sanchi
(Buddhism)
Great Stupa at Sanchi
(Buddhism)
Toranas at Sanchi
(Buddhism)
Toranas at Sanchi
(Buddhism)
yakshi
(Buddhism)
yakshi
(Buddhism)
Chaitya hall at Karli
(Buddhism)
Chaitya hall at Karli
(Buddhism)
Ajanta caves
(Buddhism)
Ajanta caves
(Buddhism)
Buddha (Gandhara style)
(Buddhism)
Buddha (Gandhara style)
(Buddhism)
Buddha (Mathuran style)
(Buddhism)
Buddha (Mathuran style)
(Buddhism)
Vishnu as Boar Avatar
(Hinduism)
Vishnu as Boar Avatar
(Hinduism)
Shiva from Elephanta
(Hinduism)
Shiva from Elephanta
(Hinduism)
Vishnu Temple, Deogard
(Hinduism)
Vishnu Temple, Deogard
(Hinduism)
Mamallapuram
(Hinduism)
Mamallapuram
(Hinduism)
Descent of the Ganges
(Hinduism)
Descent of the Ganges
(Hinduism)
Shiva Nataraja
(Hinduism)
Shiva Nataraja
(Hinduism)
Borobudur
(Buddhism)
Borobudur
(Buddhism)
Angkor Wat
(Hinduism)
Angkor Wat
(Hinduism)
Neolithic Pottery
(Neolithic)

(China)
Neolithic Pottery
(Neolithic)

(China)

Shang Bronzes
(Shang)

(China)
Shang Bronzes
(Shang)

(China)

Sanxingdui standing figure
(contemporary with Shang)

(China)
Sanxingdui standing figure
(contemporary with Shang)

(China)

Zhou jade bi
(Zhou)

(China)
Zhou jade bi
(Zhou)

(China)

Qin Terra cotta warriors
(Qin)

(China)
Qin Terra cotta warriors
(Qin)

(China)

Han funeral banner
(Han)

(China)
Han funeral banner
(Han)

(China)

Han flying horse
(Han)

(China)
Han flying horse
(Han)

(China)

Bronze Buddha
(Age of Disunity)

(China)
Bronze Buddha
(Age of Disunity)

(China)

Longmen Caves
(Tang)

(China)
Longmen Caves
(Tang)

(China)

Pagoda
(Tang)

(China)
Pagoda
(Tang)

(China)

Tang ceremic horse
(Tang)

(China)
Tang ceremic horse
(Tang)

(China)

Night Shinning White
(Tang)

(China)
Night Shinning White
(Tang)

(China)

Travelers Among Mountains and Streams
(FAN KUAN)
(Song)

(China)
Travelers Among Mountains and Streams
(FAN KUAN)
(Song)

(China)

Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight
(Song)

(China)
Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight
(Song)

(China)

On a Mountain Path in Spring
(Song)

(China)
On a Mountain Path in Spring
(Song)

(China)

Jomon ceremics
(Jomon)

(Japan)
Jomon ceremics
(Jomon)

(Japan)

bronze dotaku
(Yayoi)

(Japan)
bronze dotaku
(Yayoi)

(Japan)

dogu
(Yayoi)

(Japan)
dogu
(Yayoi)

(Japan)

kofun
(Kofun)

(Japan)
kofun
(Kofun)

(Japan)

haniwa
(Kofun)

(Japan)
haniwa
(Kofun)

(Japan)

Ise Shrine
(Kofun)

(Japan)
Ise Shrine
(Kofun)

(Japan)

Horyu-ji
(Nara)

(Japan)
Horyu-ji
(Nara)

(Japan)

Shaka Triad
(TORI BUSHI)
(Nara)

(Japan)
Shaka Triad
(TORI BUSHI)
(Nara)

(Japan)

Tale of Genji scrolls
(Heian)

(Japan)
Tale of Genji scrolls
(Heian)

(Japan)

Priest of Shunjobo Chogen
(Kamakura)

(Japan)
Priest of Shunjobo Chogen
(Kamakura)

(Japan)

Burning of Sanjo Palace
(Kamakura)

(Japan)
Burning of Sanjo Palace
(Kamakura)

(Japan)

Catacomb of Sts. Peter and Macellinus
(Rome)

(Early Christian)
Catacomb of Sts. Peter and Macellinus
(Rome)

(Early Christian)

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus 
(Rome)

(Early Christian)
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
(Rome)

(Early Christian)

(Old) St. Peter's Church
(Rome)

(Early Christian)
(Old) St. Peter’s Church
(Rome)

(Early Christian)

Santa Sabina
(Rome)

(Early Christian)
Santa Sabina
(Rome)

(Early Christian)

Santa Costanza
(Rome)

(Early Christian)
Santa Costanza
(Rome)

(Early Christian)

Galla Placidia
(Ravena)

(Early Christian)
Galla Placidia
(Ravena)

(Early Christian)

Good Shepherd Mosaic, Galla Placidia

(Early Christian)
Good Shepherd Mosaic, Galla Placidia

(Early Christian)

Loaves and Fish Mosaic

(Early Christian)
Loaves and Fish Mosaic

(Early Christian)

Hagia Sophia
(ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES & ISIDORUS OF MILETUS) (Justinian)
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Hagia Sophia
(ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES & ISIDORUS OF MILETUS) (Justinian)
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

San Vitale
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
San Vitale
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Justinian Mosaic, San Vitale
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Justinian Mosaic, San Vitale
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Theodora Mosaic, San Vitale
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Theodora Mosaic, San Vitale
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Transfiguration Mosaic, St. Apollinare
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Transfiguration Mosaic, St. Apollinare
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Transfiguration Mosaic, Mt. Sinai
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Transfiguration Mosaic, Mt. Sinai
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Barbernini Ivory
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Barbernini Ivory
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Michael and the Archangel diptych
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Michael and the Archangel diptych
(Early Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Theotokos and Child with Saints
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Theotokos and Child with Saints
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Christ and Pantokrater mosaic
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Christ and Pantokrater mosaic
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Crucifixion Mosaic, Daphni
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Crucifixion Mosaic, Daphni
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Paris Psalter
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Paris Psalter
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Virgin of Vladimir icon
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)
Virgin of Vladimir icon
(Middle Byzantine)

(Byzantium)

Dome of the Rock

(Islamic)
Dome of the Rock

(Islamic)

Great Mosque, Damascus

(Islamic)
Great Mosque, Damascus

(Islamic)

Great Mosque, Kairouan

(Islamic)
Great Mosque, Kairouan

(Islamic)

Minaret, Samarra

(Islamic)
Minaret, Samarra

(Islamic)

Great Mosque, Cordoba

(Islamic)
Great Mosque, Cordoba

(Islamic)

Quran page

(Islamic)
Quran page

(Islamic)

Mosque of Selim
(SENIN) (Selim II)

(Islamic)
Mosque of Selim
(SENIN) (Selim II)

(Islamic)

Great Mosque, Isfahan

(Islamic)
Great Mosque, Isfahan

(Islamic)

mihrab

(Islamic)
mihrab

(Islamic)

Great Pyramid, La Venta
(Olmec)

(Americas)
Great Pyramid, La Venta
(Olmec)

(Americas)

colossal head
(Olmec)

(Americas)
colossal head
(Olmec)

(Americas)

jade celt
(Olmec)

(Americas)
jade celt
(Olmec)

(Americas)

Teotihuacan
(Teotihuacan)

(Americas)
Teotihuacan
(Teotihuacan)

(Americas)

Pyramid of the Sun
(Teotihuacan)

(Americas)
Pyramid of the Sun
(Teotihuacan)

(Americas)

Citadel; Temple of the Feathered Serpant
(Teotihuacan)

(Americas)
Citadel; Temple of the Feathered Serpant
(Teotihuacan)

(Americas)

Stele D, Copan
(Maya)

(Americas)
Stele D, Copan
(Maya)

(Americas)

ball court
(Maya)

(Americas)
ball court
(Maya)

(Americas)

Temple of the Giant Jaguar, Tikal
(Maya)

(Americas)
Temple of the Giant Jaguar, Tikal
(Maya)

(Americas)

Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc
(Maya)

(Americas)
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc
(Maya)

(Americas)

Temple of Kukulcan, Chichen Itza
(Maya)

(Americas)
Temple of Kukulcan, Chichen Itza
(Maya)

(Americas)

chacmool, Chichen Itza
(Maya)

(Americas)
chacmool, Chichen Itza
(Maya)

(Americas)

pipe
(Adena)

(Americas)
pipe
(Adena)

(Americas)

Cahokia, Monks' Mound
(Mississippians)

(Americas)
Cahokia, Monks’ Mound
(Mississippians)

(Americas)

Serpant Mound
(Mound Builders)

(Americas)
Serpant Mound
(Mound Builders)

(Americas)

shell gorget
(Mississippians)

(Americas)
shell gorget
(Mississippians)

(Americas)

Pueblo Bonito
(Ancestral Puebloans)

(Americas)
Pueblo Bonito
(Ancestral Puebloans)

(Americas)

Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde
(Ancestral Puebloans)

(Americas)
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde
(Ancestral Puebloans)

(Americas)

Nok Sculptures
(Nok)

(African)
Nok Sculptures
(Nok)

(African)

Ife Ruler
(Ife)

(African)
Ife Ruler
(Ife)

(African)

Djenne terra cotta archer
(Djenne)

(African)
Djenne terra cotta archer
(Djenne)

(African)

Djenne Friday Mosque
(Djenne)

(African)
Djenne Friday Mosque
(Djenne)

(African)

Beta Giorghis
(Ethiopia)

(African)
Beta Giorghis
(Ethiopia)

(African)

Great Zimbabwe
(Great Zimbabwe)

(African)
Great Zimbabwe
(Great Zimbabwe)

(African)

bird monoliths
(Great Zimbabwe)

(African)
bird monoliths
(Great Zimbabwe)

(African)

iyoba mask
(Benin)

(African)
iyoba mask
(Benin)

(African)

oba heads
(Benin)

(African)
oba heads
(Benin)

(African)

Benin Altar to the Hand and Arm
(Benin)

(African)
Benin Altar to the Hand and Arm
(Benin)

(African)

Benin plaques
(Benin)

(African)
Benin plaques
(Benin)

(African)