ap art history | Flashcards (250) – >W.I.P<

Location:
Artist:
Date:
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material:
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
???. ‘Namgis Kwakwaka’wakw Transformation Mask
Location: British Columbia
Artist: Kwakwaka’wakw people
Date: c. 1910 C.E.
Culture: Kwakwaka’wakw (Native Americans)
Period/Style: Native American Art after 1600 (NW Coast)
Medium/Material: red cedar wood, leather
Theme(s): transformation, ancestry
Form: simply and boldly carved; interior face with deep intersecting planes exaggerates the orbs of the eyes, and the mouth and cheeks are further heightened with striking used of color
Function: worn by a dancer
Content: reworn by dancers during ceremonies, they pull strings to open and move the mask—in effect, animating it; when cords are pulled, the sea monster’s face opens up from five “wings” to reveal a face, and giving a effect showing either the sun shining or something growing. After it is transformed, the mask reveals the face of an ancestor.
Context: represents an animal ancestor of the Kwakwaka’wakw people, possibly Komokwa, the sea monster
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Camelid Sacrum, elephant mask
1. Apollo 11 Stones
Location: Namibia
Artist: N/A
Date: 25,500 - 25,300 B.C.E 
Culture: (probably) ancient South African
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Paleolithic
Material/Technique: Charcoal on stone
Theme(s): animal representation, records, 
Form: An animal that looks like a bovine can be seen on the stone. The use of lines and shape are displayed in the entire figure. However, keep in mind that during this time period a limited amount of supplies were available to people.
Function: Probably to keep record of what was seen or killed.
Content: Figures of animals
Context: Found in the Apollo 11 Cave in the Huns Mountains of southwestern Namibia with unusual precision for ancient rock art. The stones are engraved with geometric line designs and representations of animals.
1. Apollo 11 Stones
Location: Namibia
Artist: N/A
Date: 25,500 – 25,300 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient South African
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Paleolithic
Material/Technique: Charcoal on stone
Theme(s): animal representation, records,
Form: An animal that looks like a bovine can be seen on the stone. The use of lines and shape are displayed in the entire figure. However, keep in mind that during this time period a limited amount of supplies were available to people.
Function: Probably to keep record of what was seen or killed.
Content: Figures of animals
Context: Found in the Apollo 11 Cave in the Huns Mountains of southwestern Namibia with unusual precision for ancient rock art. The stones are engraved with geometric line designs and representations of animals.
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2. Great Hall of the Bulls
Location: Cave walls near Lascaux, France
Artist: N/A
Date: 15,000-13,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient French
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Paleolithic
Material/Technique: Rock painting; contours to show volume of the animals
Theme(s): Hunting, survival, food
Form: Color is used to distinguish one animal from another. Lines and shapes are used to show figures of animals. Movement can also be seen in the running bulls. Scale was probably used to bring attention to more important/significant animals.
Function: Prehistoric hunters believed that they had control of the animals by painting them on the walls. They also believed the more lifelike the animal was, the more magical power the animal had. Maybe, the art was used to keep record of hunting events and kills.
Content: Bulls and other animals running.
Context: The painting took place in France, and has to do with hunter-gatherer society, concerns with food, survival, and procreation.
2. Great Hall of the Bulls
Location: Cave walls near Lascaux, France
Artist: N/A
Date: 15,000-13,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient French
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Paleolithic
Material/Technique: Rock painting; contours to show volume of the animals
Theme(s): Hunting, survival, food
Form: Color is used to distinguish one animal from another. Lines and shapes are used to show figures of animals. Movement can also be seen in the running bulls. Scale was probably used to bring attention to more important/significant animals.
Function: Prehistoric hunters believed that they had control of the animals by painting them on the walls. They also believed the more lifelike the animal was, the more magical power the animal had. Maybe, the art was used to keep record of hunting events and kills.
Content: Bulls and other animals running.
Context: The painting took place in France, and has to do with hunter-gatherer society, concerns with food, survival, and procreation.
3. Camelid Sacrum in the shape of a canine
Location: Tequixquiac, Central Mexico
Artist: N/A
Date: 14,000-7,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) Mesoamerican
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Paleolithic
Medium/Material: Carved (animal) pelvic bones
Theme(s): importance of animals, spirituality
Form: Form utilized to show a shape of a canine; shadows.
Function: Housed spiritual essence of a hunted animal; ceremonial mask 
Content: ...
Context: Used as a mask, traditionally thought to be simultaneously located in an Otherworld
3. Camelid Sacrum in the shape of a canine
Location: Tequixquiac, Central Mexico
Artist: N/A
Date: 14,000-7,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) Mesoamerican
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Paleolithic
Medium/Material: Carved (animal) pelvic bones
Theme(s): importance of animals, spirituality
Form: Form utilized to show a shape of a canine; shadows.
Function: Housed spiritual essence of a hunted animal; ceremonial mask
Content: …
Context: Used as a mask, traditionally thought to be simultaneously located in an Otherworld
4. Running Horned Woman
Location: Tassili n'Ajjer, Algeria
Artist: N/A
Date: 6,000-4,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient North African
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Pigment on rock
Theme(s): supernatural beings, ceremony/ritual 
Form: The use of color, shape, lines, scale, and space are utilized to form the Horned Women and her surrounding figures. Movement is evident as she is clearly planting her foot for another long stride.
Function: Some scholars have interpreted the woman as a horned deity instead of a human wearing ceremonial headgear. 
Content: Either a horned deity or a human is running around, probably for a ceremonial or ritualistic purpose.
Context: It's made on rock walls and displays varied human and animal activities.
4. Running Horned Woman
Location: Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria
Artist: N/A
Date: 6,000-4,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient North African
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Pigment on rock
Theme(s): supernatural beings, ceremony/ritual
Form: The use of color, shape, lines, scale, and space are utilized to form the Horned Women and her surrounding figures. Movement is evident as she is clearly planting her foot for another long stride.
Function: Some scholars have interpreted the woman as a horned deity instead of a human wearing ceremonial headgear.
Content: Either a horned deity or a human is running around, probably for a ceremonial or ritualistic purpose.
Context: It’s made on rock walls and displays varied human and animal activities.
5. Bushel with Ibex motifs
Location: Susa, Iran
Artist: N/A 
Date: 4,200-3,500 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Middle East
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic 
Medium/Material: Painted terracotta
Theme(s): agriculture, probably growth
Form: Color and lines is/are used to create the shapes of animals, clan symbols, etc.
Function: It was among the funerary objects of the first inhabitants of Susa. On a secondary burial, the deceased received bushels and other items.
Content: Birds, dogs, land settlements, a goat, motif
Context: Given to the deceased during a secondary burial
5. Bushel with Ibex motifs
Location: Susa, Iran
Artist: N/A
Date: 4,200-3,500 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Middle East
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Painted terracotta
Theme(s): agriculture, probably growth
Form: Color and lines is/are used to create the shapes of animals, clan symbols, etc.
Function: It was among the funerary objects of the first inhabitants of Susa. On a secondary burial, the deceased received bushels and other items.
Content: Birds, dogs, land settlements, a goat, motif
Context: Given to the deceased during a secondary burial
6. Anthropomorphic Stele
Location: Arabian Peninsula
Artist: N/A
Date: Fourth Millennium B.C.E (c. 4,000 B.C.E)
Culture: (probably) ancient Arab
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Sandstone
Theme(s): ??? 
Form: Form used to make the figure into a human-like shape with a robe and sword.
Function: unknown, but probably used for religious or burial practices
Content: Distinctive belted robe and double-bladed sword, held by a human-like figure
Context: Some are carved in surrounding sandstone cliffs by many Arabian tombs. Earliest known works of art from the Arabian Peninsula
6. Anthropomorphic Stele
Location: Arabian Peninsula
Artist: N/A
Date: Fourth Millennium B.C.E (c. 4,000 B.C.E)
Culture: (probably) ancient Arab
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Sandstone
Theme(s): ???
Form: Form used to make the figure into a human-like shape with a robe and sword.
Function: unknown, but probably used for religious or burial practices
Content: Distinctive belted robe and double-bladed sword, held by a human-like figure
Context: Some are carved in surrounding sandstone cliffs by many Arabian tombs. Earliest known works of art from the Arabian Peninsula
7. Jade Cong
Location: Liangzhu, China
Artist: N/A
Date: 3,300-2,200 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Chinese
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Carved jade
Theme(s): spirits, deities
Form: Pattern, form, color (choice)
Function: unknown
Content: ???
Context: The principal decoration on cong of the Liangzhu period was the face pattern, which may refer to spirits or deities
7. Jade Cong
Location: Liangzhu, China
Artist: N/A
Date: 3,300-2,200 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Chinese
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Carved jade
Theme(s): spirits, deities
Form: Pattern, form, color (choice)
Function: unknown
Content: ???
Context: The principal decoration on cong of the Liangzhu period was the face pattern, which may refer to spirits or deities
8. Stonehenge
Location: Wiltshire, UK
Artist: N/A
Date: 2,500-1,600 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient European
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Sandstone
Theme(s): mathematics, unknown 
Form: Form, using
8. Stonehenge
Location: Wiltshire, UK
Artist: N/A
Date: 2,500-1,600 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient European
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Sandstone
Theme(s): mathematics, unknown
Form: Form, using “post and lintel” structures
Function: probably a marker of the midsummer solstice
Content: ???
Context: worked within the context of existing archaeological knowledge
9. Ambum Stone
Location: Ambum Valley, Enga Provine, Papua New Guinea
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 1,500 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Oceania
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Greywacke
Theme(s): Birds, pestle
Form: Made out of greywacke, probably to get a rich, brown color to represent the importance of animals. 
Function: Considered sacred and credited with supernatural powers by present day people of the region.
Content: A bird-like figure that sits like a human calmly.
Context: It has a higher level of figurative qualities than other pestles and may be in a unique class of its own.
9. Ambum Stone
Location: Ambum Valley, Enga Provine, Papua New Guinea
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 1,500 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Oceania
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Greywacke
Theme(s): Birds, pestle
Form: Made out of greywacke, probably to get a rich, brown color to represent the importance of animals.
Function: Considered sacred and credited with supernatural powers by present day people of the region.
Content: A bird-like figure that sits like a human calmly.
Context: It has a higher level of figurative qualities than other pestles and may be in a unique class of its own.
10. Tlatilco female figurine
Location: Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco 
Artist: N/A
Date: 1,200-900 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Mexican
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Ceramic and panit
Theme(s): fertility, exaggeration, idealism
Form: Form used to show physical
10. Tlatilco female figurine
Location: Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco
Artist: N/A
Date: 1,200-900 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Mexican
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: Ceramic and panit
Theme(s): fertility, exaggeration, idealism
Form: Form used to show physical “deformities,” color to show different body parts
Function: suggested they are related to women’s roles in regards to nature
Content: A nude woman, probably to show the ideal body figure of the time.
Context: The figure is completely nude and revealing an exagerrated contrast in proportions. Tlatico figurines show a fascination with physical deformities.
11. Terracotta fragment
Location: Lapita Islands, Solomon Islands, Reef Islands
Artist: N/A
Date: 1,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Oceania
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: incised terracotta
Theme(s): storage, ???
Form: Patterns which include faces and figures, and a red, vibrant color
Function: piece of pottery used for cooking, serving, and storing
Content: Geometric patterns, lines, and shapes.
Context: Lapita art is known for ceramics, which have intricate repeating geometric patterns that sometimes include anthropomorphic faces and figures.
11. Terracotta fragment
Location: Lapita Islands, Solomon Islands, Reef Islands
Artist: N/A
Date: 1,000 B.C.E
Culture: (probably) ancient Oceania
Period/Style: Prehistoric, Neolithic
Medium/Material: incised terracotta
Theme(s): storage, ???
Form: Patterns which include faces and figures, and a red, vibrant color
Function: piece of pottery used for cooking, serving, and storing
Content: Geometric patterns, lines, and shapes.
Context: Lapita art is known for ceramics, which have intricate repeating geometric patterns that sometimes include anthropomorphic faces and figures.
Terracotta Fragment
12. White Temple and its Ziggurat
Location: Uruk (modern-day Warka, Iraq)
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 3,500-3,000 B.C.E
Culture: Sumerian (Mesopotamian)
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: Mud brick
Theme(s): religion, worship
Form: Formed to be a large place of worship. Probably, the color was intended to be a different color from the earth to distinguish it.
Function: A temple; a meeting place for gods and humans
Content: A sandy-colored temple that is decorated with reliefs, carvings, and other types of designs.
Context: Statues for gods and donors were placed inside temples. Dedicated to Inanna (goddess of love and war) and to Anu (sky god)
12. White Temple and its Ziggurat
Location: Uruk (modern-day Warka, Iraq)
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 3,500-3,000 B.C.E
Culture: Sumerian (Mesopotamian)
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: Mud brick
Theme(s): religion, worship
Form: Formed to be a large place of worship. Probably, the color was intended to be a different color from the earth to distinguish it.
Function: A temple; a meeting place for gods and humans
Content: A sandy-colored temple that is decorated with reliefs, carvings, and other types of designs.
Context: Statues for gods and donors were placed inside temples. Dedicated to Inanna (goddess of love and war) and to Anu (sky god)
13. Palette of King Narmer
Location: Nekhen, Egypt
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 3,000-2,920 B.C.E
Culture: Predynastic Egypt
Period: Ancient Egypt
Medium/Material: Greywacke
Theme(s): weaponry, leadeship, 
Form: Form and shape used to create the structure of the actual palette as well as the designs on both the front and back. Hierarchy of scale seen.
Function: A votive or gift offering by the King to his
13. Palette of King Narmer
Location: Nekhen, Egypt
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 3,000-2,920 B.C.E
Culture: Predynastic Egypt
Period: Ancient Egypt
Medium/Material: Greywacke
Theme(s): weaponry, leadeship,
Form: Form and shape used to create the structure of the actual palette as well as the designs on both the front and back. Hierarchy of scale seen.
Function: A votive or gift offering by the King to his “father”, the god Amon-ra.
Content: On the back: a bird on the top right, figures under and behind the main person. On the front: a narrative seen, probably about hunting and conquest.
Context: Believed to be found in the Predynastic capital of Upper Egypt.
14. Statues of votive figures
Location: Square Temple at Esnunna, Mesopotamia (modern-day Tell Asmar, Iraq)
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 2,700 B.C.E
Culture: Sumerian
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone
Theme(s): pessimistic, offerings, anxiety
Form: statues are shaped and designed using form, shape, lines, value, and color.
Function: Surrogate for donor (figures are not deities) offering constant prayer to deity with arms clasped reverentially, in supplication, awe.
Content: Tall, disproportionate figures that look worried. 
Context: Placed in temples precincts (
14. Statues of votive figures
Location: Square Temple at Esnunna, Mesopotamia (modern-day Tell Asmar, Iraq)
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 2,700 B.C.E
Culture: Sumerian
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone
Theme(s): pessimistic, offerings, anxiety
Form: statues are shaped and designed using form, shape, lines, value, and color.
Function: Surrogate for donor (figures are not deities) offering constant prayer to deity with arms clasped reverentially, in supplication, awe.
Content: Tall, disproportionate figures that look worried.
Context: Placed in temples precincts (“waiting rooms”) facing altar or statue of god appearance of figures relates to anxiety of after life.
15. Seated scribe
Location: Saqqara, Egypt
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 2,650-2,500 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egypt: Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty 
Medium/Material: Painted limestone (opt. rock crystals, magnesia, and copper/arsenic)
Theme(s): writing, work, afterlife
Form: Color and shape used to define bodily features and writing
Function: To represent a scribe for the interior of a tomb
Content: A male figure with black hair writing, probably for a job.
Context: Placed inside tombs. Represents a scribe at work. Is meant for the afterlife.
15. Seated scribe
Location: Saqqara, Egypt
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 2,650-2,500 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egypt: Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty
Medium/Material: Painted limestone (opt. rock crystals, magnesia, and copper/arsenic)
Theme(s): writing, work, afterlife
Form: Color and shape used to define bodily features and writing
Function: To represent a scribe for the interior of a tomb
Content: A male figure with black hair writing, probably for a job.
Context: Placed inside tombs. Represents a scribe at work. Is meant for the afterlife.
16. Standard of Ur
Location: Royal Tombs at Ur (modern-day Tell el-Muqayyar, Iraq
Artist: N/A
Date: 2,600-2,400 B.C.E
Culture: Sumerian
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: Wood inlaid with shells, lapis lazuli, and red limestone
Theme(s): war, peace, migration
Form: A trapezoidal prism that uses color, lines, and shape to show and describe times of peace conflict.
Function: likely to have been the sound box for a musical instrument. 
Content: The war side shows representations of a Sumerian army. Chariots, each pulled by four donkeys, trample enemies; infantry with cloaks carry spears; enemy soldiers are killed with axes, others are paraded naked and presented to the king who holds a spear. The peace panel shows animals, fish and other goods brought in procession to a banquet. 
Context: found in one of the largest graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur, lying in the corner of a chamber above a soldier who is believed to have carried it on a long pole as a standard, the royal emblem of a king.
16. Standard of Ur
Location: Royal Tombs at Ur (modern-day Tell el-Muqayyar, Iraq
Artist: N/A
Date: 2,600-2,400 B.C.E
Culture: Sumerian
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: Wood inlaid with shells, lapis lazuli, and red limestone
Theme(s): war, peace, migration
Form: A trapezoidal prism that uses color, lines, and shape to show and describe times of peace conflict.
Function: likely to have been the sound box for a musical instrument.
Content: The war side shows representations of a Sumerian army. Chariots, each pulled by four donkeys, trample enemies; infantry with cloaks carry spears; enemy soldiers are killed with axes, others are paraded naked and presented to the king who holds a spear. The peace panel shows animals, fish and other goods brought in procession to a banquet.
Context: found in one of the largest graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur, lying in the corner of a chamber above a soldier who is believed to have carried it on a long pole as a standard, the royal emblem of a king.
17. Great Pyramids (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx
Location: Giza, Egypt
Artist: Egyptians
Date: c. 2,550-2,490 B.C.E
Culture: Ancient Egypt
Period/Style: Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty
Medium/Material: Cut limestone
Theme(s): ceremonies & burial
Form: pyramid figures and underground labyrinths
Function: tombs for pharaohs
Content: Enormous pyramids with paths to underground passageways and tombs. The Great Sphinx shows a being with a cat body and human head/face.
Context: The Great Sphinx is believed to be the most immense stone sculpture ever made by man.
17. Great Pyramids (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx
Location: Giza, Egypt
Artist: Egyptians
Date: c. 2,550-2,490 B.C.E
Culture: Ancient Egypt
Period/Style: Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty
Medium/Material: Cut limestone
Theme(s): ceremonies & burial
Form: pyramid figures and underground labyrinths
Function: tombs for pharaohs
Content: Enormous pyramids with paths to underground passageways and tombs. The Great Sphinx shows a being with a cat body and human head/face.
Context: The Great Sphinx is believed to be the most immense stone sculpture ever made by man.
18. King Menkaura and queen
Location: Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 2,490-2,472 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egypt
Medium/Material: Greywacke
Theme(s): Hierarchy of scale, leadership
Form: Form, shape, scale, and space are used to form and differentiate the two people
Function: to be put in tombs
Content: King seen taking a step forward and his queen accompanying him or holding him back. 
Context: Found in a hole dug earlier by treasure-hunters below the floor of a room in the Valley Temple of the pyramid of Menkaure at Giza.
18. King Menkaura and queen
Location: Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 2,490-2,472 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egypt
Medium/Material: Greywacke
Theme(s): Hierarchy of scale, leadership
Form: Form, shape, scale, and space are used to form and differentiate the two people
Function: to be put in tombs
Content: King seen taking a step forward and his queen accompanying him or holding him back.
Context: Found in a hole dug earlier by treasure-hunters below the floor of a room in the Valley Temple of the pyramid of Menkaure at Giza.
19. The Code of Hammurabi
Location: Babylon (modern-day Iran)
Artist: Hammurabi
Date: c. 1,792-1,750 B.C.E
Culture: Susian
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: words/symbols carved into 8ft. basalt
Theme(s): law, inscriptions, rule
Form: Tall structure with an example of scale on top. The being with greater power is shown as sitting while at the same time being the same height as Hammurabi.
Function: a system of Babylonian laws, also the first
Content: Inscriptions describing the rules and regulations of Hammurabi
Context: In this stone is carved with around 300 laws, the first know set of ruler enforced laws.
19. The Code of Hammurabi
Location: Babylon (modern-day Iran)
Artist: Hammurabi
Date: c. 1,792-1,750 B.C.E
Culture: Susian
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: words/symbols carved into 8ft. basalt
Theme(s): law, inscriptions, rule
Form: Tall structure with an example of scale on top. The being with greater power is shown as sitting while at the same time being the same height as Hammurabi.
Function: a system of Babylonian laws, also the first
Content: Inscriptions describing the rules and regulations of Hammurabi
Context: In this stone is carved with around 300 laws, the first know set of ruler enforced laws.
20. Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall
Location: Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt
Artist: N/A
Date: Temple: c. 1550 B.C.E.; Hall: c. 1250 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egypt
Medium/Material: Cut sandstone and mud brick
Theme(s): religion
Form: A spacious temple with many columns in one room to hold up a ceiling. The walls are shaped to probably stand strong against weather. The Hypostyle Hall is two rows of columns that probably held a roof on top.
Function: A major portion of the temple was for the god, Amun-Re
Content: Many pillars, however now destroyed. The walls was very fortified and well-structured. 
Context: Represented a marsh in the begining of time, only Pharaoh and priests were allowed for religious practices
20. Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall
Location: Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt
Artist: N/A
Date: Temple: c. 1550 B.C.E.; Hall: c. 1250 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egypt
Medium/Material: Cut sandstone and mud brick
Theme(s): religion
Form: A spacious temple with many columns in one room to hold up a ceiling. The walls are shaped to probably stand strong against weather. The Hypostyle Hall is two rows of columns that probably held a roof on top.
Function: A major portion of the temple was for the god, Amun-Re
Content: Many pillars, however now destroyed. The walls was very fortified and well-structured.
Context: Represented a marsh in the begining of time, only Pharaoh and priests were allowed for religious practices
21. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut
Location: Near Luxor, Egypt
Artist: Senmut
Date: c. 1473-1458 B.C.E. 
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian
Medium/Material: Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite
Theme(s): royalty, achievement
Form: Temple: Space and form to create a opening inside. Statue: The way the body is made brings attention to the head and face. The form and value acts as a gradient from bottom to top.
Function: Funerary temple for the queen of the time 
Content: 
Context: Built for the queen to commemorate her achievements and act as a mortuary for her and a sanctuary for the god Amun-ra
21. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut
Location: Near Luxor, Egypt
Artist: Senmut
Date: c. 1473-1458 B.C.E.
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian
Medium/Material: Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite
Theme(s): royalty, achievement
Form: Temple: Space and form to create a opening inside. Statue: The way the body is made brings attention to the head and face. The form and value acts as a gradient from bottom to top.
Function: Funerary temple for the queen of the time
Content:
Context: Built for the queen to commemorate her achievements and act as a mortuary for her and a sanctuary for the god Amun-ra
22. Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters
Location: New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty
Artist: N/A 
Date: c. 1353-1335 B.C.E. 
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian
Medium/Material: Limestone
Theme(s): religion
Form: Shape, line, and value used to form the figures and their surroundings.
Function: Depict Akhenaten and his wife and their relation to the new god, Aten
Content: Lines at the top point either to Akhenaten and his wife or to the circular shape in the top middle
Context: A piece that would be in someone's home home, not in a public place, depicting relation between the ruler and the god
22. Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters
Location: New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 1353-1335 B.C.E.
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian
Medium/Material: Limestone
Theme(s): religion
Form: Shape, line, and value used to form the figures and their surroundings.
Function: Depict Akhenaten and his wife and their relation to the new god, Aten
Content: Lines at the top point either to Akhenaten and his wife or to the circular shape in the top middle
Context: A piece that would be in someone’s home home, not in a public place, depicting relation between the ruler and the god
23. Tutankhamun's tomb, innermost coffin
Location: New Kingdom
Artist: N/A
Date: c.. 1323 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian
Medium/Material: Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones
Theme(s): afterlife
Form: formed to be the shape of Tutankhamun's body
Function: Coffin for King Tutankhamun 
Content: A magnificent golden coffin with colored patterns 
Context: Coffin within the king's tomb, helf his mummified body
23. Tutankhamun’s tomb, innermost coffin
Location: New Kingdom
Artist: N/A
Date: c.. 1323 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian
Medium/Material: Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones
Theme(s): afterlife
Form: formed to be the shape of Tutankhamun’s body
Function: Coffin for King Tutankhamun
Content: A magnificent golden coffin with colored patterns
Context: Coffin within the king’s tomb, helf his mummified body
24. Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb (page from the Book of the Dead)
Location: New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 1275 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian 
Medium/Material: Painted papyrus scroll
Theme(s): judgment, ethics
Form: Colors, line, and shape illustrate the narrative. Scale/hierarchy of scale is demonstrated.
Function: to depict Hu-Nefer's last judgment 
Content: 3
24. Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb (page from the Book of the Dead)
Location: New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 1275 B.C.E
Culture: Egyptian
Period/Style: Ancient Egyptian
Medium/Material: Painted papyrus scroll
Theme(s): judgment, ethics
Form: Colors, line, and shape illustrate the narrative. Scale/hierarchy of scale is demonstrated.
Function: to depict Hu-Nefer’s last judgment
Content: 3 “story parts.” The religious/political leader is probably concealed within the square box towards the right. A scene involving religious activity is seen at the top, and the actual judging is on the bottom right.
Context: The judgment of whether or not Hu-Nefer has lived an ethical life, if he has not, he will be devoured by mythical creatures that are a medley of different animals.
25. Lamassu from the citadel of Sargon II
Location: Dur Sharrukin (modern-day Khorsabad, Iraq)
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 720-705 B.C.E.
Culture: Neo-Assyrian 
Period/Style: Ancient Near East 
Medium/Material: Alabaster
Theme(s): guardian, dominance
Form: Form and color to show the size and features of each Lamassu.
Function: Protect and support important doorways in Assyrian palaces
Content: Detailed heads and long beards. from the side, 4 legs; from the front, 2 legs. Winged and bull/horse hoofs.
Context: Used as a form of intimidating protection of palaces in Assyria
25. Lamassu from the citadel of Sargon II
Location: Dur Sharrukin (modern-day Khorsabad, Iraq)
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 720-705 B.C.E.
Culture: Neo-Assyrian
Period/Style: Ancient Near East
Medium/Material: Alabaster
Theme(s): guardian, dominance
Form: Form and color to show the size and features of each Lamassu.
Function: Protect and support important doorways in Assyrian palaces
Content: Detailed heads and long beards. from the side, 4 legs; from the front, 2 legs. Winged and bull/horse hoofs.
Context: Used as a form of intimidating protection of palaces in Assyria
26. Athenian agora 
Location: modern-day Athens, Greece
Artist: N/A
Date: 600 B.C.E.-150 C.E.
Culture: Greek
Period/Style: Ancient Greece
Medium/Material: Plan
Theme(s): market, civic center
Form: ???
Function: ??? 
Content: Shaded lines, probably paths, and darker lines are seen. A mound of curved lines are seen on the left with what seems to be a temple on top.
Context: ???
26. Athenian agora
Location: modern-day Athens, Greece
Artist: N/A
Date: 600 B.C.E.-150 C.E.
Culture: Greek
Period/Style: Ancient Greece
Medium/Material: Plan
Theme(s): market, civic center
Form: ???
Function: ???
Content: Shaded lines, probably paths, and darker lines are seen. A mound of curved lines are seen on the left with what seems to be a temple on top.
Context: ???
27. Anavysos Kouros
Location: Greece 
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 530 B.C.E.
Culture: Archaic Greek
Period/Style: Ancient Greece
Medium/Material: Marble with remnants of paint
Theme(s): gravestone
Form: Form, lines, and shape are used to define bodily features like hair and muscles.
Function: Grave markers or offering to a god
Content: Male with its left foot forward, knees locked, braided hair with head band, and smile.
Context: found by a youth's grave who died in battle
27. Anavysos Kouros
Location: Greece
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 530 B.C.E.
Culture: Archaic Greek
Period/Style: Ancient Greece
Medium/Material: Marble with remnants of paint
Theme(s): gravestone
Form: Form, lines, and shape are used to define bodily features like hair and muscles.
Function: Grave markers or offering to a god
Content: Male with its left foot forward, knees locked, braided hair with head band, and smile.
Context: found by a youth’s grave who died in battle
28. Peplos Kore
Location: Acropolis, Greece
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 530 B.C.E
Culture: Archaic Greek
Period/Style: Ancient Greece
Medium/Material: Marble, painted details
Theme(s): offering
Form: Line, color and shape define Kore's bodily features.
Function: offering of a goddess
Content: arm straight out, thought to be carring something, holes in head thought to be wearing a metal crown, paint visible in speaial lighting on the dress, archaic smile
Context: thought to be an offering to Athena, but it was later discovered to be a statue of Artemis or Athena
28. Peplos Kore
Location: Acropolis, Greece
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 530 B.C.E
Culture: Archaic Greek
Period/Style: Ancient Greece
Medium/Material: Marble, painted details
Theme(s): offering
Form: Line, color and shape define Kore’s bodily features.
Function: offering of a goddess
Content: arm straight out, thought to be carring something, holes in head thought to be wearing a metal crown, paint visible in speaial lighting on the dress, archaic smile
Context: thought to be an offering to Athena, but it was later discovered to be a statue of Artemis or Athena
29. Sarcophagus of the Spouses
Location: Cerverteri, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 520 B.C.E.
Culture: Etruscan
Period/Style: Archaic period
Medium/Material: terracotta
Theme(s): freedom, death
Form: shape, form, and value add up to each other to allow for lighting differences.
Function: Sarcoughagus containing the ashes of the deceased; funerary monument
Content: Detail in hair color; portrayed women's relative freedom in Etruscan society; terracotta, funerary monument, sarcophagus, gender relations/ gender roles, expressive figures, unrealistic proportions
Context: The couple are lounging on a banquet couch for what might be a funeral banquent for the dead.
29. Sarcophagus of the Spouses
Location: Cerverteri, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 520 B.C.E.
Culture: Etruscan
Period/Style: Archaic period
Medium/Material: terracotta
Theme(s): freedom, death
Form: shape, form, and value add up to each other to allow for lighting differences.
Function: Sarcoughagus containing the ashes of the deceased; funerary monument
Content: Detail in hair color; portrayed women’s relative freedom in Etruscan society; terracotta, funerary monument, sarcophagus, gender relations/ gender roles, expressive figures, unrealistic proportions
Context: The couple are lounging on a banquet couch for what might be a funeral banquent for the dead.
30. Audience Hall (apadana) of Darius and Xerxes
Location: Persepolis in Susa, Iran
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 520-465 B.C.E
Culture: Persian 
Period/Style: Etruscan
Medium/Material: Limestone
Theme(s): entertainment, ceremony, ritual
Form: Many pillars (now fallen) that have/had bulls on top.
Function: to receive people from other lands
Content: ...
Context: ...
30. Audience Hall (apadana) of Darius and Xerxes
Location: Persepolis in Susa, Iran
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 520-465 B.C.E
Culture: Persian
Period/Style: Etruscan
Medium/Material: Limestone
Theme(s): entertainment, ceremony, ritual
Form: Many pillars (now fallen) that have/had bulls on top.
Function: to receive people from other lands
Content: …
Context: …
31. Temple of Minerva (plan) and sculpture of Apollo
Location: The roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, Italy, near Rome, Italy
Artist: Master sculptor Vulca; Patron: Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus
Date: c. 510-500 B.C.E.
Culture: Etruscan
Period/Style: Archaic Greece
Medium/Material: Original temple of wood, mud brick, or tufa (volcanic rock); terra cotta sculpture
Theme(s): 
Form: 
Function: (sculpture) Temple rooftop statue
Content: Figure is energetic and excited; movement; terra cotta, statuary, mythology
Context: The statue is part of a group of at least four other painted terracotta figures that adorned the temple roof. They depicted one of the twelve labors of Hercules. The bright paint and the style of drapery are reminiscent of Archaic korai, but the figure's vigorous motion, gesticulating arms, animated face, and overall energy and excitement are distinctly Etruscan.
31. Temple of Minerva (plan) and sculpture of Apollo
Location: The roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, Italy, near Rome, Italy
Artist: Master sculptor Vulca; Patron: Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus
Date: c. 510-500 B.C.E.
Culture: Etruscan
Period/Style: Archaic Greece
Medium/Material: Original temple of wood, mud brick, or tufa (volcanic rock); terra cotta sculpture
Theme(s):
Form:
Function: (sculpture) Temple rooftop statue
Content: Figure is energetic and excited; movement; terra cotta, statuary, mythology
Context: The statue is part of a group of at least four other painted terracotta figures that adorned the temple roof. They depicted one of the twelve labors of Hercules. The bright paint and the style of drapery are reminiscent of Archaic korai, but the figure’s vigorous motion, gesticulating arms, animated face, and overall energy and excitement are distinctly Etruscan.
32. Tomb of the Triclinium
Location: Tarquinia, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 480-470 B.C.E.
Culture: Etruscan
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: Tufa and fresco
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content: 
Context:
32. Tomb of the Triclinium
Location: Tarquinia, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 480-470 B.C.E.
Culture: Etruscan
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Tufa and fresco
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
33. Niobedes Krater
Location: Unknown; Museum of Louvre, Paris
Artist: Niobid Painter
Date: c. 460-450 B.C.E.
Culture: 
Period/Style: Classical Greece
Medium/Material: Clay, red-figure technique (white highlights)
Theme(s): war, mythology
Form: Color distinguishes war participants and an attempt at space/scale was made to show distance
Function: vase; worshipping
Content: An attempt at three dimensions, space, perspective, etc. and red-figure style
Context: The engraved figures are the Greek Gods Apollo and Artemis killing the children of Niome. Generally accepted it is the Gathering of Argonauts or Polynotos of Thasos.
33. Niobedes Krater
Location: Unknown; Museum of Louvre, Paris
Artist: Niobid Painter
Date: c. 460-450 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Classical Greece
Medium/Material: Clay, red-figure technique (white highlights)
Theme(s): war, mythology
Form: Color distinguishes war participants and an attempt at space/scale was made to show distance
Function: vase; worshipping
Content: An attempt at three dimensions, space, perspective, etc. and red-figure style
Context: The engraved figures are the Greek Gods Apollo and Artemis killing the children of Niome. Generally accepted it is the Gathering of Argonauts or Polynotos of Thasos.
34. Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
Location: Herculaneum
Artist: Polykleitos
Date: 450-440 B.C.E.
Culture: 
Period/Style: Greek; Classical realism; contrapposto
Medium/Material: Roman copy: marble; Greek original: bronze
Theme(s):
Form: Form, to give a three-dimensional feel; to create shadows
Function: Depiction of the (ideal) human body
Content: Contrapposto, realism, muscular, iconic, balanced portions of the human body
Context:
34. Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
Location: Herculaneum
Artist: Polykleitos
Date: 450-440 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Greek; Classical realism; contrapposto
Medium/Material: Roman copy: marble; Greek original: bronze
Theme(s):
Form: Form, to give a three-dimensional feel; to create shadows
Function: Depiction of the (ideal) human body
Content: Contrapposto, realism, muscular, iconic, balanced portions of the human body
Context:
35. Acropolis, Parthenon, Helios, horses, and Dionysus (Heracles?), Temple of Athena Nike, Victory adjusting her sandal, and Plaque of the Ergastines
Location: Athens, Greece
Artist: Iktinos and Kallikrates (architects); Phidias (sculptor); Patron: Greek government
Date: c. 447-424 B.C.E. (Acropolis), 447-438 BCE (Parthenon) 
Culture: Greek
Period/Style: Greek
Medium/Material: Marble, stone, used mathematics
Theme(s): 
Form: 
Function: (Parthenon) Architecture, to house the gods and to be a treasury
Content: Large(228ft by 101ft); columns, religious
Context: (Parthenon) Dedicated to the God Athena, symbol of Athenian democracy and western civilization
35. Acropolis, Parthenon, Helios, horses, and Dionysus (Heracles?), Temple of Athena Nike, Victory adjusting her sandal, and Plaque of the Ergastines
Location: Athens, Greece
Artist: Iktinos and Kallikrates (architects); Phidias (sculptor); Patron: Greek government
Date: c. 447-424 B.C.E. (Acropolis), 447-438 BCE (Parthenon)
Culture: Greek
Period/Style: Greek
Medium/Material: Marble, stone, used mathematics
Theme(s):
Form:
Function: (Parthenon) Architecture, to house the gods and to be a treasury
Content: Large(228ft by 101ft); columns, religious
Context: (Parthenon) Dedicated to the God Athena, symbol of Athenian democracy and western civilization
36. Grave stele of Hegeso
Location: Kerameikos; National Archeological Museum, Athens
Artist: attributed to Kallimachos
Date: c. 410 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Greek
Medium/Material: Pentelic (from Mount Pentelicus) marble and paint
Theme(s):
Form: Relief 
Function: A grave stone honoring the dead
Content: damaged/broken off on the Hegeso's head
Context: It is a grave Stelae, and the deceased is Hegeso, the daughter of Proxenos
36. Grave stele of Hegeso
Location: Kerameikos; National Archeological Museum, Athens
Artist: attributed to Kallimachos
Date: c. 410 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Greek
Medium/Material: Pentelic (from Mount Pentelicus) marble and paint
Theme(s):
Form: Relief
Function: A grave stone honoring the dead
Content: damaged/broken off on the Hegeso’s head
Context: It is a grave Stelae, and the deceased is Hegeso, the daughter of Proxenos
37. Winged Victory of Samothrace
Location: Samothrace, Greece
Artist:
Date: c. 190 B.C.E.
Culture: 
Period/Style: Hellenistic/Ancient Greek
Medium/Material: Marble 
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: naval victory
Content: humanistic culture, polytheism, wings, Goddess
Context: It is the Greek goddess Nike, and it was made not only to honor her, but a sea battle.
37. Winged Victory of Samothrace
Location: Samothrace, Greece
Artist:
Date: c. 190 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Hellenistic/Ancient Greek
Medium/Material: Marble
Theme(s):
Form:
Function: naval victory
Content: humanistic culture, polytheism, wings, Goddess
Context: It is the Greek goddess Nike, and it was made not only to honor her, but a sea battle.
38. Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon, Great Altar of Zeus and Athena, Athena, Great Altar of Zeus and Athena plan
Location: Asia Minor (modern Turkey)
Artist: King Eumenes III
Date: c. 175 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Hellenistic Greek
Medium/Material: Marble
Theme(s):
Form: large, deep relief
Function: worship 
Content: Shows the battle between the Olympian Gods and the Giants, and depicts the life of Telephus
Context:
38. Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon, Great Altar of Zeus and Athena, Athena, Great Altar of Zeus and Athena plan
Location: Asia Minor (modern Turkey)
Artist: King Eumenes III
Date: c. 175 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Hellenistic Greek
Medium/Material: Marble
Theme(s):
Form: large, deep relief
Function: worship
Content: Shows the battle between the Olympian Gods and the Giants, and depicts the life of Telephus
Context:
39. House of the Vettii Plan, Frescoes, Atrium
Location: Pompeii, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: c. second century; rebuilt c. 62-79
Culture: Roman
Period/Style: Imperial Roman
Medium/Material: Cut stone and fresco
Theme(s): rituals, entertainment, government
Form: Domus architecture, form, vibrantly colored interior 
Function: atrium where daily rituals and power are displayed (social hierarchy)
Content: axial symmetry, atrium (large reception area),
39. House of the Vettii Plan, Frescoes, Atrium
Location: Pompeii, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: c. second century; rebuilt c. 62-79
Culture: Roman
Period/Style: Imperial Roman
Medium/Material: Cut stone and fresco
Theme(s): rituals, entertainment, government
Form: Domus architecture, form, vibrantly colored interior
Function: atrium where daily rituals and power are displayed (social hierarchy)
Content: axial symmetry, atrium (large reception area), “peristyle” garden
Context: named after Aulus Vettius Conviva and Restitutus.
40. Alexander Mosaic 
Location: House of Faun, Pompeii
Artist: N/A | Patron: Pompeian citizen
Date: c. 100 B.C.E.
Culture: Roman
Period/Style: Greek
Medium/Material: Mosaic
Theme(s): war, conflict
Form: perspective/space to show different figures and their spot in the mosaic 
Function: to decorate the
40. Alexander Mosaic
Location: House of Faun, Pompeii
Artist: N/A | Patron: Pompeian citizen
Date: c. 100 B.C.E.
Culture: Roman
Period/Style: Greek
Medium/Material: Mosaic
Theme(s): war, conflict
Form: perspective/space to show different figures and their spot in the mosaic
Function: to decorate the “House of Faun”
Content: Alexander the Great is in the left shown as a young and brave man; King Darius
Context:
41. Seated Boxer
Location: buried under the Quirinial - one of the seven hills of Rome
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 100
Culture: ?
Period/Style: Hellenistic Greek (towards end of Greek period)
Medium/Material: Bronze, some copper 
Theme(s): defeat, pain
Form: copper was worked into the bronze to appear to be wounds
Function: depiction of an actual athlete from the time, or decorative 
Content: heavily battered, defeated veteran whose upward glance may have been looking at his enemy
Context: Most Greek statues depicted ideal human forms (young, beautiful athletes); religious connections
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
41. Seated Boxer
Location: buried under the Quirinial – one of the seven hills of Rome
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 100
Culture: ?
Period/Style: Hellenistic Greek (towards end of Greek period)
Medium/Material: Bronze, some copper
Theme(s): defeat, pain
Form: copper was worked into the bronze to appear to be wounds
Function: depiction of an actual athlete from the time, or decorative
Content: heavily battered, defeated veteran whose upward glance may have been looking at his enemy
Context: Most Greek statues depicted ideal human forms (young, beautiful athletes); religious connections
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
42. Head of a Roman Patrician
Location: Rome, Italy
Patron: Roman Patrician
Date: c. 75-50 B.C.E.
Culture: ?
Period/Style: Republican Roman
Medium/Material: marble
Theme(s): Politics
Form: carved to show an
42. Head of a Roman Patrician
Location: Rome, Italy
Patron: Roman Patrician
Date: c. 75-50 B.C.E.
Culture: ?
Period/Style: Republican Roman
Medium/Material: marble
Theme(s): Politics
Form: carved to show an “older” patrician to represent knowledge and experience
Function: to depict an important citizen; propaganda/ political art
Content: …
Context: Idealized portrayal of a patrician; shows dignity of age (ideal for politicians of the time due to wisdom, experience, etc.)
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
43. Augustus of Primaporta
Location: private residence in Rome
Patron: Tiberius Caesar 
Date: 20 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: The Early Empire/Roman Art
Medium/Material: marble
Theme(s): politics, achievement
Form: 
Function: Commemorative monument. A vehicle of political propaganda
Content:
Context: advertised Augustus
43. Augustus of Primaporta
Location: private residence in Rome
Patron: Tiberius Caesar
Date: 20 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: The Early Empire/Roman Art
Medium/Material: marble
Theme(s): politics, achievement
Form:
Function: Commemorative monument. A vehicle of political propaganda
Content:
Context: advertised Augustus “perfect” qualities. Depicts the emperor in his role as general
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Polykleitos’s Spear Bearer
44. Colosseum
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Titus dedicated it to Vespasian
Date: c. 70-80 B.C.E.
Culture: 
Period/Style: Imperial Roman
Medium/Material: stone and concrete
Theme(s): entertainment, battle
Form: 
Function: home to entertainment; 100 days of games like animal fights and gladiatorial battles, then, after years of neglect, it was
44. Colosseum
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Titus dedicated it to Vespasian
Date: c. 70-80 B.C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Imperial Roman
Medium/Material: stone and concrete
Theme(s): entertainment, battle
Form:
Function: home to entertainment; 100 days of games like animal fights and gladiatorial battles, then, after years of neglect, it was “salvaged” for materials in the 18th century
Content: columns, doric, ionic, corinthian, concrete, stone, entertainment
Context: Could hold between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators which were organized by social ranking, largest ampitheater in the Roman Worlds, freestanding unlike most other ampitheaters which were built into hillsides, included doric, ionic, and corinthian orders
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
45. Trajan's Market
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus; Patron: Emperor Trajan
Date: 106-112 C.E.
Culture: 
Period/Style: Ancient Rome
Medium/Material: 
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: Column: to celebrate Emperor Trajan in honor of his victory over Dacia Market: a collection of warehouse and shops where Romans could conduct business and purchase goods
Content: 
Context: Political art that celebrated rulers, carved into the side of a hill 
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
45. Trajan’s Market
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus; Patron: Emperor Trajan
Date: 106-112 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Ancient Rome
Medium/Material:
Theme(s):
Form:
Function: Column: to celebrate Emperor Trajan in honor of his victory over Dacia Market: a collection of warehouse and shops where Romans could conduct business and purchase goods
Content:
Context: Political art that celebrated rulers, carved into the side of a hill
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
46. Pantheon
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: 125 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: High Empire/Roman Art
Medium/Material: Concrete, stone facing
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: temple, then church; temple for all of the gods.
Content:
Context: temple that was repurposed throughout the years; Work on the Pantheon started immediately after Hadrian became emperor; dome's summit is the same distance from the floor as the diameter of the dome (142 feet); interior space can be imagined as
46. Pantheon
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: N/A
Date: 125 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: High Empire/Roman Art
Medium/Material: Concrete, stone facing
Theme(s):
Form:
Function: temple, then church; temple for all of the gods.
Content:
Context: temple that was repurposed throughout the years; Work on the Pantheon started immediately after Hadrian became emperor; dome’s summit is the same distance from the floor as the diameter of the dome (142 feet); interior space can be imagined as “the orb of the earth;” dome was meant to be imagined as the vault of the heavens.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
47. Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
Location: Near Porta Turbatina
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 250-260 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Late Imperial Roman
Medium/Material:
Theme(s): war,
47. Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
Location: Near Porta Turbatina
Artist: N/A
Date: c. 250-260 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Late Imperial Roman
Medium/Material:
Theme(s): war, “reflection”
Form: Rectangular, completely covered in relief, rejection of classical traditions
Function: used as a tomb (bury people in)
Content: Relief sculpture, figures are crammed together in contrast to the Roman convention of having open space around figures, anti-classical, military heroes, master carving
Context: A memorial to the wars between the Ostrogoths and Imperial Romans then taking place
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
48a. Catacomb of Priscilla (Chapel)
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: ?
Date: c. 200-400 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Excavated tufa and fresco
Theme(s): ...
Form: Three niches for sarcophagi. Decorated with paintings in the Pompeian style; sketchy painterly brushstrokes.
Function: Contains the tombs of seven popes and many early Christian martyrs.
Content: Named for two Greek inscriptions painted on the right niche
Context: Catacombs beneath Rome have 4 million dead, and extend for about 100 miles.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
48a. Catacomb of Priscilla (Chapel)
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: ?
Date: c. 200-400 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Excavated tufa and fresco
Theme(s): …
Form: Three niches for sarcophagi. Decorated with paintings in the Pompeian style; sketchy painterly brushstrokes.
Function: Contains the tombs of seven popes and many early Christian martyrs.
Content: Named for two Greek inscriptions painted on the right niche
Context: Catacombs beneath Rome have 4 million dead, and extend for about 100 miles.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
48b. Catacomb of Priscilla (Orant Figure)
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: ?
Date: c. 200-400 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Excavated tufa and fresco
Theme(s): worship
Form: Fresco over a tomb niche set over an arched wall. Stands with arms outstretched in prayer. Figure is compact, dark, set off from a light background; terse angular contours; emphatic gestures
Function: Offering prayers for deceased
Content: Left: painting of a teacher with children. Right: mother and child (perhaps Mary with Christ or the Church)
Context: Cemetery of a family vault
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
48b. Catacomb of Priscilla (Orant Figure)
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: ?
Date: c. 200-400 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Excavated tufa and fresco
Theme(s): worship
Form: Fresco over a tomb niche set over an arched wall. Stands with arms outstretched in prayer. Figure is compact, dark, set off from a light background; terse angular contours; emphatic gestures
Function: Offering prayers for deceased
Content: Left: painting of a teacher with children. Right: mother and child (perhaps Mary with Christ or the Church)
Context: Cemetery of a family vault
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
48c. Catacomb of Priscilla (Good Shepherd Fresco)
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: ?
Date: c. 200-400 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Excavated tufa and fresco
Theme(s): ...
Form: Retrained portrait of Christ as a Good Shepherd, a pastoral motif in ancient art going back to the Greeks.
Function: Symbolism of the Good Shepherd: rescues individual sinners in his flock who stray. 
Content: Stories of the life of the Old Testament Prophet Jonah who appears in the lunettes; Jonah's regurgitation from the mouth of a big fish is seen as prefiguring Christ's resurrection.
Context: Early Christian catacombs
Significance: Parallels between Old and New Testament stories feature prominently in Early Christian art; Christians see this as a fulfillment of the Hebrew scriptures.
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Sistine Chapel Ceiling; Arena Chapel; Gaulli, Triumph of the Name of Jesus
48c. Catacomb of Priscilla (Good Shepherd Fresco)
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: ?
Date: c. 200-400 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Excavated tufa and fresco
Theme(s): …
Form: Retrained portrait of Christ as a Good Shepherd, a pastoral motif in ancient art going back to the Greeks.
Function: Symbolism of the Good Shepherd: rescues individual sinners in his flock who stray.
Content: Stories of the life of the Old Testament Prophet Jonah who appears in the lunettes; Jonah’s regurgitation from the mouth of a big fish is seen as prefiguring Christ’s resurrection.
Context: Early Christian catacombs
Significance: Parallels between Old and New Testament stories feature prominently in Early Christian art; Christians see this as a fulfillment of the Hebrew scriptures.
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Sistine Chapel Ceiling; Arena Chapel; Gaulli, Triumph of the Name of Jesus
49. Santa Sabina
Location: Rome, Italy
Founder: Peter of Illyria
Date: c. 422-432 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Brick and stone, with a wooden roof
Theme(s): worship, belief
Form: The tall, spacious nave (central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the congregation) has 24 columns of Proconnesian marble with perfectly matched Corinthian columns and bases (reused from the Temple of Juno). The spandrels (triangular space between one side of the outer curve of an arch, a wall, and the ceiling or framework) of the closely-spaced arches have inlaid marble designs in green and purple, depicting chalices and patens to represent the Eucharist. Interior=bright, due to the row of windows in the clerestory plus three in the apse and five in the facade. The windows and marble chancel furniture date from the 9th century. Door: carved from dark cypress wood
Function: Church 
Content: Walls were originally painted with mosaics, door: contains 18 panels of narrative carvings, most depicting biblical scenes
Context: Santa Sabina was built at the top of the Aventine Hill on the site of the Temple of Juno Regina, using many of its materials. The church was an expansion of a Roman house-church (titulus) owned by a woman named Sabina. As was common in ancient Rome, the church preserved the name of the title holder by simply adding
49. Santa Sabina
Location: Rome, Italy
Founder: Peter of Illyria
Date: c. 422-432 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Late Antique Europe
Medium/Material: Brick and stone, with a wooden roof
Theme(s): worship, belief
Form: The tall, spacious nave (central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the congregation) has 24 columns of Proconnesian marble with perfectly matched Corinthian columns and bases (reused from the Temple of Juno). The spandrels (triangular space between one side of the outer curve of an arch, a wall, and the ceiling or framework) of the closely-spaced arches have inlaid marble designs in green and purple, depicting chalices and patens to represent the Eucharist. Interior=bright, due to the row of windows in the clerestory plus three in the apse and five in the facade. The windows and marble chancel furniture date from the 9th century. Door: carved from dark cypress wood
Function: Church
Content: Walls were originally painted with mosaics, door: contains 18 panels of narrative carvings, most depicting biblical scenes
Context: Santa Sabina was built at the top of the Aventine Hill on the site of the Temple of Juno Regina, using many of its materials. The church was an expansion of a Roman house-church (titulus) owned by a woman named Sabina. As was common in ancient Rome, the church preserved the name of the title holder by simply adding “Saint” onto her name. (sacred-destinations)
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Great Mosque of Djenne, Pantheon
50. Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis
Location: Vienna
Date: Early 6th century C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine Europe
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum)
Theme(s): Worship & beliefs
Form: shallow settings, fluid movement of figures, richly colored, two rows linked by a bridge. Continuous narrative; contrapposto, foreshortening, shadowing, perspective
Function: to depict the two narratives of Genesis
Content: Lively, softly modeled figures
Context: Stories of Rebecca and Eliezer and Jacob
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
50. Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis
Location: Vienna
Date: Early 6th century C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine Europe
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum)
Theme(s): Worship & beliefs
Form: shallow settings, fluid movement of figures, richly colored, two rows linked by a bridge. Continuous narrative; contrapposto, foreshortening, shadowing, perspective
Function: to depict the two narratives of Genesis
Content: Lively, softly modeled figures
Context: Stories of Rebecca and Eliezer and Jacob
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
51a. San Vitale
Location: Ravenna, Italy
Date: 526-547 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: brick, marble, stone
Theme(s): worship
Form: Octagon shape, plan exterior, large windows, thin interior columns, open arched spaces, interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure, martyrium
Function: Church (worship)
Content: two superposed ambulatories; Upper one (the martyrium) was reserved for married women. Series of mosaics in the lunettes above the triforium depict sacrifices from the Old Testament
Context: thought to reflect the design of the Byzantine Imperial Palace Audience Chamber, of which nothing at all survives
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Pantheon, Mosque of Selim II
51a. San Vitale
Location: Ravenna, Italy
Date: 526-547 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: brick, marble, stone
Theme(s): worship
Form: Octagon shape, plan exterior, large windows, thin interior columns, open arched spaces, interior elements dematerialize the mass of the structure, martyrium
Function: Church (worship)
Content: two superposed ambulatories; Upper one (the martyrium) was reserved for married women. Series of mosaics in the lunettes above the triforium depict sacrifices from the Old Testament
Context: thought to reflect the design of the Byzantine Imperial Palace Audience Chamber, of which nothing at all survives
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Pantheon, Mosque of Selim II
51b. Justinian and Attendants
Location: San Vitale; Ravenna, Italy
Date: c. 547 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: mosaic
Theme(s): authority, unity between state and church
Form: symmetrical and frontal, figures have no volume, float, overlap, minimal background
Function: to depict Justinian and his attendants participating in the Mass
Content: dressed in royal purple and gold, holds a paten, Archbishop Maximianus identified, Halos indicate saintliness
Context: Banker Julianus Argentarius financed the building of San Vitale
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Alexander Mosaic
51b. Justinian and Attendants
Location: San Vitale; Ravenna, Italy
Date: c. 547 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: mosaic
Theme(s): authority, unity between state and church
Form: symmetrical and frontal, figures have no volume, float, overlap, minimal background
Function: to depict Justinian and his attendants participating in the Mass
Content: dressed in royal purple and gold, holds a paten, Archbishop Maximianus identified, Halos indicate saintliness
Context: Banker Julianus Argentarius financed the building of San Vitale
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Alexander Mosaic
51c. Theodora and Attendants
Location: San Vitale; Ravenna, Italy
Date: c. 547 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: mosaic
Theme(s): authority and unity between state and church, similarly to Justinian and Attendants
Form: displacement of absolute symmetry with Theodora (play a secondary role to her husband)
Function: depicts Theodora and her attendants participating in the Mass
Content: Richly robed empress and ladies at court, stands in an architectural framework, holding a chalice for the mass, and is about to go behind the curtain, flattened and weightless
Context: Three Magi, who bring gifts to the baby Jesus, are depicted in the hem of her dress, referring to a parallel between Theodora and the Magi
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Dome of the Rock interior
51c. Theodora and Attendants
Location: San Vitale; Ravenna, Italy
Date: c. 547 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: mosaic
Theme(s): authority and unity between state and church, similarly to Justinian and Attendants
Form: displacement of absolute symmetry with Theodora (play a secondary role to her husband)
Function: depicts Theodora and her attendants participating in the Mass
Content: Richly robed empress and ladies at court, stands in an architectural framework, holding a chalice for the mass, and is about to go behind the curtain, flattened and weightless
Context: Three Magi, who bring gifts to the baby Jesus, are depicted in the hem of her dress, referring to a parallel between Theodora and the Magi
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Dome of the Rock interior
52. Hagia Sophia
Location: Constantinople (present Istanbul)
Artist: Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus
Date: 532-537 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer
Theme(s): Worship, wisdom
Form: combination of a centrally and axially planned structure, dome supported by pendentives, large central dome w/ 40 windows, acting as a halo. Minarets were added during its Islamic period
Function: Church, Mosque, now a museum
Content: Large fields for mosaic decoration. At one time, it had four acres of gold mosaics on walls.
Context:
52. Hagia Sophia
Location: Constantinople (present Istanbul)
Artist: Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus
Date: 532-537 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer
Theme(s): Worship, wisdom
Form: combination of a centrally and axially planned structure, dome supported by pendentives, large central dome w/ 40 windows, acting as a halo. Minarets were added during its Islamic period
Function: Church, Mosque, now a museum
Content: Large fields for mosaic decoration. At one time, it had four acres of gold mosaics on walls.
Context: “Hagia Sophia” means Holy Wisdom
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
53. Merovingian looped fibulae
Date: Mid-sixth century C.E.
Period/Style: Early Medieval Europe
Medium/Material: Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones
Theme(s): small, portable objects
Form: cloisonné and chasing/repoussé techniques; zoomorphic elements
Function: a pin or brooch used to fasten garments; showed the prestige of the wearer
Content: N/A
Context: represented the decline of the classical tradition
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
53. Merovingian looped fibulae
Date: Mid-sixth century C.E.
Period/Style: Early Medieval Europe
Medium/Material: Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones
Theme(s): small, portable objects
Form: cloisonné and chasing/repoussé techniques; zoomorphic elements
Function: a pin or brooch used to fasten garments; showed the prestige of the wearer
Content: N/A
Context: represented the decline of the classical tradition
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George
Location: Monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt
Date: sixth-early seventh centuries
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: encaustic on wood
Theme(s): icons
Form: Virgin and Child centrally placed, firmly modeled
Function: to depict Mary and her son
Content: Saints Theodore and George; warrior saints; stiff and hieratic (engage viewer directly); angels look towards heaven (classically)
Context: placed in a medieval monastery
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George
Location: Monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt
Date: sixth-early seventh centuries
Period/Style: Early Byzantine
Medium/Material: encaustic on wood
Theme(s): icons
Form: Virgin and Child centrally placed, firmly modeled
Function: to depict Mary and her son
Content: Saints Theodore and George; warrior saints; stiff and hieratic (engage viewer directly); angels look towards heaven (classically)
Context: placed in a medieval monastery
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
55a. Cross Page from the Book of Matthew from The Book of Lindisfarne
Location: Europe
Artist: Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Date: c. 700 C.E.
Period/Style: Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon)
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Theme(s): ...
Form: horror vacui decoration, symmetrical
Function: ...
Content: dog-headed snakes intermixed with birds with long beaks, coisonné styles, mix of Celtic imagery and Christian theology
Context: written in Latin, with annotations in English between the lines
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Golden Haggadah
55a. Cross Page from the Book of Matthew from The Book of Lindisfarne
Location: Europe
Artist: Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Date: c. 700 C.E.
Period/Style: Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon)
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Theme(s): …
Form: horror vacui decoration, symmetrical
Function: …
Content: dog-headed snakes intermixed with birds with long beaks, coisonné styles, mix of Celtic imagery and Christian theology
Context: written in Latin, with annotations in English between the lines
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Golden Haggadah
55b. Saint Luke Portrait from The Book of Lindisfarne
Location: Europe
Artist: Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Date: c. 700 C.E.
Period/Style: Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon)
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Theme(s): ...
Form: Saint Luke framed within a decorated border
Function: to depict Saint Luke in a portrait
Content: heavily bearded St. Luke gives weight to his authority as an author, but he appears as a younger man
Context: written in Latin, with annotations in English between the lines
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Golden Haggadah
55b. Saint Luke Portrait from The Book of Lindisfarne
Location: Europe
Artist: Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Date: c. 700 C.E.
Period/Style: Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon)
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Theme(s): …
Form: Saint Luke framed within a decorated border
Function: to depict Saint Luke in a portrait
Content: heavily bearded St. Luke gives weight to his authority as an author, but he appears as a younger man
Context: written in Latin, with annotations in English between the lines
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Golden Haggadah
55c. Saint Luke Incipit Page from The Book of Lindisfarne
Location: Europe
Artist: Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Date: c. 700 C.E.
Period/Style: Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon)
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Theme(s): ...
Form: Numerous Celtic spiral ornaments; step patterns appear in the enlarged
55c. Saint Luke Incipit Page from The Book of Lindisfarne
Location: Europe
Artist: Eadrith, bishop of Lindisfarne
Date: c. 700 C.E.
Period/Style: Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon)
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Theme(s): …
Form: Numerous Celtic spiral ornaments; step patterns appear in the enlarged “O”
Content: lower right corner shows a naturalistic detail of a car who has eaten eight birds
Context: written in Latin, with annotations in English between the lines; Incipit means opening words of St. Luke’s gospel: “Quoniam Quidem…”
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Golden Haggadah
56. Great Mosque
Location: Córdoba, Spain
Date: c. 785-786 C.E., eighth-tenth centuries
Period/Style: Umayyad Caliphate (Islamic Art)
Medium/Material: Stone masonry
Theme(s): worship
Form: Double-arched columns, articulated in alternating bands of color; voussoirs
Function: worship
Content: columns are spoil, hypostyle mosque, kufic calligraphy, complex dome over mihrab (squinches) 
Context: ...
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
56. Great Mosque
Location: Córdoba, Spain
Date: c. 785-786 C.E., eighth-tenth centuries
Period/Style: Umayyad Caliphate (Islamic Art)
Medium/Material: Stone masonry
Theme(s): worship
Form: Double-arched columns, articulated in alternating bands of color; voussoirs
Function: worship
Content: columns are spoil, hypostyle mosque, kufic calligraphy, complex dome over mihrab (squinches)
Context: …
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
57. Pyxis of al-Mughira
Date: c. 968 C.E. (Ummayad Caliphate)
Period/Style: Islamic Art
Medium/Material: Ivory
Theme(s): arts, activity
Form: horror vacui; vegetal and geometric motifs (jali?)
Function: container for expensive aromatics; gift for caliph's younger son
Content: eight medallion scenes showing pleasure activities of the royal court, such as: hunting, falconry, sports, and musicians
Context: from Muslim Spain
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Palette of King Narmer
57. Pyxis of al-Mughira
Date: c. 968 C.E. (Ummayad Caliphate)
Period/Style: Islamic Art
Medium/Material: Ivory
Theme(s): arts, activity
Form: horror vacui; vegetal and geometric motifs (jali?)
Function: container for expensive aromatics; gift for caliph’s younger son
Content: eight medallion scenes showing pleasure activities of the royal court, such as: hunting, falconry, sports, and musicians
Context: from Muslim Spain
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Palette of King Narmer
58. Church of Sainte-Foy, Reliquary of Saint Foy
Location: Conques, France
Date: c. 1050-1130 C.E., 9th century C.E. with later additions
Period/Style: Romanesque Europe
Medium/Material: stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary)
Theme(s):
Form: cruciform church; axial plan: shaped like a cross with a horizontal arrangement; massive heavy interior walls which are unadorned; no clerestory; barrel vaults with transverse arches
Function: Pilgrimage Church
Content: Last Judgment Tympanum: largest Romanesque tympanum. Christ is a strict judge who is dividing people into Heaven and Hell, with a welcoming right hand and cast down left hand. Michael and devil at his feet, weighing the souls. People would enter on the right/damned side, and exit saved on the left. 
Context: an important pilgrimage church on the route to Santiago de Compostela in Northern Spain
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
58. Church of Sainte-Foy, Reliquary of Saint Foy
Location: Conques, France
Date: c. 1050-1130 C.E., 9th century C.E. with later additions
Period/Style: Romanesque Europe
Medium/Material: stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary)
Theme(s):
Form: cruciform church; axial plan: shaped like a cross with a horizontal arrangement; massive heavy interior walls which are unadorned; no clerestory; barrel vaults with transverse arches
Function: Pilgrimage Church
Content: Last Judgment Tympanum: largest Romanesque tympanum. Christ is a strict judge who is dividing people into Heaven and Hell, with a welcoming right hand and cast down left hand. Michael and devil at his feet, weighing the souls. People would enter on the right/damned side, and exit saved on the left.
Context: an important pilgrimage church on the route to Santiago de Compostela in Northern Spain
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
60. Chartres Cathedral
Location: Chartres, France
Artist: 
Date: Original construction - 1145-1155 C.E. | Reconstructed - 1194 - 1220 C.E.
Culture: 
Period/Style: Gothic Europe
Medium/Material: Limestone, stained glass
Theme(s): sacred site, worship
Form: enlarged chevet, vertical interior pulls viewers gaze to the heavens, mysterious interior, stained glass enliven the interior surfaces of the church
Function: sacred building
Content: very Romanesque, rose window is more stone than glass (plate window), burned down in 1194 and rebuilt to fit the style at the time of the rebuilding; stained glass was intended to be educational; rose window in the north transept portrays figures from the Old Testament; Royal portal has 3 entry ways with elongated figures (caryatids)
Context: The cathedral's association with the Virgin Mary (the supposed veil of the Virgin is kept in the cathedral treasury) made it the destination of pilgrims in the Middle Ages.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
60. Chartres Cathedral
Location: Chartres, France
Artist:
Date: Original construction – 1145-1155 C.E. | Reconstructed – 1194 – 1220 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style: Gothic Europe
Medium/Material: Limestone, stained glass
Theme(s): sacred site, worship
Form: enlarged chevet, vertical interior pulls viewers gaze to the heavens, mysterious interior, stained glass enliven the interior surfaces of the church
Function: sacred building
Content: very Romanesque, rose window is more stone than glass (plate window), burned down in 1194 and rebuilt to fit the style at the time of the rebuilding; stained glass was intended to be educational; rose window in the north transept portrays figures from the Old Testament; Royal portal has 3 entry ways with elongated figures (caryatids)
Context: The cathedral’s association with the Virgin Mary (the supposed veil of the Virgin is kept in the cathedral treasury) made it the destination of pilgrims in the Middle Ages.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
59. Bayeux Tapestry (Calvary Attack & First Meal)
Location: Bayeux, France
Date: c. 1066-1080 C.E.
Period/Style: Romanesque Europe (English or Norman)
Medium/Material: Embroidery on linen
Theme(s): conquest, daily life
Form: neutral background, flat figures (no shadows), 230-feet long (continuous narrative); inscriptions are embroidered using wool yard sewn onto linen cloth; viewed as a chronicle; leads viewers' eyes from one scene to the next and divided the compositional space into three horizontal zones; not a tapestry, but embroidery on linen
Function: tells the story of William's conquest of England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 
Content: 75 scenes with over 600 people; scenes of husbandry and hunting; William's tactical use of calvry is displayed in the
59. Bayeux Tapestry (Calvary Attack & First Meal)
Location: Bayeux, France
Date: c. 1066-1080 C.E.
Period/Style: Romanesque Europe (English or Norman)
Medium/Material: Embroidery on linen
Theme(s): conquest, daily life
Form: neutral background, flat figures (no shadows), 230-feet long (continuous narrative); inscriptions are embroidered using wool yard sewn onto linen cloth; viewed as a chronicle; leads viewers’ eyes from one scene to the next and divided the compositional space into three horizontal zones; not a tapestry, but embroidery on linen
Function: tells the story of William’s conquest of England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066
Content: 75 scenes with over 600 people; scenes of husbandry and hunting; William’s tactical use of calvry is displayed in the “calvary” scene; calvary could advance quickly and easily retreat, which would scatter an opponent’s defense allowing the infantry to be made; war tactics
Context: commissioned by Bishop Odo, half-brother of William the Conqueror
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
61a. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France from Bibles moralisées
Date: c. 1225-1245 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Europe
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum)
Theme(s): ...
Form: luminosity of stained glass windows, strong black outlining of forms; modeling is minimal
Function: ...
Content: TL: Blanche of Castle, mother and regent to the king; TR: teenage King Louis IX, B: older monk dictating to younger scribe
Context: Moralized Bible
Cross Cultural Connection(s): ...
61a. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France from Bibles moralisées
Date: c. 1225-1245 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Europe
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum)
Theme(s): …
Form: luminosity of stained glass windows, strong black outlining of forms; modeling is minimal
Function: …
Content: TL: Blanche of Castle, mother and regent to the king; TR: teenage King Louis IX, B: older monk dictating to younger scribe
Context: Moralized Bible
Cross Cultural Connection(s): …
61b. Dedication Page: Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées
Location: Cathedral, Toledo
Date: c. 1225-1245 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Europe
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum)
Theme(s): Beliefs
Form: eight medallions; format derives from stained glass windows
Function: ...
Content: two vertical columns of four painted scenes; each scene has a text with a summary of the event depicted in the roundel (colophon?)
Context: ...
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Golden Stool (sika dwa kofi)
61b. Dedication Page: Scenes from the Apocalypse from Bibles moralisées
Location: Cathedral, Toledo
Date: c. 1225-1245 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Europe
Medium/Material: Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum)
Theme(s): Beliefs
Form: eight medallions; format derives from stained glass windows
Function: …
Content: two vertical columns of four painted scenes; each scene has a text with a summary of the event depicted in the roundel (colophon?)
Context: …
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Golden Stool (sika dwa kofi)
62. Röttgen Pietá
Date: 1300-1325 C.E.
Period/Style: Late Medieval Europe
Medium/Material: painted wood
Theme(s): Humanizing religious themes
Form: Grape-like drops of Christ's blood refers to himself as a mystical vineyard
Function: andachtsbild (private devotion)
Content: Christ emaciated (drained of all blood, tissue, muscle), horror of the Crucifixion manifest
Context: ...
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Munch, The Scream; Seated Boxer
62. Röttgen Pietá
Date: 1300-1325 C.E.
Period/Style: Late Medieval Europe
Medium/Material: painted wood
Theme(s): Humanizing religious themes
Form: Grape-like drops of Christ’s blood refers to himself as a mystical vineyard
Function: andachtsbild (private devotion)
Content: Christ emaciated (drained of all blood, tissue, muscle), horror of the Crucifixion manifest
Context: …
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Munch, The Scream; Seated Boxer
63a. Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel
Location: Padua, Italy
Architect: Unknown
Date: c. 1303 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Italy
Medium/Material: Brick
Theme(s): worship, belief
Form: plain exterior, vivid interior
Function: to expiate the sin of usury through which Scrovegni's father amassed a fortune
Content: Some narrative scenes illustrate Biblical episodes of ill-gotten gains
Context: built over an ancient Roman arena, hence the name; also called Scrovegni Chapel after its patron, Enrico Scrovegni
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Santa Sabina
63a. Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel
Location: Padua, Italy
Architect: Unknown
Date: c. 1303 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Italy
Medium/Material: Brick
Theme(s): worship, belief
Form: plain exterior, vivid interior
Function: to expiate the sin of usury through which Scrovegni’s father amassed a fortune
Content: Some narrative scenes illustrate Biblical episodes of ill-gotten gains
Context: built over an ancient Roman arena, hence the name; also called Scrovegni Chapel after its patron, Enrico Scrovegni
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Santa Sabina
63b. Last Judgment from the Arena Chapel
Location: Padua, Italy
Artist: Giotto di Bondone
Date: c. 1305-1306 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Italy 
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): Judgment
Form: cross at the bottom center divides the saved from the damned
Function: to depict the last judgment (end of world)
Content: Christ as Judge, coming at the end of the world; heavenly powers arranged in an organized chorus; 12 apostles arranged symmetrically around Christ; devil at the right who eats and excretes sinners; those guilty of usury or money-related sins are particularly noted
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
63b. Last Judgment from the Arena Chapel
Location: Padua, Italy
Artist: Giotto di Bondone
Date: c. 1305-1306 C.E.
Period/Style: Gothic Italy
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): Judgment
Form: cross at the bottom center divides the saved from the damned
Function: to depict the last judgment (end of world)
Content: Christ as Judge, coming at the end of the world; heavenly powers arranged in an organized chorus; 12 apostles arranged symmetrically around Christ; devil at the right who eats and excretes sinners; those guilty of usury or money-related sins are particularly noted
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
63c. Lamentation from the Arena Chapel
Location: Padua, Italy
Artist: Giotto di Bondone
Date: c. 1305-1306
Period/Style: Gothic Italy
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): mourning, death, grief
Form: shallow stage; figures occupy a palpable space pushed forward toward the picture plane; diagonal cliff points to the bottom-left corner; light falls from above right; clear foreground, middle ground, and background
Function: to depict a range of emotion, such as sadness, outbursts, and despair related to Jesus's death
Content: St. John throwing his head back, Mary Magdalene cradling at Jesus's feet, Mary holding Jesus's head, left shows Old Testament scene of Jonah (Yunus) being paralleled to Christ (dying and coming back to life)
Context: ...
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Seated Boxer
63c. Lamentation from the Arena Chapel
Location: Padua, Italy
Artist: Giotto di Bondone
Date: c. 1305-1306
Period/Style: Gothic Italy
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): mourning, death, grief
Form: shallow stage; figures occupy a palpable space pushed forward toward the picture plane; diagonal cliff points to the bottom-left corner; light falls from above right; clear foreground, middle ground, and background
Function: to depict a range of emotion, such as sadness, outbursts, and despair related to Jesus’s death
Content: St. John throwing his head back, Mary Magdalene cradling at Jesus’s feet, Mary holding Jesus’s head, left shows Old Testament scene of Jonah (Yunus) being paralleled to Christ (dying and coming back to life)
Context: …
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Seated Boxer
64. Golden Haggadah (The Plaques of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation and Preparation for Passover)
Location: northern Spain, probably Barcelona
Date: c. 1320 C.E.
Culture: Jewish
Period/Style: Gothic
Medium/Material: Illuminated Manuscript, pigment on vellum
Theme(s): Belief
Form: style similar to French Gothic manuscripts in the handling of space, architecture, figure style, facial expression, and manuscript medium
Function: to be read at a Passover seder
Content: Jewish exodus from Egypt under Moses and its subsequent celebration upper right: Miriam (Moses' sister); upper left: the master of the house, sitting under a canopy; lower right: the house is prepared for Passover; bottom left: sheep are slaughtered for Passover and a man purifies utensils in a cauldron over a fire
Context: Haggadah means
64. Golden Haggadah (The Plaques of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation and Preparation for Passover)
Location: northern Spain, probably Barcelona
Date: c. 1320 C.E.
Culture: Jewish
Period/Style: Gothic
Medium/Material: Illuminated Manuscript, pigment on vellum
Theme(s): Belief
Form: style similar to French Gothic manuscripts in the handling of space, architecture, figure style, facial expression, and manuscript medium
Function: to be read at a Passover seder
Content: Jewish exodus from Egypt under Moses and its subsequent celebration upper right: Miriam (Moses’ sister); upper left: the master of the house, sitting under a canopy; lower right: the house is prepared for Passover; bottom left: sheep are slaughtered for Passover and a man purifies utensils in a cauldron over a fire
Context: Haggadah means “narration”; fulfills the Jewish requirement to tell the story of the Jews’ escape from Egypt as a reminder of God’s mercy
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Giotto, Lamentation from the Arena Chapel
65a. Alhambra (Hall of the Sisters/Sala de las dos Hermanas)
Location: Granada, Spain
Date: 1353-1391 C.E.
Period/Style: Nasrid Dynasty
Medium/Material: Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding
Theme(s): music
Form: abstract patterns, abstraction of forms;
Function: used as a music room or reception
Content: 16 windows on top of the hall (allows light to dissolve into a pattern from the ceiling); 5,000 muqarnas refract light; carved in stucco onto ceiling; highly sophisticated and refined interior
Context: an abbreviation of the Arabic: Qal'at al-Hamra, or red fort, was built by the Nasrid Dynasty - the last Muslims to rule in Spain
Cross Cultural Connection(s): House of the Vetii, Château de Versailles
65a. Alhambra (Hall of the Sisters/Sala de las dos Hermanas)
Location: Granada, Spain
Date: 1353-1391 C.E.
Period/Style: Nasrid Dynasty
Medium/Material: Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding
Theme(s): music
Form: abstract patterns, abstraction of forms;
Function: used as a music room or reception
Content: 16 windows on top of the hall (allows light to dissolve into a pattern from the ceiling); 5,000 muqarnas refract light; carved in stucco onto ceiling; highly sophisticated and refined interior
Context: an abbreviation of the Arabic: Qal’at al-Hamra, or red fort, was built by the Nasrid Dynasty – the last Muslims to rule in Spain
Cross Cultural Connection(s): House of the Vetii, Château de Versailles
65b. Alhambra (Plan)
Location: Granada, Spain
Date: 1353-1391 C.E.
Period/Style: Nasrid Dynasty
Medium/Material: Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding
Form: Different parts of the complex are connected by paths, gardens and gates, but each part of the complex could be blocked in the event of a threat. Structures with their highly ornate interior spaces and patios contrast with the plain walls of the fortress exterior.
Function: 
Content: 730 meters of walls and thirty towers of varying size enclose this city within a city; Access restricted to four main gates; 26 acres include structures with three purposes: residence for the ruler and close family, citadel (Alcazaba)—barracks for the elite guard who was responsible for the safety of the complex, and an area called medina (or city), near the Puerta del Vino (Wine Gate), where court officials lived and worked.
65b. Alhambra (Plan)
Location: Granada, Spain
Date: 1353-1391 C.E.
Period/Style: Nasrid Dynasty
Medium/Material: Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding
Form: Different parts of the complex are connected by paths, gardens and gates, but each part of the complex could be blocked in the event of a threat. Structures with their highly ornate interior spaces and patios contrast with the plain walls of the fortress exterior.
Function:
Content: 730 meters of walls and thirty towers of varying size enclose this city within a city; Access restricted to four main gates; 26 acres include structures with three purposes: residence for the ruler and close family, citadel (Alcazaba)—barracks for the elite guard who was responsible for the safety of the complex, and an area called medina (or city), near the Puerta del Vino (Wine Gate), where court officials lived and worked.
65c. Alhambra (Palace of the Lions/Palacio de los Leones)
Location: Granada, Spain
Date: 1353-1391 C.E.
Period/Style: Nasrid Dynasty
Medium/Material: Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding
Theme(s): ...
Form: thin columns support heavy roofs (weightlessness); intricately patterned and sculpted ceilings and walls; 
Function: ?
Content: a fountain made of marble which stands on twelve stone lions is placed in the intersection of a cross in the rectilinear courtyard; arched covered patio; stucco carvings held by columns; parts of walls are chiseled through to create vibrant light patterns within
Context: The Palacio de los Leones (Palace of the Lions) stands next to the Comares Palace but should be considered an independent building
Cross Cultural Connection(s): ...
65c. Alhambra (Palace of the Lions/Palacio de los Leones)
Location: Granada, Spain
Date: 1353-1391 C.E.
Period/Style: Nasrid Dynasty
Medium/Material: Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding
Theme(s): …
Form: thin columns support heavy roofs (weightlessness); intricately patterned and sculpted ceilings and walls;
Function: ?
Content: a fountain made of marble which stands on twelve stone lions is placed in the intersection of a cross in the rectilinear courtyard; arched covered patio; stucco carvings held by columns; parts of walls are chiseled through to create vibrant light patterns within
Context: The Palacio de los Leones (Palace of the Lions) stands next to the Comares Palace but should be considered an independent building
Cross Cultural Connection(s): …
66. Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
Location: Workshop of Robert Campin
Artist: Robert Campin
Date: 1427-1432 C.E. (15th century)
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s): purity, capture
Form: Humanization of traditional themes: no halos, domestic interiors, view into a Flemish cityscape
Function: to depict an annunciation, the announcement of the Incarnation by the angel Gabriel to Mary, in a Flemish scene; altarpiece
Content: L: displays donors, middle-class people kneeling before the holy scene; C: Annunciation taking place in an everyday Flemish interior; R: Joseph in his carpentry workshop; mousetrap symbolizes the capturing of the devil
Context: Renaissance was the rebirth of older ideas; humanization to be more scientific, but they also wanted to go back to the classics; oil paint led to more detailed pieces
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
66. Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
Location: Workshop of Robert Campin
Artist: Robert Campin
Date: 1427-1432 C.E. (15th century)
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s): purity, capture
Form: Humanization of traditional themes: no halos, domestic interiors, view into a Flemish cityscape
Function: to depict an annunciation, the announcement of the Incarnation by the angel Gabriel to Mary, in a Flemish scene; altarpiece
Content: L: displays donors, middle-class people kneeling before the holy scene; C: Annunciation taking place in an everyday Flemish interior; R: Joseph in his carpentry workshop; mousetrap symbolizes the capturing of the devil
Context: Renaissance was the rebirth of older ideas; humanization to be more scientific, but they also wanted to go back to the classics; oil paint led to more detailed pieces
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
67. Pazzi Chapel
Location: Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence, Italy
Architect: Filippo Brunelleschi
Date: designed 1423 C.E.; built 1429-1461 C.E.
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Masonry
Theme(s): devotion, gathering
Form: rectangular chapel attached to the church of Santa Croce, Florence; two barrel vaults in the interior, small dome over crossing; restrained sense of color, muted tones, punctuated by glazed terra-cotta tiles; lantern on top of dome
Function: chapel (devotion); Chapter House: meeting place for the Franciscan Monks; shows classical elements
Content: Roman features: columns, entablature, architrave, cornice, porticul 
Context: Attribution to Brunelleschi has been questioned
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Arena Chapel
67. Pazzi Chapel
Location: Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence, Italy
Architect: Filippo Brunelleschi
Date: designed 1423 C.E.; built 1429-1461 C.E.
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Masonry
Theme(s): devotion, gathering
Form: rectangular chapel attached to the church of Santa Croce, Florence; two barrel vaults in the interior, small dome over crossing; restrained sense of color, muted tones, punctuated by glazed terra-cotta tiles; lantern on top of dome
Function: chapel (devotion); Chapter House: meeting place for the Franciscan Monks; shows classical elements
Content: Roman features: columns, entablature, architrave, cornice, porticul
Context: Attribution to Brunelleschi has been questioned
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Arena Chapel
68. The Arnolfini Portrait
Artist: Jan van Eyck
Date: 1434 C.E.
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s): wedding, memorial, betrothal, business
Form: Wife holds dress up to symbolize childbirth, but is not pregnant; statue of St. Margaret (patron of childbirth) seen on bedpost
Function: to depict Mr. and Mrs. Arnolfini's wedding, death memorial, betrothal, or business work
Content: one candle burning on Mr's side, none on Mrs's; shoes are cast off to indicate holy ground; dog (symbolizes fidelity); witnesses seen in mirror (
68. The Arnolfini Portrait
Artist: Jan van Eyck
Date: 1434 C.E.
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s): wedding, memorial, betrothal, business
Form: Wife holds dress up to symbolize childbirth, but is not pregnant; statue of St. Margaret (patron of childbirth) seen on bedpost
Function: to depict Mr. and Mrs. Arnolfini’s wedding, death memorial, betrothal, or business work
Content: one candle burning on Mr’s side, none on Mrs’s; shoes are cast off to indicate holy ground; dog (symbolizes fidelity); witnesses seen in mirror (“Jan van Eyck was here 1434”)
Context: Many theories attributed to this work, such as if it is a wedding or memorial to his wife or betrothal or a legal purpose
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
69. David
Location: Florence, Italy 
Artist: Donatello
Date: c. 1440-1460 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: Bronze
Theme(s): humility and victory
Form: exaggerated contrapposto, life-size, androgynous, nonchalance
Function: ...
Content: head lowered to suggest humility; Laurel on hat indicates David was a poet (hat is a foppish Renaissance design)
Context: first large bronze nude since antiquity
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Seated Boxer
69. David
Location: Florence, Italy
Artist: Donatello
Date: c. 1440-1460 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: Bronze
Theme(s): humility and victory
Form: exaggerated contrapposto, life-size, androgynous, nonchalance
Function: …
Content: head lowered to suggest humility; Laurel on hat indicates David was a poet (hat is a foppish Renaissance design)
Context: first large bronze nude since antiquity
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Seated Boxer
70. Palazzo Rucclelai
Location: Florence, Italy
Architect: Leon Battista Alberti 
Date: c. 1450 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: stone, masonry
Theme(s):
Form: three horizontal floors (one hidden
70. Palazzo Rucclelai
Location: Florence, Italy
Architect: Leon Battista Alberti
Date: c. 1450 C.E.
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: stone, masonry
Theme(s):
Form: three horizontal floors (one hidden “4th” floor) are of equal height and are separated by a strongly articulated stringcourse; pilasters rise vertically and divide the spaces into squarish shapes; strong classical cornice; original building had 5 bays on the left, with a central door; second doorway bay and right bay were added later; eighth bay fragmentary
Function: business, guest meetings, private apartments
Content: Friezes: Rucellai family symbols (billowing sails); 1st floor: square windows; 2nd-3rd floors: windows with mullions
Context: owners next door refused to sell the eighth bay fragmentary; patron was Giovanni Ruccelai
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Trajan’s Market
71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels
Location: Uffizi, Florence, Italy
Artist: Fra Filippo Lippi
Date: c. 1465
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: tempera on wood
Theme(s): motherhood, landscape
Form: landscape: rock formations indicate the Church; city near the Madonna's head in the Heavenly Jerusalem; scene depicted as it if were a window of a Florentine home
Function: to depict the Humanization of a sacred theme
Content: Motif of a pearl, seen in headdress and pillow as products of the sear (UL corner); pearls used as symbols in scenes of the Immaculate Connception of Mary and the Incarnation of Christ
Context: Mary seen as a young mother; model may have been the artist's lover
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Röttgen Pietá
71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels
Location: Uffizi, Florence, Italy
Artist: Fra Filippo Lippi
Date: c. 1465
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: tempera on wood
Theme(s): motherhood, landscape
Form: landscape: rock formations indicate the Church; city near the Madonna’s head in the Heavenly Jerusalem; scene depicted as it if were a window of a Florentine home
Function: to depict the Humanization of a sacred theme
Content: Motif of a pearl, seen in headdress and pillow as products of the sear (UL corner); pearls used as symbols in scenes of the Immaculate Connception of Mary and the Incarnation of Christ
Context: Mary seen as a young mother; model may have been the artist’s lover
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Röttgen Pietá
72. Birth of Venus
Location: Uffzi, Florence, Italy
Artist: Sandro Botticelli
Date: c. 1484-1486
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: tempera on canvas
Theme(s): birth, love, pain, loyalty
Form: figures float; crisply drawn figures, pale colors; flat and unrealistic; simple V-shaped waves
Function: to depict the tale of Venus's birth
Content: Venus emerges fully grown from the foam of the sea with a faraway look in her eyes; L: zephyr (west wind) and chloris (nymph); R: handmaiden rushes to clothe her
Context: roses are scattered before her that were create at the same time as Venus, representing love's painfulness; Medici commission
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Raphael, School of Athens
72. Birth of Venus
Location: Uffzi, Florence, Italy
Artist: Sandro Botticelli
Date: c. 1484-1486
Period/Style: Early Italian Renaissance
Medium/Material: tempera on canvas
Theme(s): birth, love, pain, loyalty
Form: figures float; crisply drawn figures, pale colors; flat and unrealistic; simple V-shaped waves
Function: to depict the tale of Venus’s birth
Content: Venus emerges fully grown from the foam of the sea with a faraway look in her eyes; L: zephyr (west wind) and chloris (nymph); R: handmaiden rushes to clothe her
Context: roses are scattered before her that were create at the same time as Venus, representing love’s painfulness; Medici commission
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Raphael, School of Athens
James Minor>Andrew>Judas>Peter>John>Jesus>Thomas>
James Major>Philip>Matthew>Thaddeus>Simon.
Context: Christ’s final meal with his apostles before Judas identifies Christ to the authorities who arrest him
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Justinian and Theodora” alt=”73. The Last Supper
Location: Milan, Italy
Artist: Leonardo da Vinci
Date: 1494-1498 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: tempera and oil
Theme(s): belief
Form: balanced composition is anchored by an equilateral triangle, formed by Christ’s body. He sits below an arching pediment that when completed, traces a circle. These ideal geometric forms refer to the renaissance interest in Neo-Platonism (an element of the humanist revival that reconciles aspects of Greek philosophy with Christian theology) (khan academy).
Function: depicts Christ blessing the bread and saying to the apostles, “Take, eat; this is my body” – these words are the founding moment of the sacrament of the Eucharist
Content: verdant landscape beyond the windows; (ordered from left to right) Bartholomew>James Minor>Andrew>Judas>Peter>John>Jesus>Thomas>
James Major>Philip>Matthew>Thaddeus>Simon.
Context: Christ’s final meal with his apostles before Judas identifies Christ to the authorities who arrest him
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Justinian and Theodora”>
73. The Last Supper
Location: Milan, Italy
Artist: Leonardo da Vinci
Date: 1494-1498 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: tempera and oil
Theme(s): belief
Form: balanced composition is anchored by an equilateral triangle, formed by Christ’s body. He sits below an arching pediment that when completed, traces a circle. These ideal geometric forms refer to the renaissance interest in Neo-Platonism (an element of the humanist revival that reconciles aspects of Greek philosophy with Christian theology) (khan academy).
Function: depicts Christ blessing the bread and saying to the apostles, “Take, eat; this is my body” – these words are the founding moment of the sacrament of the Eucharist
Content: verdant landscape beyond the windows; (ordered from left to right) Bartholomew>James Minor>Andrew>Judas>Peter>John>Jesus>Thomas>
James Major>Philip>Matthew>Thaddeus>Simon.
Context: Christ’s final meal with his apostles before Judas identifies Christ to the authorities who arrest him
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Justinian and Theodora
74. Adam and Eve
Location: 
Artist: Albrecht Dürer
Date: 1504 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Engraving
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
74. Adam and Eve
Location:
Artist: Albrecht Dürer
Date: 1504 C.E.
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Engraving
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
75a. Sistine Chapel (ceiling)
Location: Vatican City, Italy
Artist: Michelangelo
Date: c. 1508-1512 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): motion, expression
Form: complicated arrangement of figures for the ceiling; painted cornices frame groupings of figures in a highly organized way
Function: place where new popes are elected
Content: broadly illustrated first few chapters of Genesis, with accompanying Old Testament figures and antique sibyls; 300 figures on ceiling with no two having the same pose (Michelangelo's lifelong preoccupation with male nude in motion); enormous variety of expression; many figures are done for artistic expression rather than to enhance the narrative; acorns are a motif on the ceiling, inspired by the crest of the patron, Pope Julius II
Context: Chapel itself erected in 1472 and painted by quattrocento masters including Botticelli and Perugino, as well as Michelangelo's teacher Ghirlandaio
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
75a. Sistine Chapel (ceiling)
Location: Vatican City, Italy
Artist: Michelangelo
Date: c. 1508-1512 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): motion, expression
Form: complicated arrangement of figures for the ceiling; painted cornices frame groupings of figures in a highly organized way
Function: place where new popes are elected
Content: broadly illustrated first few chapters of Genesis, with accompanying Old Testament figures and antique sibyls; 300 figures on ceiling with no two having the same pose (Michelangelo’s lifelong preoccupation with male nude in motion); enormous variety of expression; many figures are done for artistic expression rather than to enhance the narrative; acorns are a motif on the ceiling, inspired by the crest of the patron, Pope Julius II
Context: Chapel itself erected in 1472 and painted by quattrocento masters including Botticelli and Perugino, as well as Michelangelo’s teacher Ghirlandaio
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
75b. The Delphic Sibyl from the Sistine Chapel
Location: Vatican City, Italy
Artist: Michelangelo
Date: c. 1536-1541 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): foretelling, predicting
Form: contrapposto; combination of Christian religious and pagan mythological imagery
Function: depicts a sibyl
Content: wears a Greek-style turban with its head turned as if listening; sorrowful expression; holds a scroll containing her prophecy
Context: one of 5 sybils (prophetesses) on the ceiling, who were Greco-Roman figures whom Christians believed foretold the coming of Jesus
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Lin, Vietnam Veterans Memorial
75b. The Delphic Sibyl from the Sistine Chapel
Location: Vatican City, Italy
Artist: Michelangelo
Date: c. 1536-1541 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): foretelling, predicting
Form: contrapposto; combination of Christian religious and pagan mythological imagery
Function: depicts a sibyl
Content: wears a Greek-style turban with its head turned as if listening; sorrowful expression; holds a scroll containing her prophecy
Context: one of 5 sybils (prophetesses) on the ceiling, who were Greco-Roman figures whom Christians believed foretold the coming of Jesus
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Lin, Vietnam Veterans Memorial
75c. The Flood from the Sistine Chapel
Location: Vatican City, Italy
Artist: Michelangelo
Date: c. 1508-1512 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance and 
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): Belief
Form: sculptural intensity of the figure style
Function: to depict the story of Noah (Nuh) and his family's escape, as told in Genesis 7 and The Qur'an, Al-Nuh 71.1-28
Content: survivors holding onto mountain tops; man carrying drowned son to safety, only to meet his fate, 60 figures (crowded composition, horror vacui?); 
Context: Ark is the only safe haven, as seen in the fresco
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Lam, The Jungle; Leonardo DaVinci, Last Supper
75c. The Flood from the Sistine Chapel
Location: Vatican City, Italy
Artist: Michelangelo
Date: c. 1508-1512 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance and
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): Belief
Form: sculptural intensity of the figure style
Function: to depict the story of Noah (Nuh) and his family’s escape, as told in Genesis 7 and The Qur’an, Al-Nuh 71.1-28
Content: survivors holding onto mountain tops; man carrying drowned son to safety, only to meet his fate, 60 figures (crowded composition, horror vacui?);
Context: Ark is the only safe haven, as seen in the fresco
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Lam, The Jungle; Leonardo DaVinci, Last Supper
76. School of Athens
Location: Vatican City, Italy 
Artist: Raphael
Date: 1509-1511 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): honor, knowledge
Form: open, clear light uniformly spread throughout composition; arches direct focus to Plato and Aristotle (center)
Function: to depict the great figures during and before the time of Raphael, such as Leonardo, Plato, Euclid, etc.
Content: center has two greatest figures in ancient Greek thought: Plato (with the features of Leonardo on left, pointing up) and Aristotle (Plato on left, Aristotle on right); Bramante (Pope's architect) is the bald figure of Euclid on the lower right; Raphael is in the corner at extreme right; Michelangelo resting on the stone block writing a poem
Context: commissioned by Pope Julius II to decorate his library
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Leonardo DaVinci, Last Supper
76. School of Athens
Location: Vatican City, Italy
Artist: Raphael
Date: 1509-1511 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance
Medium/Material: fresco
Theme(s): honor, knowledge
Form: open, clear light uniformly spread throughout composition; arches direct focus to Plato and Aristotle (center)
Function: to depict the great figures during and before the time of Raphael, such as Leonardo, Plato, Euclid, etc.
Content: center has two greatest figures in ancient Greek thought: Plato (with the features of Leonardo on left, pointing up) and Aristotle (Plato on left, Aristotle on right); Bramante (Pope’s architect) is the bald figure of Euclid on the lower right; Raphael is in the corner at extreme right; Michelangelo resting on the stone block writing a poem
Context: commissioned by Pope Julius II to decorate his library
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Leonardo DaVinci, Last Supper
77. Isenheim alterpiece
Location: 
Artist: Matthias Grünewald
Date: c. 1512-1516 C.E.
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s):
Form: extreme detail
Function: 
Content: Crucifixion in the central panel, 
Context: in a hospital
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
77. Isenheim alterpiece
Location:
Artist: Matthias Grünewald
Date: c. 1512-1516 C.E.
Period/Style: Northern European Renaissance
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s):
Form: extreme detail
Function:
Content: Crucifixion in the central panel,
Context: in a hospital
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
78. Entombment of Christ
Location: Florence, Italy
Artist: Jacopo da Pontormo
Date: 1525-1528 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance and Mannerism
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s): Chaos, desperation, sorrow
Form: center of composition is a grouping of hands, elongated bodies, high-keyed colors, no group line, disembodied hands, androgynous figures, twisted bodies; anti-classical composition
Function: to depict the carrying of Jesus's lifeless body 
Content: Figures are not weeping, but they are yearning
Context: ...
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
78. Entombment of Christ
Location: Florence, Italy
Artist: Jacopo da Pontormo
Date: 1525-1528 C.E.
Period/Style: High Renaissance and Mannerism
Medium/Material: Oil on wood
Theme(s): Chaos, desperation, sorrow
Form: center of composition is a grouping of hands, elongated bodies, high-keyed colors, no group line, disembodied hands, androgynous figures, twisted bodies; anti-classical composition
Function: to depict the carrying of Jesus’s lifeless body
Content: Figures are not weeping, but they are yearning
Context: …
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
Mosque of Selim II
Mosque of Selim II
85. Calling of Saint Matthew
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Caravaggio
Date: c. 1597-1601 C.E.
Period/Style: Italian Baroque 
Medium/Material: Oil on canvas
Theme(s): chosen one
Form: light comes in from two places from the right, creating a tenebrous effect on figures; diagonal shaft of light points directly to Saint Matthew, who paints to himself as if unsure that Christ would select a tax collector, depicting a moment in time
Function: to depict the importance of Saint Matthew
Content: Christ's hand gesture is similar to Adam's on the Sistine Chapel ceiling; foppishly dressed figures are in the latest Baroque fashion; narrow area for figures to stand; naturalist approach
Context: one of three paints illustrating the life of Saint Matthew in a chapel dedicated to him by the Contarelli family
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
85. Calling of Saint Matthew
Location: Rome, Italy
Artist: Caravaggio
Date: c. 1597-1601 C.E.
Period/Style: Italian Baroque
Medium/Material: Oil on canvas
Theme(s): chosen one
Form: light comes in from two places from the right, creating a tenebrous effect on figures; diagonal shaft of light points directly to Saint Matthew, who paints to himself as if unsure that Christ would select a tax collector, depicting a moment in time
Function: to depict the importance of Saint Matthew
Content: Christ’s hand gesture is similar to Adam’s on the Sistine Chapel ceiling; foppishly dressed figures are in the latest Baroque fashion; narrow area for figures to stand; naturalist approach
Context: one of three paints illustrating the life of Saint Matthew in a chapel dedicated to him by the Contarelli family
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
93. Château de Versailles
Location: Versailles, France
Artist: Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart
Date: begun 1669
Culture: French
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: masonry, stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf
Theme(s): Authority, power, political and economical ambitions
Form: subdued exterior decoration on façade; undulation of projecting members is understated
Function: houses Louis XIV
Content: Hall of Mirrors: 240 feet long, barrel vaulted ceiling
Context: remodeling of a hunting lodge
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Conical Tower of Great Zimbabwe, Forbidden City
93. Château de Versailles
Location: Versailles, France
Artist: Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart
Date: begun 1669
Culture: French
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: masonry, stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf
Theme(s): Authority, power, political and economical ambitions
Form: subdued exterior decoration on façade; undulation of projecting members is understated
Function: houses Louis XIV
Content: Hall of Mirrors: 240 feet long, barrel vaulted ceiling
Context: remodeling of a hunting lodge
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Conical Tower of Great Zimbabwe, Forbidden City
120. The Starry Night
Location: 
Artist: Vincent van Gogh
Date: 1889 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Late Europe/America
Medium/Material: Oil on canvas
Theme(s): Nature
Form: ...
Function: to depict a night that Gogh experienced
Content: moon is stylized, as astronomical records indicate that the moon was waning gibbous at the time Van Gogh painted the picture; 
Context: After the self-mutilation of his left ear,ink Van Gogh voluntarily admitted himself to the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole lunatic asylum on 8 May 1889.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
120. The Starry Night
Location:
Artist: Vincent van Gogh
Date: 1889 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Late Europe/America
Medium/Material: Oil on canvas
Theme(s): Nature
Form: …
Function: to depict a night that Gogh experienced
Content: moon is stylized, as astronomical records indicate that the moon was waning gibbous at the time Van Gogh painted the picture;
Context: After the self-mutilation of his left ear,ink Van Gogh voluntarily admitted himself to the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole lunatic asylum on 8 May 1889.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
126. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Location: 
Artist: Pablo Picasso
Date: 1907 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Later Europe/Americas
Medium/Material: Oil on canvas
Theme(s): sensuality, nudity
Form: Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine
Function: ...
Content: five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Carrer d'Avinyó (Avinyó Street) in Barcelona
Context: At the time of its first exhibition in 1916, the painting was deemed immoral
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
126. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
Location:
Artist: Pablo Picasso
Date: 1907 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Later Europe/Americas
Medium/Material: Oil on canvas
Theme(s): sensuality, nudity
Form: Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine
Function: …
Content: five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Carrer d’Avinyó (Avinyó Street) in Barcelona
Context: At the time of its first exhibition in 1916, the painting was deemed immoral
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
138. Object (Le Dejeuner en fourrure)
Location: ?
Artist: Meret Oppenheim
Date: 1936 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Fur, cup, saucer, spoon
Theme(s): femininity
Form: ...
Function: ...
Content: cup, saucer, and spoon covered in fur
Context:The work, which originated in a conversation in a Paris cafe, is the most frequently-cited example of sculpture in the surrealist movement. It is also noteworthy as a work with challenging themes of femininity.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
138. Object (Le Dejeuner en fourrure)
Location: ?
Artist: Meret Oppenheim
Date: 1936 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Fur, cup, saucer, spoon
Theme(s): femininity
Form: …
Function: …
Content: cup, saucer, and spoon covered in fur
Context:The work, which originated in a conversation in a Paris cafe, is the most frequently-cited example of sculpture in the surrealist movement. It is also noteworthy as a work with challenging themes of femininity.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
142. The Jungle
Location: 
Artist: Wilfredo Lam
Date: 1943 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Gouache in paper mounted on canvas
Theme(s): perception
Form: disproportion among the shapes generates an uneasy balance between the composition's denser top and more open bottom
Function: to depict a scene in the jungle
Content: cluster of enigmatic faces, limbs, and sugarcane crowd a canvas that is nearly an 8 foot square
Context: Lam was in Madrid and Paris, but in 1941 as Europe was engulfed by war, he returned to his native country. Though he would leave Cuba again for Europe after the war, key elements within his artistic practice intersected during this period
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
142. The Jungle
Location:
Artist: Wilfredo Lam
Date: 1943 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Gouache in paper mounted on canvas
Theme(s): perception
Form: disproportion among the shapes generates an uneasy balance between the composition’s denser top and more open bottom
Function: to depict a scene in the jungle
Content: cluster of enigmatic faces, limbs, and sugarcane crowd a canvas that is nearly an 8 foot square
Context: Lam was in Madrid and Paris, but in 1941 as Europe was engulfed by war, he returned to his native country. Though he would leave Cuba again for Europe after the war, key elements within his artistic practice intersected during this period
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
145. Woman, I
Location: ?
Artist: Willem de Kooning
Date: 1950-1952 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Oil on Canvas
Theme(s): ...
Form: threatening stare and ferocious grin are heightened by de Kooning's aggressive brushwork and frantic paint application
Function: to depict the age-old cultural ambivalence between reverence for and fear of the power of the feminine
Content: ampish females, knotted up in swathes of abstraction, took detours from earlier ladylike forms into a new and violent direction
Context: De Kooning both distanced himself most clearly from his fellow abstract painters and expressed this figurative interests most memorably in his Woman paintings
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
145. Woman, I
Location: ?
Artist: Willem de Kooning
Date: 1950-1952 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Oil on Canvas
Theme(s): …
Form: threatening stare and ferocious grin are heightened by de Kooning’s aggressive brushwork and frantic paint application
Function: to depict the age-old cultural ambivalence between reverence for and fear of the power of the feminine
Content: ampish females, knotted up in swathes of abstraction, took detours from earlier ladylike forms into a new and violent direction
Context: De Kooning both distanced himself most clearly from his fellow abstract painters and expressed this figurative interests most memorably in his Woman paintings
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
161. Machu Picchu
Location: Peru
Artist: N/A
Date: 1450-1540 C.E.
Culture: Inka
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: granite
Theme(s): authority, power
Form: buildings built of stone with perfectly carved rock rendered in precise shapes and grooved together; thatched roofs; at the top, sacred pillar aligned with 4 gods with supreme importance to the Inka, also the center of the 4 mountains
Function: royal retreat for the emperor
Content: 200 buildings (mostly houses), temples, palaces, baths, astronomical observatory
Context: people farmed on terraces, estate of 15th century Inkan rulers
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Acropolis, Apadana/Audience Hall
161. Machu Picchu
Location: Peru
Artist: N/A
Date: 1450-1540 C.E.
Culture: Inka
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: granite
Theme(s): authority, power
Form: buildings built of stone with perfectly carved rock rendered in precise shapes and grooved together; thatched roofs; at the top, sacred pillar aligned with 4 gods with supreme importance to the Inka, also the center of the 4 mountains
Function: royal retreat for the emperor
Content: 200 buildings (mostly houses), temples, palaces, baths, astronomical observatory
Context: people farmed on terraces, estate of 15th century Inkan rulers
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Acropolis, Apadana/Audience Hall
167. Conical tower of Great Zimbabwe/ Circular wall of Great Zimbabwe
Location: Southeastern Zimbabwe
Artist: (attributed to ________________)
Date: c. 1000 - 1400 C.E.
Culture: Shona peoples
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: Coursed granite blocks
Theme(s): power, royalty
Form: great grain tower within the great enclosure
Function: to store grains or other food supplies 
Content: tall tower that was laid in blocks that were not plastered together
Context: Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city in the southeastern hills of Zimbabwe.
167. Conical tower of Great Zimbabwe/ Circular wall of Great Zimbabwe
Location: Southeastern Zimbabwe
Artist: (attributed to ________________)
Date: c. 1000 – 1400 C.E.
Culture: Shona peoples
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: Coursed granite blocks
Theme(s): power, royalty
Form: great grain tower within the great enclosure
Function: to store grains or other food supplies
Content: tall tower that was laid in blocks that were not plastered together
Context: Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city in the southeastern hills of Zimbabwe.
168. Great Mosque of Djenne
Location: Mali
Artist: N/A
Date: Founded: c. 1200 B.C.E.; rebuilt: 1906-1907 
Culture: ...
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: Adobe
Theme(s): worship
Form: ectilinear in plan and is partly enclosed by an exterior wall
Function: house of worship
Content: roof covers the building, which is supported by monumental pillars. The roof has several holes covered by terra-cotta lids, which provide its interior spaces with fresh air even during the hottest days. The façade of the Great Mosque includes three minarets and a series of engaged columns that together create a rhythmic effect. (KA)
Context: Djenné was founded between 800 and 1250 C.E., and it flourished as a great center of commerce, learning, and Islam, which had been practiced from the beginning of the 13th century.
168. Great Mosque of Djenne
Location: Mali
Artist: N/A
Date: Founded: c. 1200 B.C.E.; rebuilt: 1906-1907
Culture: …
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: Adobe
Theme(s): worship
Form: ectilinear in plan and is partly enclosed by an exterior wall
Function: house of worship
Content: roof covers the building, which is supported by monumental pillars. The roof has several holes covered by terra-cotta lids, which provide its interior spaces with fresh air even during the hottest days. The façade of the Great Mosque includes three minarets and a series of engaged columns that together create a rhythmic effect. (KA)
Context: Djenné was founded between 800 and 1250 C.E., and it flourished as a great center of commerce, learning, and Islam, which had been practiced from the beginning of the 13th century.
169. Wall plaque, from Oba's Palace
Location: Benin Kingdom (near Nigeria)
Artist: Edo peoples
Date: 16th century C.E.
Culture: Benin
Period/Style: 16th Century Benin
Medium/Material: Cast brass
Theme(s): Royalty, ceremony, authority
Form: hierarchy of scale to show importance of figures in the plaque. medium-deep relief. 
Function: to depict an Oba and his attendants 
Content: central figure is an Oba because of his distinctive coral beaded regalia. Attendants hold shields above his head either to protect him from attack or possibly from the sun; a privilege only afforded to an Oba. 
Context: The plaque originally hung alongside many others on posts throughout the palace of the Oba. The order of their placement on these posts would have told the history of the royal lineage of Benin's Obas, who traced their dynasty all the way back to Oranmiyan, whose son was the first Oba of Benin.
169. Wall plaque, from Oba’s Palace
Location: Benin Kingdom (near Nigeria)
Artist: Edo peoples
Date: 16th century C.E.
Culture: Benin
Period/Style: 16th Century Benin
Medium/Material: Cast brass
Theme(s): Royalty, ceremony, authority
Form: hierarchy of scale to show importance of figures in the plaque. medium-deep relief.
Function: to depict an Oba and his attendants
Content: central figure is an Oba because of his distinctive coral beaded regalia. Attendants hold shields above his head either to protect him from attack or possibly from the sun; a privilege only afforded to an Oba.
Context: The plaque originally hung alongside many others on posts throughout the palace of the Oba. The order of their placement on these posts would have told the history of the royal lineage of Benin’s Obas, who traced their dynasty all the way back to Oranmiyan, whose son was the first Oba of Benin.
170. Sika dwa kofi (Golden Stool)
Location: s. Central Ghana
Artist: Ashanti peoples
Date: c. 1700 C.E.
Culture: Ashanti
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: wooden stool covered in gold w/ cast-gold attachments
Theme(s): sacrosanct symbols/objects 
Form: golden figure bent into a
170. Sika dwa kofi (Golden Stool)
Location: s. Central Ghana
Artist: Ashanti peoples
Date: c. 1700 C.E.
Culture: Ashanti
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: wooden stool covered in gold w/ cast-gold attachments
Theme(s): sacrosanct symbols/objects
Form: golden figure bent into a “stool” shape with golden attachments (bells, etc.)
Function: to be a symbol of the Ashanti nation
Content: a curved seat 46 cm high with a platform 61 cm wide and 30 cm deep; entire surface inlaid with gold, and hung with bells to warn the king of impending danger; stool
Context: Osei Tutu: first king of united Ashanti confederacy; said to be made in the heavens; so sacred that it could never touch the ground, be sat on, or touched (except by the king)
171. Ndop (portrait figure) of King Mishe miShyaang maMbul
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: c. 1760-1780 C.E.
Culture: Kuba peoples
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Wood
Theme(s): authoritative position, spiritual presence 
Form: position shows a relaxed being in a higher position than others. Idealistic depiction of King's spiritual being. 
Function: took the place of the king in his absence
Content: male figure with a large head (represent knowledge), headwear, holding probably a cup, symbol marking on the base
Context: created after king's passing. earliest African wood sculpture and ndop in existence. Kept in king's shrine along with other
171. Ndop (portrait figure) of King Mishe miShyaang maMbul
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: c. 1760-1780 C.E.
Culture: Kuba peoples
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Wood
Theme(s): authoritative position, spiritual presence
Form: position shows a relaxed being in a higher position than others. Idealistic depiction of King’s spiritual being.
Function: took the place of the king in his absence
Content: male figure with a large head (represent knowledge), headwear, holding probably a cup, symbol marking on the base
Context: created after king’s passing. earliest African wood sculpture and ndop in existence. Kept in king’s shrine along with other “royal charms”
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Stele of Hammurabi, Tutankhamun’s tomb innermost coffin
172. Power figure (Nkisi n'kondi)
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: c. late 19th century C.E.
Culture: Kuba peoples
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: Wood & metal
Theme(s): ...
Form: it stands with its legs spread and its hands on its hips or behind it. This is a stance of readiness, poised for action. A rectangular container, which holds the figure's powerful medicines is attached to its belly
Function: for clients to approach, seeking solutions to problems or resolutions to disputes
Content: large, almond-shaped eyes, a broad nose with flaring nostrils, and a full-lipped mouth. The eyes are made of mirror glass, through which one can see, but which also casts back a reflection, the eyes embody the notion of passing back and forth between the spirit and human worlds (arts connected)
Context: The Kongo peoples live in southwestern Zaire and Angola. In a few traditional Kongo villages a religious specialist, who is also a healer and a legal expert, takes care of the spiritual and physical needs of the villagers with the assistance of a powerful carved figure, called ankisi nkondi. Popularly known as nail figures, these sculptures were used for a wide variety of purposes, including to protect the village, to prove guilt or innocence, to heal the sick, to end disasters, to bring revenge, and to settle legal disputes. (arts connected)
Cross Cultural Connection(s): statues of votive figures, voodoo dolls
172. Power figure (Nkisi n’kondi)
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: c. late 19th century C.E.
Culture: Kuba peoples
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: Wood & metal
Theme(s): …
Form: it stands with its legs spread and its hands on its hips or behind it. This is a stance of readiness, poised for action. A rectangular container, which holds the figure’s powerful medicines is attached to its belly
Function: for clients to approach, seeking solutions to problems or resolutions to disputes
Content: large, almond-shaped eyes, a broad nose with flaring nostrils, and a full-lipped mouth. The eyes are made of mirror glass, through which one can see, but which also casts back a reflection, the eyes embody the notion of passing back and forth between the spirit and human worlds (arts connected)
Context: The Kongo peoples live in southwestern Zaire and Angola. In a few traditional Kongo villages a religious specialist, who is also a healer and a legal expert, takes care of the spiritual and physical needs of the villagers with the assistance of a powerful carved figure, called ankisi nkondi. Popularly known as nail figures, these sculptures were used for a wide variety of purposes, including to protect the village, to prove guilt or innocence, to heal the sick, to end disasters, to bring revenge, and to settle legal disputes. (arts connected)
Cross Cultural Connection(s): statues of votive figures, voodoo dolls
173. Portrait Mask (Mblo)
Location: Côte d'Ivoire
Artist: ?
Date: Late 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Baule peoples
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: wood and pigment
Theme(s): entertainment
Form: crowned with a fantastical series of wild-animal horns; departure from a rigidly symmetrical representation suggests an individual physiognomy/expression (met)
Function: appeared as the final sequence of an operatic public entertainment known as Mblo (met)
Content: diversity is often apparent in imaginative decorative passages extending above the face (horns); broad forehead and downcast eyes are classic features associated with intellect and respect (met)
Context: Mblo performances consist of a succession of dances that escalate in complexity and importance, culminating ultimately in tributes to the community's most distinguished member. Individuals honored in this way are depicted by a mask that is conceived of as their artistic double or namesake. (Metro Museum)
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine, masquerades
173. Portrait Mask (Mblo)
Location: Côte d’Ivoire
Artist: ?
Date: Late 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Baule peoples
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: wood and pigment
Theme(s): entertainment
Form: crowned with a fantastical series of wild-animal horns; departure from a rigidly symmetrical representation suggests an individual physiognomy/expression (met)
Function: appeared as the final sequence of an operatic public entertainment known as Mblo (met)
Content: diversity is often apparent in imaginative decorative passages extending above the face (horns); broad forehead and downcast eyes are classic features associated with intellect and respect (met)
Context: Mblo performances consist of a succession of dances that escalate in complexity and importance, culminating ultimately in tributes to the community’s most distinguished member. Individuals honored in this way are depicted by a mask that is conceived of as their artistic double or namesake. (Metro Museum)
Cross Cultural Connection(s): Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine, masquerades
173. Female (Pwo) mask 
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: Late 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Chokwe peoples
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: thin wood, fiber, pigment, and metal
Theme(s): spirituality, fertility, birth
Form: mouth and eyes closed, deep red mask, kaolin (white powder connected to spiritual realm), circles
Function: danced/walked (gracefully); men honors founding female ancestors; often performed at the celebrations that mark the completion of initiation into adulthood
Content: eyes are abstractly large, symmetrical face, narrow chin, broad face and forehead
Context: men that honored women in Chokwe society that were young and gave birth
Cross Cultural Connection(s): ...
173. Female (Pwo) mask
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: Late 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Chokwe peoples
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: thin wood, fiber, pigment, and metal
Theme(s): spirituality, fertility, birth
Form: mouth and eyes closed, deep red mask, kaolin (white powder connected to spiritual realm), circles
Function: danced/walked (gracefully); men honors founding female ancestors; often performed at the celebrations that mark the completion of initiation into adulthood
Content: eyes are abstractly large, symmetrical face, narrow chin, broad face and forehead
Context: men that honored women in Chokwe society that were young and gave birth
Cross Cultural Connection(s): …
175. Bundu mask
Location: W. African forests of Sierra Leone and Liberia
Artist: ?
Date: 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Mende peoples, Sande Society
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Wood, cloth, and fiber
Theme(s): 
Form: gleaming surface signifies healthy, glowing skin, swelling fleshy rolls alternating with deep incised lines 
at the neck or back of the head are considered marks of beauty and a promise of fecundity (fertility). (randafricanart)
Function: worn exclusively by women during rituals 
Content: ideal of feminine beauty admired by the Mende: elaborate hairstyle, full forehead and small facial features
Context: With this confining mask, the wearer (who has to be a good dancer and an 
official of the Sande) puts on a thick cotton costume covered with heavy fibre 
strands dyed black. Her dances may last for over two hours. The sacredness of the mask lies in its deeper meaning as a representation of the long deceased founder of Sande society
Cross Cultural Connection(s): ...
175. Bundu mask
Location: W. African forests of Sierra Leone and Liberia
Artist: ?
Date: 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Mende peoples, Sande Society
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Wood, cloth, and fiber
Theme(s):
Form: gleaming surface signifies healthy, glowing skin, swelling fleshy rolls alternating with deep incised lines
at the neck or back of the head are considered marks of beauty and a promise of fecundity (fertility). (randafricanart)
Function: worn exclusively by women during rituals
Content: ideal of feminine beauty admired by the Mende: elaborate hairstyle, full forehead and small facial features
Context: With this confining mask, the wearer (who has to be a good dancer and an
official of the Sande) puts on a thick cotton costume covered with heavy fibre
strands dyed black. Her dances may last for over two hours. The sacredness of the mask lies in its deeper meaning as a representation of the long deceased founder of Sande society
Cross Cultural Connection(s): …
176. Ikenga (shrine figure)
Location: Nigeria
Artist: ?
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Ibgo peoples
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: Wood
Theme(s): shrine/
176. Ikenga (shrine figure)
Location: Nigeria
Artist: ?
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Ibgo peoples
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: Wood
Theme(s): shrine/”good luck charm”
Form: community ikenga (cylindrical)
Function: used in male cults that address the powers, successes, and failures of an individual; dedicated and consecrated to artist’s personal strength, success, and accomplishments, and sometimes as well to their protection
Content: Sharp horns; some straight, others spiraled, others fancifully curved and elaborated with perching animals. All are commonly referred to as ram horns, even though they often do not resemble them. All animal horns are power symbols, an identification with a specific animal hardly seems imperative for it is animalistic aggression. (randafricanart)
Context: Ikenga is specially found among the Northern Igbos of Anambra, Enugu, Delta and some parts of Kogi State. It is exclusively an *Igbo* symbol. Nevertheless, various peoples of Southern Nigeria have slightly different notions of the components of an individual personality, but all agree that these various aspects can only be affected through ritual and personal effort.
Cross Cultural Connection(s): …
177. Lukasa (memory board)
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Luba peoples, Mbudye Society
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: wood, beads, metal
Theme(s): memory, records, 
Form: row of carved mounds called lukala runs across their concave surface, dividing it in half. Beads and shells are attached to the board by small slivers of wood or hand-made iron wedges driven through their centers, and cowrie shells are frequently attached at the top and bottom; hourglass-shaped wooden tablet
Function: bana balute (
177. Lukasa (memory board)
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artist: ?
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Luba peoples, Mbudye Society
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: wood, beads, metal
Theme(s): memory, records,
Form: row of carved mounds called lukala runs across their concave surface, dividing it in half. Beads and shells are attached to the board by small slivers of wood or hand-made iron wedges driven through their centers, and cowrie shells are frequently attached at the top and bottom; hourglass-shaped wooden tablet
Function: bana balute (“men of memory”) run their fingertips across the surface of a lukasa or point to its features while reciting genealogies, king lists, maps of protocol, migration stories, etc.; archive for the topographical and chronological mapping of political histories and other data sets
Content: …
Context: hand-held wooden objects that present a conceptual map of fundamental aspects of Luba culture; sophisticated memory device that was created, manipulated and protected by the Bambudye, a once powerful secret society of the Luba
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
178. Aka elephant mask
Location: Cameroon, western grass fields region
Artist: ?
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Bamileke
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: Wood, woven raffia, cloth, beads
Theme(s): ritual, honor of elephants, ...
Form: comprise cloth panels and hoods woven from plantain fiber over raffia. On this background multicolored beads are stitched 
in geometric patterns.
Function: Maskers dance barefoot in these colorful costumes to a drum and gong, moving slowly as they wave poles with blue and white beaded tips 
trimmed with horsehair while whistling
178. Aka elephant mask
Location: Cameroon, western grass fields region
Artist: ?
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: Bamileke
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: Wood, woven raffia, cloth, beads
Theme(s): ritual, honor of elephants, …
Form: comprise cloth panels and hoods woven from plantain fiber over raffia. On this background multicolored beads are stitched
in geometric patterns.
Function: Maskers dance barefoot in these colorful costumes to a drum and gong, moving slowly as they wave poles with blue and white beaded tips
trimmed with horsehair while whistling “mysteriously and tunelessly,”
Content: long trunk and large ears, hood fits tightly over the masker’s head, two hanging panels, one behind and one in front, partially concealing the body. Front panel is the elephant trunk, and the two large, stiff circles hinged to either side of the head are its ears, which flap as the masker dances. While the mask symbolizes an elephant, the face is human. Eyeholes provide visibility, and a nose and mouth with teeth are normally present.
Context: “…elephant masks, while rare in Africa,
are fully appropriate symbols of important leaders or, at least, their respected deputies or messengers. The societies that use these masks
in fact act as agents of chiefs’ control and as formal royal emissaries.” (randafricanart)
Cross Cultural Connection(s): …
179. Reliquary figure (nlo bieri)
Location: southern Cameroon
Artist: Fang peoples
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: wood
Theme(s): tranquillity, vitality, and the ability to hold opposites in balance
Form: accentuated head, toned muscles, eyes (probably) closed
Function: mounted on top of each reliquary box guarded the sacred contents against the forbidden gaze of women and uninitiated boys
Content: ...
Context: a widespread belief in the spiritual power of ancestral relics among Bantu peoples underlay the creation of remarkable works of art (met museum)
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
179. Reliquary figure (nlo bieri)
Location: southern Cameroon
Artist: Fang peoples
Date: c. 19th-20th century C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: wood
Theme(s): tranquillity, vitality, and the ability to hold opposites in balance
Form: accentuated head, toned muscles, eyes (probably) closed
Function: mounted on top of each reliquary box guarded the sacred contents against the forbidden gaze of women and uninitiated boys
Content: …
Context: a widespread belief in the spiritual power of ancestral relics among Bantu peoples underlay the creation of remarkable works of art (met museum)
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
180: Veranda post: equestrian figure and female caryatid
Location: ?
Artist: Olowe of Ise
Date: before 1938 C.E
Culture: Yoruba peoples, Ekiti group
Period/Style: ...
Medium/Material: wood & pigment
Theme(s): marriage importance (first wife), hierarchy of scale
Form: an equestrian warior, is depicted frontally above a female caryatid with arms raised in three-quarter view; first wife is larger than other 2
Function: designed for the exterior courtyard of a Yoruba palace
Content: mounted warrior holds a spear and pistol in either hand, and his vest, saddle, and horse's headgear are articulated through deeply carved linear motifs
Context: In Yoruba art such equestrian figures identify their patrons with martial conquest achieved through physical might.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
180: Veranda post: equestrian figure and female caryatid
Location: ?
Artist: Olowe of Ise
Date: before 1938 C.E
Culture: Yoruba peoples, Ekiti group
Period/Style: …
Medium/Material: wood & pigment
Theme(s): marriage importance (first wife), hierarchy of scale
Form: an equestrian warior, is depicted frontally above a female caryatid with arms raised in three-quarter view; first wife is larger than other 2
Function: designed for the exterior courtyard of a Yoruba palace
Content: mounted warrior holds a spear and pistol in either hand, and his vest, saddle, and horse’s headgear are articulated through deeply carved linear motifs
Context: In Yoruba art such equestrian figures identify their patrons with martial conquest achieved through physical might.
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
192. The Great Stupa
Location: Madhya Pradesh, India
Artist: Ashoka the Great (commissioner)
Date: 300 BCE - 100 CE
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty
Medium/Material: Stone masonry, sandstone on dome.
Theme(s): Worship
Form: mound shaped, faced with dressed stone. Double stairway that leads from base to drum where a walkway for circumambulation 
Function: sculptural monument, worship, burial
Content: three umbrellas representing Buddha; Hemispherical dome, Tyranna, Buddha does not show himself, but shows an empty throne/tree
Context: Built in the birthplace of Ashoka's wife
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
192. The Great Stupa
Location: Madhya Pradesh, India
Artist: Ashoka the Great (commissioner)
Date: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Culture: …
Period/Style: Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty
Medium/Material: Stone masonry, sandstone on dome.
Theme(s): Worship
Form: mound shaped, faced with dressed stone. Double stairway that leads from base to drum where a walkway for circumambulation
Function: sculptural monument, worship, burial
Content: three umbrellas representing Buddha; Hemispherical dome, Tyranna, Buddha does not show himself, but shows an empty throne/tree
Context: Built in the birthplace of Ashoka’s wife
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
193. Terracotta Warriors
Location: from mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China
Artist:
Date: c. 221-209 BCE
Culture:
Period/Style: Qin Dynasty
Medium/Material: Painted terracotta
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
193. Terracotta Warriors
Location: from mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China
Artist:
Date: c. 221-209 BCE
Culture:
Period/Style: Qin Dynasty
Medium/Material: Painted terracotta
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
194. Funeral banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui)
Location:
Artist:
Date: 180 BCE
Culture:
Period/Style: Han Dynasty
Medium/Material: Painted silk
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
194. Funeral banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui)
Location:
Artist:
Date: 180 BCE
Culture:
Period/Style: Han Dynasty
Medium/Material: Painted silk
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
195. Longmen Caves
Location: Luoyang, China
Artist:
Date: 493-1127 CE
Culture: 
Period/Style: Tang Dynasty
Medium/Material: Limestone
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
195. Longmen Caves
Location: Luoyang, China
Artist:
Date: 493-1127 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Tang Dynasty
Medium/Material: Limestone
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
196. Gold and Jade Crown
Location: Silla Kingdom, Korea
Artist:
Date: 5th to 6th Century CE
Culture: 
Period/Style: Three Kingdoms Period
Medium/Material: Metalwork
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
196. Gold and Jade Crown
Location: Silla Kingdom, Korea
Artist:
Date: 5th to 6th Century CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Three Kingdoms Period
Medium/Material: Metalwork
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
197. Todai-Ji
Location: Nara, Japan
Artist: Various artists, including sculptors Unkei and Keikei, as well as the Kei School
Date: 743 CE. Rebuilt c.1700; gate: 743 CE. Rebuilt in 962
Culture: 
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Bronze and wood (sculpture); wood with ceramic-tile roofing (architecture); gate: wood
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
197. Todai-Ji
Location: Nara, Japan
Artist: Various artists, including sculptors Unkei and Keikei, as well as the Kei School
Date: 743 CE. Rebuilt c.1700; gate: 743 CE. Rebuilt in 962
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Bronze and wood (sculpture); wood with ceramic-tile roofing (architecture); gate: wood
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
198. Borobudur Temple
Location: Central Java, Indonesia
Artist:
Date: c. 750-842 CE.
Culture:
Period/Style: Sailendra Dynasty
Medium/Material: Volcanic Stone Masonry
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
198. Borobudur Temple
Location: Central Java, Indonesia
Artist:
Date: c. 750-842 CE.
Culture:
Period/Style: Sailendra Dynasty
Medium/Material: Volcanic Stone Masonry
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
199. Angkor, temple of Angkor Wat
Location: City of Angkot Thom, Cambodia
Artist:
Date: c. 800-1400 CE. 
Culture: Hindu
Period/Style: Angkor Dynasty
Medium/Material: Stone masonry, sandstone.
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
199. Angkor, temple of Angkor Wat
Location: City of Angkot Thom, Cambodia
Artist:
Date: c. 800-1400 CE.
Culture: Hindu
Period/Style: Angkor Dynasty
Medium/Material: Stone masonry, sandstone.
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
200. Lakshmana Temple
Location: Khajuraho, India
Artist:
Date: 930-950 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Chandella Dynasty
Medium/Material: Sandstone
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
200. Lakshmana Temple
Location: Khajuraho, India
Artist:
Date: 930-950 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Chandella Dynasty
Medium/Material: Sandstone
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
201. Travelers Among Mountains and Streams
Location: Khajuraho, India
Artist: Fan Kuan
Date: c. 1000 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Chandella Dynasty
Medium/Material: Ink on silk 6.75 ft x 2.5 ft.
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
201. Travelers Among Mountains and Streams
Location: Khajuraho, India
Artist: Fan Kuan
Date: c. 1000 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Chandella Dynasty
Medium/Material: Ink on silk 6.75 ft x 2.5 ft.
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
202. Shiva as Lord of Dance (Nataraja)
Location: Hindu; India (Tamil Nadu)
Artist: 
Date: c. 11th century CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Chola Dynasty
Medium/Material: cast bronze
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
202. Shiva as Lord of Dance (Nataraja)
Location: Hindu; India (Tamil Nadu)
Artist:
Date: c. 11th century CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Chola Dynasty
Medium/Material: cast bronze
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
203. Night Attack on the Sanjô Palace 
Location: Japan
Artist: 
Date: c.1250-1300 CE. 
Culture:
Period/Style: Kamakura period
Medium/Material: Handscroll (ink and color on paper)
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
203. Night Attack on the Sanjô Palace
Location: Japan
Artist:
Date: c.1250-1300 CE.
Culture:
Period/Style: Kamakura period
Medium/Material: Handscroll (ink and color on paper)
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
204. The David Vases
Location: 
Artist: 
Date: c. 1351 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Yuan Dynasty
Medium/Material: White porcelain with cobalt-blue underglaze
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
204. The David Vases
Location:
Artist:
Date: c. 1351 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: Yuan Dynasty
Medium/Material: White porcelain with cobalt-blue underglaze
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
205. Portrait of Sin Sukju (1417-1475)
Location: Imperial Bureau of Painting
Artist: 
Date: c.15th century CE
Culture:
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: Hanging scroll (ink and color on silk)
underglaze
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
205. Portrait of Sin Sukju (1417-1475)
Location: Imperial Bureau of Painting
Artist:
Date: c.15th century CE
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Hanging scroll (ink and color on silk)
underglaze
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
206. The Forbidden City
Location: Beijing, China
Architect: plotted by Zhu Di, a YongLe emperor
Date: started in 1406, ended in 1420
Culture: Chinese 
Period/Style: Chinese Architecture (Ming Dynasty)
Medium/Material: stone from Fangshang, timber and stone transported on ice, white lime and glutinous rice (walls), cement is made from glutinous rice and egg whites
Theme(s): power, change, hierarchy 
Form: red walls and yellow glazed roof tiles, a micro-city , measures 961 meters in length and 753 meters in width; more than 90 palace compounds including 98 buildings and surrounded by a moat as wide as 52 meters; 15 layer pathways
Function: political and ritual center of China for over 500 years
Content: 9,999 rooms, outer court has five halls used for ceremonial purposes and other 
official business; lots of yellow, to represent the connection to the element of earth; Hall of Supreme Harmony has a dragon, phoenix, lion, heavenly steed, sea horse, Suan ní, ziè jhì, Dòuniú, and zíng shén
Context: The number
206. The Forbidden City
Location: Beijing, China
Architect: plotted by Zhu Di, a YongLe emperor
Date: started in 1406, ended in 1420
Culture: Chinese
Period/Style: Chinese Architecture (Ming Dynasty)
Medium/Material: stone from Fangshang, timber and stone transported on ice, white lime and glutinous rice (walls), cement is made from glutinous rice and egg whites
Theme(s): power, change, hierarchy
Form: red walls and yellow glazed roof tiles, a micro-city , measures 961 meters in length and 753 meters in width; more than 90 palace compounds including 98 buildings and surrounded by a moat as wide as 52 meters; 15 layer pathways
Function: political and ritual center of China for over 500 years
Content: 9,999 rooms, outer court has five halls used for ceremonial purposes and other
official business; lots of yellow, to represent the connection to the element of earth; Hall of Supreme Harmony has a dragon, phoenix, lion, heavenly steed, sea horse, Suan ní, ziè jhì, Dòuniú, and zíng shén
Context: The number “9” was special to emperors, because it is the highest value ordinal.
Additionally, the Chinese word for nine, ‘jiu’, is a homonym for ‘long’ or ‘lengthy’; because the
Forbidden City was on Earth,
it was impossible to have 10,000 rooms, which would conflict with the number of rooms
in the version found in Heaven because the number 10,000 symbolizes infinity.
207. Ryoan-ji 
Location: Kyoto, Japan
Artist:
Date: c.1480 CE.; current design most likely dates to the 18th century
Culture:
Period/Style: Muromachi Period
Medium/Material: Rock garden
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
207. Ryoan-ji
Location: Kyoto, Japan
Artist:
Date: c.1480 CE.; current design most likely dates to the 18th century
Culture:
Period/Style: Muromachi Period
Medium/Material: Rock garden
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
208. Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings
Location: Bichitr
Artist:
Date: c.1480 CE.; current design most likely dates to the 18th century
Culture:
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: Watercolor, gold and ink on paper
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
208. Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings
Location: Bichitr
Artist:
Date: c.1480 CE.; current design most likely dates to the 18th century
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Watercolor, gold and ink on paper
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
209. Taj Mahal
Location: Agra, India
Artist:
Date: 1653
Culture:
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: 
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
209. Taj Mahal
Location: Agra, India
Artist:
Date: 1653
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material:
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
210. White and Red Plum Blossoms
Location: 
Artist: Ogata Korin
Date: c. 1710-1716 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: Ink, watercolor, and gold leaf on paper
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
210. White and Red Plum Blossoms
Location:
Artist: Ogata Korin
Date: c. 1710-1716 CE
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Ink, watercolor, and gold leaf on paper
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
211. Under the Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa oki nami ura), also known as The Great Wave off Kanagawa, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Location: 
Artist: Katsushika Hokusai
Date: c. 1830-1833 CE
Culture:
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: Polychrome woodblock print; ink and color on paper
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
211. Under the Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa oki nami ura), also known as The Great Wave off Kanagawa, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Location:
Artist: Katsushika Hokusai
Date: c. 1830-1833 CE
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Polychrome woodblock print; ink and color on paper
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
212. Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan
Artist: unknown
Date: c. 1969
Culture:
Period/Style: 
Medium/Material: Color lithograph
Theme(s):
Form: 
Function: 
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
212. Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan
Artist: unknown
Date: c. 1969
Culture:
Period/Style:
Medium/Material: Color lithograph
Theme(s):
Form:
Function:
Content:
Context:
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
230. Pink Panther
Location: ...
Artist: Jeff Koons
Date: 1988 C.E.
Culture: ...
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Glazed porcelain 
Theme(s): ...
Form: ...
Function: depicts a smiling, bare-breasted, blond woman scantily clad in a mint-green dress, head tilted back and to the left as if addressing a crowd of onlookers
Content: Jayne Mansfield, with one hand covering a breast bared by a garment that has slipped down—a predicament for which Mansfield was notorious. The stuffed Pink Panther she clutches with her other hand is cheekily extending his tail toward the waistband of her skirt
Context: part of Koons's Banality series, a group of twenty sculptures that draws on both popular culture and mass-market knickknacks
Cross Cultural Connection(s):
230. Pink Panther
Location: …
Artist: Jeff Koons
Date: 1988 C.E.
Culture: …
Period/Style: Later Europe/America
Medium/Material: Glazed porcelain
Theme(s): …
Form: …
Function: depicts a smiling, bare-breasted, blond woman scantily clad in a mint-green dress, head tilted back and to the left as if addressing a crowd of onlookers
Content: Jayne Mansfield, with one hand covering a breast bared by a garment that has slipped down—a predicament for which Mansfield was notorious. The stuffed Pink Panther she clutches with her other hand is cheekily extending his tail toward the waistband of her skirt
Context: part of Koons’s Banality series, a group of twenty sculptures that draws on both popular culture and mass-market knickknacks
Cross Cultural Connection(s):

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