Little known about meaning
Buildings show abilities of prehistoric ppl
D: 25,500 – 25,300 B.C.E P/S: Patheolic Era
A: Bushmen indigenous people
OL: Nile River
M: Stone, charcoal, and ocher T: Rock painting
F: Depict daily life
C: Homo sapiens at the time were able to create symbolic art and have the capacity to percieve abstract art
DT: Hand painted
M: Drawing of an animal the person encountered
Date: 13000 B.C.E.
Original Location: Lascaux, France
Material: Chalk on Rock
P/S: Cave Drawing
Technique: Side Front view
Descriptive Terms: side front view, overcrossing drawings
Context: Most likely whenever they saw something in the wild they drew it in a cave
Meaning: The meaning was probably to record what types of animals were in their hunting area
D: 14,000-7,000 B.C.E P/S: Prehistoric
OL: Tequixquiac, central Mexico
M: Camelid bone Sacrum
T: no known technique, however it was carved
F: The function has been discussed over the years the most likely reason of the carving is for religious reasons wanting to respect the animals around them (just speculation).
C: This work was very significant for this region and this time period because it was one of the first known works of art. As well it showed that the people living in this region had started too developed intellectually and were aware of the surroundings around them. The inhabitants were interacting with the animal’s native to their area.
DT: The bone is a Camelid Sacrum, which is a bone located at the base of the spine or near the pelvic area of an animal that is in close relation to a Camel.
M: As said before there is much speculation on meaning of the art work for example, people believe it may have been used as a hunting mask, as well as religious reasons.
D: 6000-4000 BCE P/S: Prehistoric Cave Painting
OL: Tassili n’ Ajjer, Algeria
M: pigment on rock T: Cave painting
F: to describe a ceremonial tradition or to identify a religious significant figure
C: At this time, people knew little of their surrounding world, and relied on these religious deities to provide for their basic needs. It was found in a cave, so the artist(s) intended to protect the art which indicates it was valued.
DT: organic lines used on the body, rough texture, large scale painting, no depth
M: to show the significance of religion in early societies and the important the hunter gatherers played on society
Original Location: Liangzhu, China
Technique: It was crafted out of true jade, also known as nephrite, which is very hard to cut into due to its sturdiness. So to create the designs, sand was rubbed into the stone very carefully.
Function: Originally made to be decorative, with lines and circles on the exterior. The pieces of jade cong on display in the British Museum were found in graves, with no traces of written records explaining the pieces. Used two distinct types of ritual jade objects: a disc, later known as a bi, and a tube, later known as a cong, of square cross-section, pierced with a circular hole.
Context: Jade cong was originally made in the Chinese civilization of Liangzhu, located near the Yangzi river, near what is now Shanghai. The Liangzhu people were very good cultivators of rice. Their knowledge in the crop allowed for a surplus of rice to be grown, resulting in the ability for their society to become sophisticated. Their art pieces were created during the Neolithic Revolution, a time when writing was developed.
Descriptive Terms: Jade cong are often square shaped, with hollow tubes in the center. Symmetric, organic lines, inorganic lines, geometric shapes, and organic shapes
Meaning: The purpose and meaning of the pieces of why it was produced is still unknown. However, it is thought that the circles are representations of faces. The corners of most cong are decorated with faces, shown through eyes and parallel bars.
D: 3000 B.C. P/S: Global prehistory (circular monument)
A: Celtic Priests
OL: located in England
M: Sarsen Stones T: Symmetry
F: Used as a giant clock for the seasons most likely or could be an ancient burial site
C: The rocks are lined up so on the summer solstice light shines right through the middle to display the time of year.
DT: Stone, circular, pillars, symmetric, inorganic, burial ground, solstice, and religious.
M: Their society was based on agriculture, so the knowledge of the seasons was crucial to their survival. Stonehenge served the same purpose as a sundial.
Media: Greywacke Stone
D: 1200-900BCE P/S: Pre-Classical period of Pre-Colombian Mesoamerican art
A: Unknown people of the Tlatilco region
OL: Central Mexico at site of Tlatilco(The word tlatilco comes from the Nahuatl language which is the language of those who found the ruins of tlatilco; Tlatilco means “the place of hidden things”))
M: Ceramic, 3-12 inches tall
F: Used as a symbol of fertility, maternity and as a charm for women.
C: The tlatilco people had been noted for high quality pottery pieces and had a chiefdom center and complicated burials with grave offerings using ritual and utilitarian ceramics.
DT: Matriarchy, fertility, symbol, charm, exaggerated sexual features
M: Believed to be a symbol of fertility/maternity and suggest a rare possibility of a more matriarchal society.
Artist: Unkown, Lapita people
DOC: 1000 B.C.E
Origin: Lapita, New Caledonia
The patterns were incised into the pots before firing with a comblike tool used to stamp designs into the wet clay. Each stamp consisted of a single design element that was combined with others to form elaborate patterns.
One of the finest examples of the Lapita potter’s art, this fragment depicts a human face incorporated into the intricate geometric designs characteristic of the Lapita ceramic tradition.
Buildings created for religion (mud-brick)
Stelai = commemoration of rulers
Guardian figures (usually hybrids) protected impt sites
Realistic figures acting out narratives
Hierarchy of scale
Deification of rulers
P: 3500-3000 B.C.E. P/S: 1st Period Mesopotamian art
A: Government hired architect(s)
P: Uruk government: all citizens of Uruk
OL: City of Uruk, present day Warka, Iraq
M: White Mud bricks for Temple, baked bricks for ziggurat
T: Layered bricks to create its massive structure
F: Place to perform various rituals to the city god, Amu; sacrifice animals and pray to gods. Only select few high religious authorities could enter. Shows massive power.
C: Huge size and white color atop allowed for it to be spotted from a distance. Reflects dedication to the city god Amu.
Dt: Base ziggurat on bottom and white temple atop. 210ft. by 150ft. ziggurat base and temple 40ft. above ground 60ft. by 16ft. Large, located on flat surroundings.
M: Shows dedication to god Amu and power standing of the city
Date: c2700 B.C.E.
Artist: probably skill workers of tribe
Patron: Leader of the tribe
Original Location: in an ancient temple
Material: black shells
Technique: Subtractive method
Descriptive Terms: simplified pessimistic conical
Context: size could enforce hierarchy
Meaning: The meaning was to create something that they could use to pray to the gods away from home
D: 2620-2500 BCE P/S: Old Kingdom
OL: Saqqara, Egypt
M: Painted Limestone T: Shaped Limestone
F: Signify the high social status of scribes
C: It shows how scribes were general wealthy and and respected members of society
DT: Egypt, Limestone, Jewels, Saqqara, Old Kingdom, Scribe, and Wealth
M: Scribes had to go through extensive training in order to become one and were respected by the level of work that they went through.
Size: 8.5 Inches high by 19.5 Inches long
Context: The mosaics represent life in early Mesopotamia. One side represents the “War Side” (which shows the defeat of some unknown enemy) while the other is the “Peace Side” (which shows the bounty of the land). This narrates a story from the bottom to the top. For example, the top register on each side depicts a king, who is larger in scale than the other figures (it represents/symbolizes his power). The Standard shows the two most important roles of an early Mesopotamian ruler: the warrior (protects people and secured access to water and natural resources) and the leader (served as an intermediary between the people and the gods.)
Broad frontal shoulders and profiled heads, torsos, and legs
OK= unyielding stance and formidable expressions
MK= more relaxed and emotional
NK= rounded and elongated figures
D: c. 2550 B.C P/S: Old Kingdom
A: Citizens of Giza, Egypt
PA: Pharaoh Khufu, Pharaoh Khafre, Pharaoh Menkaure
OL: Giza, Egypt
M: Soapstone T: Carved out from rock, construction
F: To honor the pharaohs
C: Created to honor the pharaohs and display their political power
DT: Sculpture, Architecture
M: To represent the enudrance of the land and the people of Giza throughout the invasions and times of trouble
OL: Menkaura Valley Temple
F: He represents the epitome of kingship and ideal human form. She represents the ideal female form.
C: Both figures represent the ideal form for both genders.
DT: Vertical Grid, counter balancing horizontals, stiff, artificial posture.
M: Hs broad shoulders, taut torso, and muscular arms and legs, all modeled with subtlety and restraint, convey a latent length. In contrast, her narrow shoulders and slim body, whose contours are apparent under the tight fitting sheath dress, represents the Egyptian ideal femininity. As in standard for sculptures of Egyptian men, his left foot is advanced, although his weight remains on the right foot. Egyptian females are shown with both feet together. Although they stand together sharing a common base and back slab, and she embraces him, they remain aloof and share no emotion, either with the viewer or each other.
Date: 1750 BC Period/Style:
Patron: The people of ancient Mesopotamia
Original Location: Ancient Mesopotamia
Material: Diorite and basalt Technique:
Function: The function was to set down a reasonable and unchanging set of laws that addressed the problems in the high kingdom.
Context/Relevant Ideas: The upper portion of the Code of Hammurabi is Hammurabi himself receiving a ring and receptor (law codes).
Meaning: The meaning of the Code of Hammurabi is to keep a formal legal code for the people of ancient Mesopotamia.
Motuary temple of Hatshepsut. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. Circa 1473-1458 B.C.E. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite.
Constructed by Hatshepsuts royal architect Senenmut, the Motuary temple of Hatshepsut also known as Djeser-Djeseru (“Holy of Holies”). Hatshepsut initially ruled as regent for her step son Thuthmosis III but promoted herself to the role of pharaoh instead of passing power to him when he came to age. The temple is three stories high dedicated to her burial area, devoted not only to her funeral cult, but also to the cults of Amon and of other gods. Thus, guardians have been arranged on each story. The central ramps lead to the second and first terraces, the walls are supported by a row of square pillars. A statue of Horus as a falcon stands at each side of the entrance to the ramp. The bottom columns end with both sides depicting huge Osiris statues of the queen. The Hathor Chapel is found on the south side of the second level and the Anubis chapel is found to the north end of the second colonnade. The birth colonnade is on the right hand side of the ramp to the third level. At the birth colonnade, inscriptions written on the walls depict Hatsheptut’s divine birth.
Original Location: Amarna, Egypt
Material: Painted limestone Technique: Sunken relief
Function: Depict a family portrait possibly capturing a joyous moment from Akhenaton
Context: Family of Akhenaton are basking in the sun rays of Aton, the sun god that Akhenaton makes up. He is also noted for leaving behind traditional Egyptian polytheism. Instead he encouraged worship around the god Aton. He attempted to leave the traditional religion, but not accepted.
Descriptive Terms: Sunken relief, iconography
Meaning: In the piece the depiction of the 2 larger human subjects create a sense of a couple, their relationship, and their domestic love. The piece also suggests that god is present. By looking closely into the sun, a cobra can be seen which is the symbol for a supreme deity, the only deity showing his monotheism during this time period. The ends of the suns rays near the 2 larger human subjects have hands on the end, this is a way live life to the people. Therefore giving them the breath of life. In the sculpture a very intimate moment was depicted; as Akhenaton makes a motion for his daughter to kiss him while Nefertiti is holding the other 2 children in the picture. Lastly, by including the whole family, the unknown artist is able to show that they would be ruling Egypt together.
OL: The Valley of the Kings, Egypt
M: beaten gold and inlaid with semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli, turquoise, and carnelian
T: made of wood, which was then heavily decorated on the outside with both paint and gold leaf
F: During the 18th Dynasty the outer sarcophagus enclosed a series of inner coffins, the last of which would contain the royal mummy of the Pharaoh. The purpose of the King Tut sarcophagus was therefore the external layer of protection for the royal mummy of Tutankhamun.
C: Was perfectly preserved when found in 1922. The coffin gives people insight on Ancient Egyptian burial customs, and expresses Egyptian power and affluence. Have influences of traditional ancient Egyptian art and of the Amarna style.
DT: anthropoid (resembling human), ethereal, detailed, smooth
M: It was sculpted in the image of Tutankhamun as Osiris, the god who presided over the judgment of the dead. He carries a crook and flail (worn by the god Osiris and the pharaoh), and wears the royal beard and a nemes head cloth – pharaohs wanted to imitate gods to connect to them and be like them. On either side of him, Isis and Nephthys spread their wings in a protective embrace.
c. 1275 B.C.E. Painted papyrus scroll.
N: The Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer
D: c.1275 BCE p/s: New Kingdom, 19th dynasty; traditional Egyptian
OL: New Kingdom of Egypt
M: Vegetable gum painted on papyrus scroll T: twist perspective
F: Final judgment of the deceased
C: The Book of the Dead was a collection of funerary spells and prayers used in Egypt. Anubis is the god of embalming; Maat is the goddess of truth and right; Ammit devours sins; Thoth is the god who records preceedings.
DT: Abstract figures; conservative; traditional; hieroglyphs
M: Anubis leads Hu-Nefer into a hall of judgment. Anubis adjusts the scales to weigh Hu-Nefer’s heart against Maat’s feather. Ammit, half-lion and half hippopotamus, awaits the decision of the scales. Hu-Nefer is awarded eternal life from Thoth.
Pa: Assyrian rulers
OL: Dur Sharrukin, modern day Iraq
T: Alabaster carving.
F: Lamassu were used to protect the city from evil spirits.
C: During this time period Assyria was the most influential and powerful empire in Mesopotamia, they created lamassu to demonstrate their power and also to be protected by them.
DT: Inorganic, spiritual, protective, strong, natural, hybrid
M: Lamassu were placed at the entrance of Sargon II’s palace to protect him from both spiritual and mortal enemies.
DATE: 6th century BCE PERIOD/STYLE: Classical Greece ARTIST: organized by Peisistratos (r. 567 – 521 BCE)
PATRON: Peisistratos ORIGINAL LOCATION: along the main road in Athens, the Panathenaic Way, northwest of the Acropolis
MATERIAL: marble TECHNIQUE: carving of marble to the precision and excellence characteristic of Greek architecture
FUNCTION: serve as the center of political and public life in Athens
CONTEXT: Peisistratos, during his reign, attempted to assert his tyranny over Athens; this is exemplified by his destruction of the primitive Agora in another part of the city and the construction, he ordered, of a new Agora in the center of the city
DESCRIPTIVE TERMS: was a large, open area surrounded by buildings of various functions, all utilized for commercial, political, religious, and military activity; buildings included the Peristyle Court, Mint, Strategeion (where Athenian generals convened), and multiple temples dedicated to the Olympian deities, with individual temples for Ares, Zeus, Apollo, and Hephaestus
MEANING: The destruction of private homes, along the general construction of the new Agora served as a political statement to strengthen and consolidate Peisistratos’ political influence before assertion of his tyranny. Also, the expansive range of temples to the Olympian gods and goddesses, as well as the Agora’s relative proximity to the Acropolis, displays the cultural significance of the Greek religion. Furthermore, the central positioning of the Agora along the main road of Athens was a shrewd decision by Peisistratos, as it further supported his political legitimacy by displaying that the Agora was both a literal and figurative “heart” of the city-state
P/S: Archaic period, Attica style
A: Unknown, most likely a citizen of Greece
P: Possibly the goddess Athena
OL: Athens, Greece
F: The most commonly believed function of the figure was to serve as a statue of the goddess Athena
C: This figure was named after the characteristics that describe it. A Peplos is a Greek costume of rectangular clothe and a kore is a clothed, female figure. The figure is believed to be a representation of the Greek goddess Athens, and many examples prove this to be true – the sculpture was once fully painted, and the figure originally held a bow and arrows, both contributing to the possibility that the figure could have been a depiction of a goddess. Also, the fact that she is fully clothed and that the kore was a commonly sculpted figure during that period shows that women were hardly displayed in art as nude figures during that time.
DT: Symmetrical balance shown through posture, organic, curvy lines, rough texture felt by the hardness of the marble, archaic smile suggests that she did not live in world full of emotion, but rose above that level to a more divine state of being.
M: Strong evidence and analysis have shown that the Peplos Kore was probably a replication of the figure of the Greek goddess, Athens. The intended message behind the erection of this figure was to most likely promote the worship of this goddess and encourage the practice of the state religion throughout the area. The fact that a representation of a Greek goddess was incorporated into form of a kore, a standard female figure that was widely erected throughout Greece during the Archaic period, shows that the artist felt it quite necessary to make the goddess’s presence felt throughout the region.
terracotta with style similar to other etruscan sculptures.
D: 520 BC
OL:Etruscan city of Caere
M: The Sarcophagus of the Spouses has been interpreted as belonging to a banqueting scene, with the couple reclining together on a single dining couch while eating and drinking. Used for funerary purposes possibly.
T: Standard etruscan style terracotta sculpture.
F: Possibly used for funerary purposes or decoration.
C: Painted terracotta played a key role in the culture of Etruria, this work would have been an elite
commision for the difficulty of creating a sculpture of its size with limited resources.
P: 520-465 B.C.E
P: Darius and Xerxes
OL: Persian city of Persepolis
T: Stone masonary/ stone carving
F: to act as a central location for subject nations to bring tribute and exchange gifts
C: Tall central hall with 72 columns and stairs leading to the main enterance
DT: Walls engraving with hundreds of figures which illustrate multiple ethnic groups paying tribute . Stairs leading up to the main central hall, over 20m high and 1000 sq foot.
M: symbol of the kings power because gift exchange was one of the central elements in Persian style.
P/S: Ancient Greek
A: Architect unknown, Sculptor of statues: Master sculptor Vulca
OL: Etruscan Society
M: The Temple of Minerva and the sculpture of Apollo was built most likely from wood, mud, brick, or tufa (volcanic rock), and stone as the flooring. Because of the materials used the buildings didn’t not serve the elements well. Leading to the destruction of all temples.
T: Much of the technique used was described in, De Architecture by Vitruvius. The building laid on a thick stone layer with tufa, wood, etc., for the walls and roofs. This particular temple is the foundation that lead to the understanding of all similar temples. The building had to parts a wide room that contained columns then a back section split in to three parts. Many terracotta sculptors would line the buildings, evidently some of these sculptors did survive.
F: A place of worship to the female Goddesses Minerva. This was a new style of worship to have a temple specific to the god or goddesses.
C: No remaining Etruscan Temples all destroyed, however many assumptions are made about the layout of them. As well the Apollo statue although damaged did survive in good condition.
DT: colorful, ornate, weak
D: c. 470 B.C.E.
A: Etruscan Civilization
OL: Tarquinia, Italy
M: tufa and fresco T: carving
F: The Tomb of the Triclinium was built as a burial chamber.
C: It is so named because its frescoes may have once featured three couches like triclinums, dining rooms from ancient Greece and Rome. The frescoes depict a banquet and people dancing to music. It is a single large chamber
DT: flat figures, lively, checkered ceiling and floors
M: This hints at the cheerful burial rituals of the Etrucans, celebrating a last meal with the deceased.
Idealized human form
Temples influence european architecture
D: c. 460-450 B.C.E. P/S: 5th to 4th centuries B.C.E./Early Classical
A: Anonymous Greek painter known as the Niobid Painter
M: Clay T: Red-figure
F: Calyx kraters were used to dilute wine with water.
C: The early Classical was characterized by the beginning of the development of motion, but the characters still retain some stiffness, evidence of previous times. This vase may have been influenced by the murals of the Greek painter Polygnotus, although this cannot be confirmed because all of Polygnotus’s works have been lost.
DT: Violent, military, contrasting, slightly stiff
M: This krater shows the power of the gods. It shows that they were vengeful if humans boasted or insulted them but would aid the humans if the humans respected the gods.
Media: The sculpture is 213 cm long; ratio of head to body is 1:7. The original Greek sculpture was carved from bronze. The many copies were mainly carved from marble.
a. Acropolis plan
c. Helios, horses, and Dionysus (Heracles?)
d. Temle of Athena Nike
e. Victory adjusting her sandal
f. Plaque of the Ergastines
A: Iktinos and Kallikrates
Pa: Goddess Athena (deity built for)
OL: Athens, Greece in the small fortress on top of the hill.
M: Marble stone
T: Ionic columns, elaborate friezes, religiously biased art, scale of construction, vertical columns and horizontally placed slabs of rock.
F: Religious Temple to worship Athena (goddess of wisdom)
C: During this time period Athenian power was at its strongest so they built structures to demonstrate this control and dominance. Just before introduction of Roman style on a large scale, so was able to keep from Roman style influences. The temples design was made to give it a heaven on earth feel, Gods and humans at same level, empowerment.
DT: grand, religious, equal, balance, solid
M: Its grand stature can be contributed to the period in which it was built because during 500-400 B.C.E Athenian power was at its peak and this is one of the many landmarks that demonstrated this power. This temple is also very significant because it was dedicated to the Athena, the Greek goddess of Wisdom. This luxurious temple is completely made out of marble and features simple stylistic techniques, such as vertical columns with horizontally laid stone to show balance and equality. Also there is a very unique and technical design on the horizontally laid stone which was most likely placed on there to give the temple a grand and unearthly feeling (to make it feel suitable for only the gods).
Period/Style: Hellenistic Greek
Patron: the kings of fourth century Macedonia
Original Location: Island of Samothrace, Greece
Material: Parian marble for the statue and gray Rhodian marble for the boat and base.
Technique: Each section was separately carved then assembled, a characteristic of the Hellenistic period.
Function: statue for worship to the goddess of Victory
Context: The woman sculpted is the Greek goddess of Victory, and she is presented here with wings and on a battleship. The Hellenistic period was abundant with naval battles so these ships played an important role in society as well in the art society, because these new naval innovations prompted architects to create better warships. The Greek gods and goddesses also played a huge role in society. The Greeks represented concepts such as Peace, Fortune, Vengeance, and Justice as goddesses at a very early date. Victory (the goddess in the statue) was one of the earliest of these. She is a female figure with large wings that enable her to fly over the earth spreading news of victory, whether in athletic competition or in battle.
Descriptive Terms: symmetrical balance, organic lines, gold and silver color spectrum, geometric naval ship design
Meaning: statue worshiped by citizens of Samothrace in hope of bringing victory in battles to them, a good luck statue.
OL: Pergamon, Asia Minor (present-day Turkey)
M: Marble T: Colonnades, portrait sculptures
F: Honor the Greek victories against barbaric warriors. Also a place of sacrifice
C: The Greeks finally won countless victories against barbarians.
DT: Godly, heroic, ideal, adventure; victorious
M: The frieze sculptures show the fight of the gods (Greeks) and the giants (barbarians). Zeus defeats mother Earth, Gaia, which symbolizes the end of matriarchy government and culture. The win also represents a switch of a barbaric world to a more civilized one.
P. Imperial Roman
A: Unknown Architects
Pa: The Vetti Brothers (Aulus Vettius Conviva and his brother, Aulus Vettius Restitutus)
OL: Pompeii, Italy ( Ancient Rome)
M: Cut stone and fresco
T: (wall paintings: first, second, third and fourth style)
F: provide sheltering for the Vetti brothers (also serves as an example of daily life in Rome since the house was so well preserved)
C: The house was built atop the remains of an earlier house that survives, in part, in the form of the wings (alae) and a doorway. The plan of the House of the Vetti has two large central halls (atria) and, significantly, lacks an office space (tablinum). Entry to the house was gained from the east by way of a vestibule that granted admission to the larger atrium. The stone-lined basin for collecting rainwater (impluvium) lies at the center of the atrium.
DT: alae, atria, tablinum, impluvium
M: To convey the wealth of the brothers
Attribution: House of the Vettii. Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Roman. c. second century B.C.E. rebuilt c. 62-79C.E. Cut stone and fresco
Context: The House of the Vettii is a Roman townhouse located within the ruined ancient city of Pompeii, Italy. A volcanic eruption destroyed Pompeii in the year 79 C.E., therefore, preserving archaeological remains of the Roman town as it was at the time of its destruction. The house is named for its owners, two successful freedmen: Aulus Vettius Conviva and Aulus Vettius Restitutus. Its careful excavation has preserved almost all of the wall frescos, which were completed following the earthquake of 62 C.E., in the manner art historians term the “Pompeiian Fourth Style.” Those remains constitute a nearly unparalleled resource for the study of the Roman world
A: Philoxenos of Eretrea(only believed to be)
OL: Pompeii, Italy
M: Small mosaic tiles T: Tesserae mosaic
F: To portray the Battle of Issus
C: Made in the House of Faun which was the Largest house found in Pompeii. The house is thought to be built shortly after the Roman conquest of Pompeii and the mosaic proves the wealth and power of the most likely Roman ruling class inhabitant of the home.4
DT: Mosaic, Battle, Roman, Ruling class
M: : It is believed to show the Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and the Persian King Darius III in the year 333BCE
Late Classical 400-323
OL: Discovered on the slopes of the Quirinal, Rome.
M: Bronze statue inlaid with copper.
T: Lost wax technique.
F: Possibly made to be votive/dedicated by a victorious boxer.
C: Rome had been conquered by Alexander the Great of Greece, after his death (Hellenistic Period) this art focused on realism.
DT: Stiff, free-standing, rigid, ready, victorious, proportionate
M: Votive demonstrating the appreciation for fighters which was a way of entertainment and distraction in Hellenistic Greece.
Period / Style: Hellenistic Period, verism
Patron: Emperor AUgustus
Original Location: Otricoli, Italy
Technique: Veristic portrait
Function: To illustrate the idealistic physical appearance at the time which is
old face that indicated how wise they are
Context: Roman Emperor Augustus admired Greek verism and he
encouraged sculptors to promote and adopt to verism
Descriptive Terms: Exhausted, serious, experienced, determined, loyal
Meaning: That the old ones are the wisest and expresses the tradition of
Pa: Emperor Augustus.
OL: Unknown (found in his wife’s villa at Prima Porta).
M: White marble. T: Marble sculpture.
F: Used to send a political message and spread propaganda for the emperor.
C: Original was dedicated to Augustus by the Senate and placed in a public place, probably to
help spread support for him. Augustus was old at the time be he was portrayed as a young
man in order to help strengthen his political message. Cupid was depicted at Augustus’s feet
to show his divinity. (Cupid was the son of the God Venus from whom Augustus’s family
was supposed to be descendants of).
DT: Organic shapes and lines, extremely detailed, and roughly symmetric except for
Augustus’s raised arm and cupid at his feet.
M: The meaning of this work was to spread Augustus’s image in order to gain the support of
A: Multiple Authors
Pa: Emperor Vespasian ( From Spoils of war after conquest of Jerusalem)
OL: Rome, Italy
M: Limestone, Concrete, Tuff, Tiles, Mortar T: Use of concrete, elaborate support pillars
F: Source of entertainment for the roman peoples
C: Used as a place for entertainment for the peoples of Rome after the successful conquest of Jerusalem.
DT: Ionic, Doric, Corinthian, Tremendous, Concrete, Mortar, Circular, Tunnels, Hypogeum, Arena
M: Romans believed that in order to keep the people happy you had to give them “Bread and Circus” and this was their way of supplying the people with entertainment(“Circus”).
Date: 113 C.E.
Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus
Patron: King Trajan
Original Location: Center of royal court Rome, Italy
P/S: Roman Realism
Technique: Practicalism, spiral frieze
Descriptive Terms: Reliefs, Illustrated Scroll, Spiral Frieze, Episodes
Context: Placed in the middle for all to see
Meaning: The meaning was to celebrate the kings victories over the dacians
D:118-125 C.E. P/S: Roman
A: ordered to be built by Emperor Hadrian
Pa: Roman Gods
M: Roman concrete and marble T: N/A
F: served as a place to worship Roman Gods
C: Created in order to replace the original Pantheon buil in 80 A.D. Used to show the power of the emperor and the importance of Roman Gods in Roman society.
DT: symmetric and geometric, oculus, detailed and percise
M: used as a place for worship of the Roman Gods
OL: Tomb near the Porta Tiburtina
T: Drill work, figures out completely out of the background.
F: Sarcophagus for burying a dead person.
C: By the 3rd century burial of the dead was common and taking the place of cremation.
DT: Intertwined, anticlassical, background-less, free-standing
M: Meant to be a memorial of the battle between Romans and Barbarians, depicted the message of triumph over death.