AP Art History Period 1 & 2

Key Ideas Prehistoric
Cave paintings and sculptures
Little known about meaning
Buildings show abilities of prehistoric ppl
Apollo 11 stones. Namibia. C.25000 BCE Charcoal on stone
Apollo 11 stones. Namibia. C.25000 BCE Charcoal on stone
N: Apollo 11 Stones
D: 25,500 – 25,300 B.C.E P/S: Patheolic Era
A: Bushmen indigenous people
PA: Unknown
OL: Nile River
M: Stone, charcoal, and ocher T: Rock painting
F: Depict daily life
C: Homo sapiens at the time were able to create symbolic art and have the capacity to percieve abstract art
DT: Hand painted
M: Drawing of an animal the person encountered
Great Hall of the Bulls. Lascaux, France. Paleolithic Europe. 15000 BCE Rock painting
Great Hall of the Bulls. Lascaux, France. Paleolithic Europe. 15000 BCE Rock painting
Name: Great Hall of the Bulls
Date: 13000 B.C.E.
Artist: Uknown
Patron: Uknown
Original Location: Lascaux, France
Material: Chalk on Rock
P/S: Cave Drawing
Technique: Side Front view
Descriptive Terms: side front view, overcrossing drawings
Context: Most likely whenever they saw something in the wild they drew it in a cave
Meaning: The meaning was probably to record what types of animals were in their hunting area
We will write a custom essay sample on
AP Art History Period 1 & 2
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine. Tequicquiac, central Mexico. 14000 BCE Bone, pigment on rock
Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine. Tequicquiac, central Mexico. 14000 BCE Bone, pigment on rock
N: Camelid Sacrum in the Shape of a Canine
D: 14,000-7,000 B.C.E P/S: Prehistoric
A: unknown
Pa: unknown
OL: Tequixquiac, central Mexico
M: Camelid bone Sacrum
T: no known technique, however it was carved
F: The function has been discussed over the years the most likely reason of the carving is for religious reasons wanting to respect the animals around them (just speculation).
C: This work was very significant for this region and this time period because it was one of the first known works of art. As well it showed that the people living in this region had started too developed intellectually and were aware of the surroundings around them. The inhabitants were interacting with the animal’s native to their area.
DT: The bone is a Camelid Sacrum, which is a bone located at the base of the spine or near the pelvic area of an animal that is in close relation to a Camel.
M: As said before there is much speculation on meaning of the art work for example, people believe it may have been used as a hunting mask, as well as religious reasons.
Running horned woman Tassili n'Ajjer, Algeria. 6000 BCE
Running horned woman Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria. 6000 BCE
N: Running Horned Woman
D: 6000-4000 BCE P/S: Prehistoric Cave Painting
A: unknown
Pa: n/a
OL: Tassili n’ Ajjer, Algeria
M: pigment on rock T: Cave painting
F: to describe a ceremonial tradition or to identify a religious significant figure
C: At this time, people knew little of their surrounding world, and relied on these religious deities to provide for their basic needs. It was found in a cave, so the artist(s) intended to protect the art which indicates it was valued.
DT: organic lines used on the body, rough texture, large scale painting, no depth
M: to show the significance of religion in early societies and the important the hunter gatherers played on society
Bushel with ibex motifs. Susa, Iran. 4200-3500 B.C.E. Painted terra cotta.
Bushel with ibex motifs. Susa, Iran. 4200-3500 B.C.E. Painted terra cotta.
Anthropomorphic stele. Arabian Peninsula. Fourth millennium B.C.E. Sandstone.
Anthropomorphic stele. Arabian Peninsula. Fourth millennium B.C.E. Sandstone.
Jade cong. Liangzhu, China. 3300-2200 B.C.E. Carved jade.
Jade cong. Liangzhu, China. 3300-2200 B.C.E. Carved jade.
Date: 3300-2200 B.C.E. Period/Style: Prehistoric
Original Location: Liangzhu, China
Technique: It was crafted out of true jade, also known as nephrite, which is very hard to cut into due to its sturdiness. So to create the designs, sand was rubbed into the stone very carefully.
Function: Originally made to be decorative, with lines and circles on the exterior. The pieces of jade cong on display in the British Museum were found in graves, with no traces of written records explaining the pieces. Used two distinct types of ritual jade objects: a disc, later known as a bi, and a tube, later known as a cong, of square cross-section, pierced with a circular hole.
Context: Jade cong was originally made in the Chinese civilization of Liangzhu, located near the Yangzi river, near what is now Shanghai. The Liangzhu people were very good cultivators of rice. Their knowledge in the crop allowed for a surplus of rice to be grown, resulting in the ability for their society to become sophisticated. Their art pieces were created during the Neolithic Revolution, a time when writing was developed.
Descriptive Terms: Jade cong are often square shaped, with hollow tubes in the center. Symmetric, organic lines, inorganic lines, geometric shapes, and organic shapes
Meaning: The purpose and meaning of the pieces of why it was produced is still unknown. However, it is thought that the circles are representations of faces. The corners of most cong are decorated with faces, shown through eyes and parallel bars.
Stonehenge. Wiltshire, UK. Neolithic Europe. c. 2500-1600 B.C.E. Sandstone.
Stonehenge. Wiltshire, UK. Neolithic Europe. c. 2500-1600 B.C.E. Sandstone.
N: Stonehenge
D: 3000 B.C. P/S: Global prehistory (circular monument)
A: Celtic Priests
Pa: unknown
OL: located in England
M: Sarsen Stones T: Symmetry
F: Used as a giant clock for the seasons most likely or could be an ancient burial site
C: The rocks are lined up so on the summer solstice light shines right through the middle to display the time of year.
DT: Stone, circular, pillars, symmetric, inorganic, burial ground, solstice, and religious.
M: Their society was based on agriculture, so the knowledge of the seasons was crucial to their survival. Stonehenge served the same purpose as a sundial.
The Ambum Stone. Ambum Valley, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea. c. 1500 B.C.E. Greywacke.
The Ambum Stone. Ambum Valley, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea. c. 1500 B.C.E. Greywacke.
Context: It was discovered in 1960s, and it is one of the earliest known Pacific works of art from 3500 years ago. Although function of such artifact is unknown, considering that Papuan’s ancient mortals and pestles were in forms of birds, this ambum stone might as well be a pestle. However, this ambum stone has advanced level of figurative qualities than other pestles so other possibility is that it my have served as a sacred object. To support this, the ambum stone especially assembles a long-beaked echidna which is considered sacred and perceived with supernatural powers by present day people of the region where they are used as spirit stones in sorcery and other rituals
Media: Greywacke Stone
Tlatilco female figurine. Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco. 1200-900 B.C.E. Ceramic.
Tlatilco female figurine. Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco. 1200-900 B.C.E. Ceramic.
N: Tlatilco Female Figurines
D: 1200-900BCE P/S: Pre-Classical period of Pre-Colombian Mesoamerican art
A: Unknown people of the Tlatilco region
PA: none
OL: Central Mexico at site of Tlatilco(The word tlatilco comes from the Nahuatl language which is the language of those who found the ruins of tlatilco; Tlatilco means “the place of hidden things”))
M: Ceramic, 3-12 inches tall
F: Used as a symbol of fertility, maternity and as a charm for women.
C: The tlatilco people had been noted for high quality pottery pieces and had a chiefdom center and complicated burials with grave offerings using ritual and utilitarian ceramics.
DT: Matriarchy, fertility, symbol, charm, exaggerated sexual features
M: Believed to be a symbol of fertility/maternity and suggest a rare possibility of a more matriarchal society.
Terra cotta fragment. Lapita. Solomon Islands, Reef Islands. 1000 B.C.E. Terra cotta (incised).
Terracotta Fragment

Artist: Unkown, Lapita people

DOC: 1000 B.C.E

Period: Neolithic

Style:

Technique:

Material: Terracotta

Patron:

Origin: Lapita, New Caledonia

Context:
The patterns were incised into the pots before firing with a comblike tool used to stamp designs into the wet clay. Each stamp consisted of a single design element that was combined with others to form elaborate patterns.

Meaning:
One of the finest examples of the Lapita potter’s art, this fragment depicts a human face incorporated into the intricate geometric designs characteristic of the Lapita ceramic tradition.

Key Ideas of Middle East
Birth of art in state and religion
Buildings created for religion (mud-brick)
Stelai = commemoration of rulers
Guardian figures (usually hybrids) protected impt sites
Innovations and Characteristics
Urbanization
Humans depicted
Writing
Realistic figures acting out narratives
Hierarchy of scale
Deification of rulers
White Temple and its ziggurat. Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq). Sumerian. c. 3500-3000 B.C.E. Mud brick.
White Temple and its ziggurat. Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq). Sumerian. c. 3500-3000 B.C.E. Mud brick.
N: White Temple and it’s Ziggurats
P: 3500-3000 B.C.E. P/S: 1st Period Mesopotamian art
A: Government hired architect(s)
P: Uruk government: all citizens of Uruk
OL: City of Uruk, present day Warka, Iraq
M: White Mud bricks for Temple, baked bricks for ziggurat
T: Layered bricks to create its massive structure
F: Place to perform various rituals to the city god, Amu; sacrifice animals and pray to gods. Only select few high religious authorities could enter. Shows massive power.
C: Huge size and white color atop allowed for it to be spotted from a distance. Reflects dedication to the city god Amu.
Dt: Base ziggurat on bottom and white temple atop. 210ft. by 150ft. ziggurat base and temple 40ft. above ground 60ft. by 16ft. Large, located on flat surroundings.
M: Shows dedication to god Amu and power standing of the city
Palette of King Narmer. Predynastic Egypt. c. 3000-2920 B.C.E. Greywacke.
Palette of King Narmer. Predynastic Egypt. c. 3000-2920 B.C.E. Greywacke.
Statues of votive figures, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar, Iraq). Sumerian. c. 2700 B.C.E. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone.
Statues of votive figures, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar, Iraq). Sumerian. c. 2700 B.C.E. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone.
Name: Statues of Votive Figures
Date: c2700 B.C.E.
Artist: probably skill workers of tribe
Patron: Leader of the tribe
Original Location: in an ancient temple
Material: black shells
P/S: Sumerian
Technique: Subtractive method
Descriptive Terms: simplified pessimistic conical
Context: size could enforce hierarchy
Meaning: The meaning was to create something that they could use to pray to the gods away from home
Seated scribe. Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2620-2500 B.C.E. Painted limestone.
Seated scribe. Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2620-2500 B.C.E. Painted limestone.
N: 15. Seated Scribe
D: 2620-2500 BCE P/S: Old Kingdom
A: Unknown
Pa: Unknown
OL: Saqqara, Egypt
M: Painted Limestone T: Shaped Limestone
F: Signify the high social status of scribes
C: It shows how scribes were general wealthy and and respected members of society
DT: Egypt, Limestone, Jewels, Saqqara, Old Kingdom, Scribe, and Wealth
M: Scribes had to go through extensive training in order to become one and were respected by the level of work that they went through.
Standard of Ur from the Royal Tombs at Ur (modern Tell el-Muqayyar, Iraq). Sumerian. c. 2600-2400 B.C.E. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone.
Standard of Ur from the Royal Tombs at Ur (modern Tell el-Muqayyar, Iraq). Sumerian. c. 2600-2400 B.C.E. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone.
Media: This piece has two sides. The end panels are covered with figurative and geometric mosaics which are made of: pieces of shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone set into bitumen.

Size: 8.5 Inches high by 19.5 Inches long

Context: The mosaics represent life in early Mesopotamia. One side represents the “War Side” (which shows the defeat of some unknown enemy) while the other is the “Peace Side” (which shows the bounty of the land). This narrates a story from the bottom to the top. For example, the top register on each side depicts a king, who is larger in scale than the other figures (it represents/symbolizes his power). The Standard shows the two most important roles of an early Mesopotamian ruler: the warrior (protects people and secured access to water and natural resources) and the leader (served as an intermediary between the people and the gods.)

Key Ideas Egyptian Art
Elaborate funerary practices
Broad frontal shoulders and profiled heads, torsos, and legs
OK= unyielding stance and formidable expressions
MK= more relaxed and emotional
NK= rounded and elongated figures
Time Period 3000-30 BCE
Old 2575-2134
Middle 2040-1640
New 150-1070
Great Pyramids (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx. Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2550-2490 B.C.E. Cut limestone.
Great Pyramids (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx. Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2550-2490 B.C.E. Cut limestone.
N: Great Pyramids and Great Sphinx of Giza
D: c. 2550 B.C P/S: Old Kingdom
A: Citizens of Giza, Egypt
PA: Pharaoh Khufu, Pharaoh Khafre, Pharaoh Menkaure
OL: Giza, Egypt
M: Soapstone T: Carved out from rock, construction
F: To honor the pharaohs
C: Created to honor the pharaohs and display their political power
DT: Sculpture, Architecture
M: To represent the enudrance of the land and the people of Giza throughout the invasions and times of trouble
King Menkaura and queen. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2490-2472 B.C.E. Greywacke.
King Menkaura and queen. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2490-2472 B.C.E. Greywacke.
D: 2490-2472 B.C.E P/S: 4th Dynasty Royal Sculpture
OL: Menkaura Valley Temple
M: Greywacke
F: He represents the epitome of kingship and ideal human form. She represents the ideal female form.
C: Both figures represent the ideal form for both genders.
DT: Vertical Grid, counter balancing horizontals, stiff, artificial posture.
M: Hs broad shoulders, taut torso, and muscular arms and legs, all modeled with subtlety and restraint, convey a latent length. In contrast, her narrow shoulders and slim body, whose contours are apparent under the tight fitting sheath dress, represents the Egyptian ideal femininity. As in standard for sculptures of Egyptian men, his left foot is advanced, although his weight remains on the right foot. Egyptian females are shown with both feet together. Although they stand together sharing a common base and back slab, and she embraces him, they remain aloof and share no emotion, either with the viewer or each other.
The Code of Hammurabi. Babylon (modern Iran). Susian. c. 1792-1750 B.C.E. Basalt.
The Code of Hammurabi. Babylon (modern Iran). Susian. c. 1792-1750 B.C.E. Basalt.
Name: The Code of Hammurabi

Date: 1750 BC Period/Style:

Artist: Hammurabi

Patron: The people of ancient Mesopotamia

Original Location: Ancient Mesopotamia

Material: Diorite and basalt Technique:

Function: The function was to set down a reasonable and unchanging set of laws that addressed the problems in the high kingdom.

Context/Relevant Ideas: The upper portion of the Code of Hammurabi is Hammurabi himself receiving a ring and receptor (law codes).

Descriptive Terms:

Meaning: The meaning of the Code of Hammurabi is to keep a formal legal code for the people of ancient Mesopotamia.

Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall. Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th and 19th Dynasties. Temple: c. 1550 B.C.E.; hall: c. 1250 B.C.E. Cut sandstone and mud brick.
Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall. Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th and 19th Dynasties. Temple: c. 1550 B.C.E.; hall: c. 1250 B.C.E. Cut sandstone and mud brick.
Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1473-1458 B.C.E. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite.
Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1473-1458 B.C.E. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite.
Temple of of hatshepsput
Attribution:
Motuary temple of Hatshepsut. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. Circa 1473-1458 B.C.E. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite.

Context:
Constructed by Hatshepsuts royal architect Senenmut, the Motuary temple of Hatshepsut also known as Djeser-Djeseru (“Holy of Holies”). Hatshepsut initially ruled as regent for her step son Thuthmosis III but promoted herself to the role of pharaoh instead of passing power to him when he came to age. The temple is three stories high dedicated to her burial area, devoted not only to her funeral cult, but also to the cults of Amon and of other gods. Thus, guardians have been arranged on each story. The central ramps lead to the second and first terraces, the walls are supported by a row of square pillars. A statue of Horus as a falcon stands at each side of the entrance to the ramp. The bottom columns end with both sides depicting huge Osiris statues of the queen. The Hathor Chapel is found on the south side of the second level and the Anubis chapel is found to the north end of the second colonnade. The birth colonnade is on the right hand side of the ramp to the third level. At the birth colonnade, inscriptions written on the walls depict Hatsheptut’s divine birth.

Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters. New Kingdom (Amarna), 18th Dynasty. c. 1353-1335 B.C.E. Limestone.
Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters. New Kingdom (Amarna), 18th Dynasty. c. 1353-1335 B.C.E. Limestone.
Date: 1353 BCE Period/Style: Egyptian
Artist: Unknown
Patron: Akhenaton
Original Location: Amarna, Egypt
Material: Painted limestone Technique: Sunken relief
Function: Depict a family portrait possibly capturing a joyous moment from Akhenaton
Context: Family of Akhenaton are basking in the sun rays of Aton, the sun god that Akhenaton makes up. He is also noted for leaving behind traditional Egyptian polytheism. Instead he encouraged worship around the god Aton. He attempted to leave the traditional religion, but not accepted.
Descriptive Terms: Sunken relief, iconography
Meaning: In the piece the depiction of the 2 larger human subjects create a sense of a couple, their relationship, and their domestic love. The piece also suggests that god is present. By looking closely into the sun, a cobra can be seen which is the symbol for a supreme deity, the only deity showing his monotheism during this time period. The ends of the suns rays near the 2 larger human subjects have hands on the end, this is a way live life to the people. Therefore giving them the breath of life. In the sculpture a very intimate moment was depicted; as Akhenaton makes a motion for his daughter to kiss him while Nefertiti is holding the other 2 children in the picture. Lastly, by including the whole family, the unknown artist is able to show that they would be ruling Egypt together.
Tutankhamun's tomb, innermost coffin. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1323 B.C.E. Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones.
Tutankhamun’s tomb, innermost coffin. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1323 B.C.E. Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones.
D: ca. 1323 BCE P/S: New Kingdom (Amarna Style)
A: unknown
Pa: unknown
OL: The Valley of the Kings, Egypt
M: beaten gold and inlaid with semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli, turquoise, and carnelian
T: made of wood, which was then heavily decorated on the outside with both paint and gold leaf
F: During the 18th Dynasty the outer sarcophagus enclosed a series of inner coffins, the last of which would contain the royal mummy of the Pharaoh. The purpose of the King Tut sarcophagus was therefore the external layer of protection for the royal mummy of Tutankhamun.
C: Was perfectly preserved when found in 1922. The coffin gives people insight on Ancient Egyptian burial customs, and expresses Egyptian power and affluence. Have influences of traditional ancient Egyptian art and of the Amarna style.
DT: anthropoid (resembling human), ethereal, detailed, smooth
M: It was sculpted in the image of Tutankhamun as Osiris, the god who presided over the judgment of the dead. He carries a crook and flail (worn by the god Osiris and the pharaoh), and wears the royal beard and a nemes head cloth – pharaohs wanted to imitate gods to connect to them and be like them. On either side of him, Isis and Nephthys spread their wings in a protective embrace.
Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb (page from the Book of the Dead). New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty. c. 1275 B.C.E. Painted papyrus scroll
Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb (page from the Book of the Dead). New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty. c. 1275 B.C.E. Painted papyrus scroll
24. Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb (page from the Book of the Dead). New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty.
c. 1275 B.C.E. Painted papyrus scroll.

N: The Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer
D: c.1275 BCE p/s: New Kingdom, 19th dynasty; traditional Egyptian
A: Unknown
P: Hu-Nefer
OL: New Kingdom of Egypt
M: Vegetable gum painted on papyrus scroll T: twist perspective
F: Final judgment of the deceased
C: The Book of the Dead was a collection of funerary spells and prayers used in Egypt. Anubis is the god of embalming; Maat is the goddess of truth and right; Ammit devours sins; Thoth is the god who records preceedings.
DT: Abstract figures; conservative; traditional; hieroglyphs
M: Anubis leads Hu-Nefer into a hall of judgment. Anubis adjusts the scales to weigh Hu-Nefer’s heart against Maat’s feather. Ammit, half-lion and half hippopotamus, awaits the decision of the scales. Hu-Nefer is awarded eternal life from Thoth.

Lamassu from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad, Iraq). Neo-Assyrian. c. 720-705 B.C.E. Alabaster
D: c. 720-705 B.C.E. P/S: Neo-Assyrian
A: Unknown
Pa: Assyrian rulers
OL: Dur Sharrukin, modern day Iraq
M: Alabaster
T: Alabaster carving.
F: Lamassu were used to protect the city from evil spirits.
C: During this time period Assyria was the most influential and powerful empire in Mesopotamia, they created lamassu to demonstrate their power and also to be protected by them.
DT: Inorganic, spiritual, protective, strong, natural, hybrid
M: Lamassu were placed at the entrance of Sargon II’s palace to protect him from both spiritual and mortal enemies.
Athenian agora. Archaic through Hellenistic Greek. 600 B.C.E.-150 C.E. Plan.
NAME: The Athenian Agora (Forum of Athens)

DATE: 6th century BCE PERIOD/STYLE: Classical Greece ARTIST: organized by Peisistratos (r. 567 – 521 BCE)

PATRON: Peisistratos ORIGINAL LOCATION: along the main road in Athens, the Panathenaic Way, northwest of the Acropolis

MATERIAL: marble TECHNIQUE: carving of marble to the precision and excellence characteristic of Greek architecture

FUNCTION: serve as the center of political and public life in Athens

CONTEXT: Peisistratos, during his reign, attempted to assert his tyranny over Athens; this is exemplified by his destruction of the primitive Agora in another part of the city and the construction, he ordered, of a new Agora in the center of the city

DESCRIPTIVE TERMS: was a large, open area surrounded by buildings of various functions, all utilized for commercial, political, religious, and military activity; buildings included the Peristyle Court, Mint, Strategeion (where Athenian generals convened), and multiple temples dedicated to the Olympian deities, with individual temples for Ares, Zeus, Apollo, and Hephaestus

MEANING: The destruction of private homes, along the general construction of the new Agora served as a political statement to strengthen and consolidate Peisistratos’ political influence before assertion of his tyranny. Also, the expansive range of temples to the Olympian gods and goddesses, as well as the Agora’s relative proximity to the Acropolis, displays the cultural significance of the Greek religion. Furthermore, the central positioning of the Agora along the main road of Athens was a shrewd decision by Peisistratos, as it further supported his political legitimacy by displaying that the Agora was both a literal and figurative “heart” of the city-state

Anavysos Kouros. Archaic Greek. c. 530 B.C.E. Marble with remnants of paint
Peplos Kore from the Acropolis. Archaic Greek. c. 530 B.C.E. Marble, painted details.
D: 530 B.C.E.

P/S: Archaic period, Attica style

A: Unknown, most likely a citizen of Greece

P: Possibly the goddess Athena

OL: Athens, Greece

M: Marble

T: Sculpture

F: The most commonly believed function of the figure was to serve as a statue of the goddess Athena

C: This figure was named after the characteristics that describe it. A Peplos is a Greek costume of rectangular clothe and a kore is a clothed, female figure. The figure is believed to be a representation of the Greek goddess Athens, and many examples prove this to be true – the sculpture was once fully painted, and the figure originally held a bow and arrows, both contributing to the possibility that the figure could have been a depiction of a goddess. Also, the fact that she is fully clothed and that the kore was a commonly sculpted figure during that period shows that women were hardly displayed in art as nude figures during that time.

DT: Symmetrical balance shown through posture, organic, curvy lines, rough texture felt by the hardness of the marble, archaic smile suggests that she did not live in world full of emotion, but rose above that level to a more divine state of being.

M: Strong evidence and analysis have shown that the Peplos Kore was probably a replication of the figure of the Greek goddess, Athens. The intended message behind the erection of this figure was to most likely promote the worship of this goddess and encourage the practice of the state religion throughout the area. The fact that a representation of a Greek goddess was incorporated into form of a kore, a standard female figure that was widely erected throughout Greece during the Archaic period, shows that the artist felt it quite necessary to make the goddess’s presence felt throughout the region.

Sarcophagus of the Spouses. Etruscan. c. 520 B.C.E. Terra cotta.
Late 6th century BC Etruscan, painted
terracotta with style similar to other etruscan sculptures.
D: 520 BC
A:Unknown
OL:Etruscan city of Caere
M: The Sarcophagus of the Spouses has been interpreted as belonging to a banqueting scene, with the couple reclining together on a single dining couch while eating and drinking. Used for funerary purposes possibly.
T: Standard etruscan style terracotta sculpture.
F: Possibly used for funerary purposes or decoration.
C: Painted terracotta played a key role in the culture of Etruria, this work would have been an elite
commision for the difficulty of creating a sculpture of its size with limited resources.
Audience Hall (apadana) of Darius and Xerxes. Persepolis, Iran. Persian. c. 520-465 B.C.E. Limestone.
N: Audience Hall (apadana)
P: 520-465 B.C.E
A: Unknown
P: Darius and Xerxes
OL: Persian city of Persepolis
M: Limestone
T: Stone masonary/ stone carving
F: to act as a central location for subject nations to bring tribute and exchange gifts
C: Tall central hall with 72 columns and stairs leading to the main enterance
DT: Walls engraving with hundreds of figures which illustrate multiple ethnic groups paying tribute . Stairs leading up to the main central hall, over 20m high and 1000 sq foot.
M: symbol of the kings power because gift exchange was one of the central elements in Persian style.
Temple of Minerva (Veii, near Rome, Italy) and sculpture of Apollo. Master sculptor Vulca. c. 510-500 B.C.E. Original temple of wood, mud brick, or tufa (volcanic rock); terra cotta sculpture.
D: 510-500 B.C.E.
P/S: Ancient Greek
A: Architect unknown, Sculptor of statues: Master sculptor Vulca
P: Unknown
OL: Etruscan Society
M: The Temple of Minerva and the sculpture of Apollo was built most likely from wood, mud, brick, or tufa (volcanic rock), and stone as the flooring. Because of the materials used the buildings didn’t not serve the elements well. Leading to the destruction of all temples.
T: Much of the technique used was described in, De Architecture by Vitruvius. The building laid on a thick stone layer with tufa, wood, etc., for the walls and roofs. This particular temple is the foundation that lead to the understanding of all similar temples. The building had to parts a wide room that contained columns then a back section split in to three parts. Many terracotta sculptors would line the buildings, evidently some of these sculptors did survive.
F: A place of worship to the female Goddesses Minerva. This was a new style of worship to have a temple specific to the god or goddesses.
C: No remaining Etruscan Temples all destroyed, however many assumptions are made about the layout of them. As well the Apollo statue although damaged did survive in good condition.
DT: colorful, ornate, weak
Tomb of the Triclinium. Tarquinia, Italy. Etruscan. c. 480-470 B.C.E. Tufa and fresco.
N: Tomb of the Trinclinium
D: c. 470 B.C.E.
A: Etruscan Civilization
Pa: N/A
OL: Tarquinia, Italy
M: tufa and fresco T: carving
F: The Tomb of the Triclinium was built as a burial chamber.
C: It is so named because its frescoes may have once featured three couches like triclinums, dining rooms from ancient Greece and Rome. The frescoes depict a banquet and people dancing to music. It is a single large chamber
DT: flat figures, lively, checkered ceiling and floors
M: This hints at the cheerful burial rituals of the Etrucans, celebrating a last meal with the deceased.
Key Ideas Greek
Introduction of classical art
Idealized human form
Temples influence european architecture
Niobides Krater. Anonymous vase painter of Classical Greece known as the Niobid Painter. c. 460-450 B.C.E. Clay, red-figure technique (white highlights).
N: Niobides Krater
D: c. 460-450 B.C.E. P/S: 5th to 4th centuries B.C.E./Early Classical
A: Anonymous Greek painter known as the Niobid Painter
Pa: Unknown
OL: Unknown
M: Clay T: Red-figure
F: Calyx kraters were used to dilute wine with water.
C: The early Classical was characterized by the beginning of the development of motion, but the characters still retain some stiffness, evidence of previous times. This vase may have been influenced by the murals of the Greek painter Polygnotus, although this cannot be confirmed because all of Polygnotus’s works have been lost.
DT: Violent, military, contrasting, slightly stiff
M: This krater shows the power of the gods. It shows that they were vengeful if humans boasted or insulted them but would aid the humans if the humans respected the gods.
Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Polykleitos. Original 450-440 B.C.E. Roman copy (marble) of Greek original (bronze).
Context: The original was sculpted by the Greek sculptor Polykleitos. His wish was to create a sculpture encompassing the perfect balance and proportions of the human body. Doryphorus depicts a warrior going out to battle. He can be seen as an idealized version of a Grecian man- the type of man that people idolize and strive to be but can never reach. The original sculpture has never been uncovered; many suspect that it had been destroyed. The piece lives on through the multiple marble copies made by other sculptors. There are copies currently housed in the Minneapolis institute of Arts, the Munich Museum, and more.
Media: The sculpture is 213 cm long; ratio of head to body is 1:7. The original Greek sculpture was carved from bronze. The many copies were mainly carved from marble.
Acropolis. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. c. 447-424 B.C.E. Marble.
a. Acropolis plan
b. Parthenon
c. Helios, horses, and Dionysus (Heracles?)
d. Temle of Athena Nike
e. Victory adjusting her sandal
f. Plaque of the Ergastines
D: 447-424 B.C.E P/S: Height of Athenian Power/ Classical Greek Style
A: Iktinos and Kallikrates
Pa: Goddess Athena (deity built for)
OL: Athens, Greece in the small fortress on top of the hill.
M: Marble stone
T: Ionic columns, elaborate friezes, religiously biased art, scale of construction, vertical columns and horizontally placed slabs of rock.
F: Religious Temple to worship Athena (goddess of wisdom)
C: During this time period Athenian power was at its strongest so they built structures to demonstrate this control and dominance. Just before introduction of Roman style on a large scale, so was able to keep from Roman style influences. The temples design was made to give it a heaven on earth feel, Gods and humans at same level, empowerment.
DT: grand, religious, equal, balance, solid
M: Its grand stature can be contributed to the period in which it was built because during 500-400 B.C.E Athenian power was at its peak and this is one of the many landmarks that demonstrated this power. This temple is also very significant because it was dedicated to the Athena, the Greek goddess of Wisdom. This luxurious temple is completely made out of marble and features simple stylistic techniques, such as vertical columns with horizontally laid stone to show balance and equality. Also there is a very unique and technical design on the horizontally laid stone which was most likely placed on there to give the temple a grand and unearthly feeling (to make it feel suitable for only the gods).
Grave stele of Hegeso. Attributed to Kallimachos. c. 410 B.C.E. Marble and paint.
Winged Victory of Samothrace. Hellenistic Greek. c. 190 B.C.E. Marble.
Date: 190 BCE
Period/Style: Hellenistic Greek
Artist: N/A
Patron: the kings of fourth century Macedonia
Original Location: Island of Samothrace, Greece
Material: Parian marble for the statue and gray Rhodian marble for the boat and base.
Technique: Each section was separately carved then assembled, a characteristic of the Hellenistic period.
Function: statue for worship to the goddess of Victory
Context: The woman sculpted is the Greek goddess of Victory, and she is presented here with wings and on a battleship. The Hellenistic period was abundant with naval battles so these ships played an important role in society as well in the art society, because these new naval innovations prompted architects to create better warships. The Greek gods and goddesses also played a huge role in society. The Greeks represented concepts such as Peace, Fortune, Vengeance, and Justice as goddesses at a very early date. Victory (the goddess in the statue) was one of the earliest of these. She is a female figure with large wings that enable her to fly over the earth spreading news of victory, whether in athletic competition or in battle.
Descriptive Terms: symmetrical balance, organic lines, gold and silver color spectrum, geometric naval ship design
Meaning: statue worshiped by citizens of Samothrace in hope of bringing victory in battles to them, a good luck statue.
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon. Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). Hellenistic Greek. c. 175 B.C.E. Marble (architecture and sculpture).
D: c.175 BCE p/s: Hellenistic
A: Unknown
P: Unknown
OL: Pergamon, Asia Minor (present-day Turkey)
M: Marble T: Colonnades, portrait sculptures
F: Honor the Greek victories against barbaric warriors. Also a place of sacrifice
C: The Greeks finally won countless victories against barbarians.
DT: Godly, heroic, ideal, adventure; victorious
M: The frieze sculptures show the fight of the gods (Greeks) and the giants (barbarians). Zeus defeats mother Earth, Gaia, which symbolizes the end of matriarchy government and culture. The win also represents a switch of a barbaric world to a more civilized one.
House of the Vettii. Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Roman. c. second century B.C.E.; rebuilt c. 62-79 C.E. Cut stone and fresco.
D: c. second century B.C.E. rebuilt c. 62-79C.E.

P. Imperial Roman

A: Unknown Architects

Pa: The Vetti Brothers (Aulus Vettius Conviva and his brother, Aulus Vettius Restitutus)
OL: Pompeii, Italy ( Ancient Rome)

M: Cut stone and fresco
T: (wall paintings: first, second, third and fourth style)

F: provide sheltering for the Vetti brothers (also serves as an example of daily life in Rome since the house was so well preserved)

C: The house was built atop the remains of an earlier house that survives, in part, in the form of the wings (alae) and a doorway. The plan of the House of the Vetti has two large central halls (atria) and, significantly, lacks an office space (tablinum). Entry to the house was gained from the east by way of a vestibule that granted admission to the larger atrium. The stone-lined basin for collecting rainwater (impluvium) lies at the center of the atrium.

DT: alae, atria, tablinum, impluvium

M: To convey the wealth of the brothers

Attribution: House of the Vettii. Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Roman. c. second century B.C.E. rebuilt c. 62-79C.E. Cut stone and fresco
Context: The House of the Vettii is a Roman townhouse located within the ruined ancient city of Pompeii, Italy. A volcanic eruption destroyed Pompeii in the year 79 C.E., therefore, preserving archaeological remains of the Roman town as it was at the time of its destruction. The house is named for its owners, two successful freedmen: Aulus Vettius Conviva and Aulus Vettius Restitutus. Its careful excavation has preserved almost all of the wall frescos, which were completed following the earthquake of 62 C.E., in the manner art historians term the “Pompeiian Fourth Style.” Those remains constitute a nearly unparalleled resource for the study of the Roman world

Key Ideas
Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun, Pompeii. Republican Roman. c. 100 B.C.E. Mosaic.
D: c.100BCE P/S: Late Hellenistic
A: Philoxenos of Eretrea(only believed to be)
Pa: n/a
OL: Pompeii, Italy
M: Small mosaic tiles T: Tesserae mosaic
F: To portray the Battle of Issus
C: Made in the House of Faun which was the Largest house found in Pompeii. The house is thought to be built shortly after the Roman conquest of Pompeii and the mosaic proves the wealth and power of the most likely Roman ruling class inhabitant of the home.4
DT: Mosaic, Battle, Roman, Ruling class
M: : It is believed to show the Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and the Persian King Darius III in the year 333BCE
Time Period
Geometric 900-700
Orientalizing 700-600
Archaic 600-480
Classical 480-400
Late Classical 400-323
Hellenistic 323-30
Seated boxer. Hellenistic Greek. c. 100 B.C.E. Bronze.
D: c. 100 B.C.E P/S: Hellenistic Greece
A: Unknown
Pa: Unknown
OL: Discovered on the slopes of the Quirinal, Rome.
M: Bronze statue inlaid with copper.
T: Lost wax technique.
F: Possibly made to be votive/dedicated by a victorious boxer.
C: Rome had been conquered by Alexander the Great of Greece, after his death (Hellenistic Period) this art focused on realism.
DT: Stiff, free-standing, rigid, ready, victorious, proportionate
M: Votive demonstrating the appreciation for fighters which was a way of entertainment and distraction in Hellenistic Greece.
Head of a Roman patrician. Republican Roman. c. 75-50 B.C.E. Marble.
Date: c. 75- 50 BCE
Period / Style: Hellenistic Period, verism
Artist: Unknown
Patron: Emperor AUgustus
Original Location: Otricoli, Italy
Material: Marbles
Technique: Veristic portrait
Function: To illustrate the idealistic physical appearance at the time which is
old face that indicated how wise they are
Context: Roman Emperor Augustus admired Greek verism and he
encouraged sculptors to promote and adopt to verism
Descriptive Terms: Exhausted, serious, experienced, determined, loyal
Meaning: That the old ones are the wisest and expresses the tradition of
Roman art
Augustus of Prima Porta. Imperial Roman. Early first century C.E. Marble.
D: AD14 – AD 37 (real date unknown) P/S: Early Roman Empire. Classical Greek
style.
A: Unknown.
Pa: Emperor Augustus.
OL: Unknown (found in his wife’s villa at Prima Porta).
M: White marble. T: Marble sculpture.
F: Used to send a political message and spread propaganda for the emperor.
C: Original was dedicated to Augustus by the Senate and placed in a public place, probably to
help spread support for him. Augustus was old at the time be he was portrayed as a young
man in order to help strengthen his political message. Cupid was depicted at Augustus’s feet
to show his divinity. (Cupid was the son of the God Venus from whom Augustus’s family
was supposed to be descendants of).
DT: Organic shapes and lines, extremely detailed, and roughly symmetric except for
Augustus’s raised arm and cupid at his feet.
M: The meaning of this work was to spread Augustus’s image in order to gain the support of
the people.
Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater). Rome, Italy. Imperial Roman. 70-80 C.E. Stone and concrete.
D: 70 AD P/S: Roman Empire (Roman Amphitheatre)
A: Multiple Authors
Pa: Emperor Vespasian ( From Spoils of war after conquest of Jerusalem)
OL: Rome, Italy
M: Limestone, Concrete, Tuff, Tiles, Mortar T: Use of concrete, elaborate support pillars
F: Source of entertainment for the roman peoples
C: Used as a place for entertainment for the peoples of Rome after the successful conquest of Jerusalem.
DT: Ionic, Doric, Corinthian, Tremendous, Concrete, Mortar, Circular, Tunnels, Hypogeum, Arena
M: Romans believed that in order to keep the people happy you had to give them “Bread and Circus” and this was their way of supplying the people with entertainment(“Circus”).
Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets: 106-112 C.E.; column completed 113 C.E. Brick and concrete (architecture); marble (column).
Name: Forum of Trajan
Date: 113 C.E.
Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus
Patron: King Trajan
Original Location: Center of royal court Rome, Italy
Material: Marble
P/S: Roman Realism
Technique: Practicalism, spiral frieze
Descriptive Terms: Reliefs, Illustrated Scroll, Spiral Frieze, Episodes
Context: Placed in the middle for all to see
Meaning: The meaning was to celebrate the kings victories over the dacians
Pantheon. Imperial Roman. 118-125 C.E. Concrete with stone facing.
N: Pantheon
D:118-125 C.E. P/S: Roman
A: ordered to be built by Emperor Hadrian
Pa: Roman Gods
OL: Rome
M: Roman concrete and marble T: N/A
F: served as a place to worship Roman Gods
C: Created in order to replace the original Pantheon buil in 80 A.D. Used to show the power of the emperor and the importance of Roman Gods in Roman society.
DT: symmetric and geometric, oculus, detailed and percise
M: used as a place for worship of the Roman Gods
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus. Late Imperial Roman. c. 250 C.E. Marble
D: 250-260 AD P/S: Late Imperial Rome/Anticlassical
A: Unknown
Pa: Unknown
OL: Tomb near the Porta Tiburtina
M: Marble
T: Drill work, figures out completely out of the background.
F: Sarcophagus for burying a dead person.
C: By the 3rd century burial of the dead was common and taking the place of cremation.
DT: Intertwined, anticlassical, background-less, free-standing
M: Meant to be a memorial of the battle between Romans and Barbarians, depicted the message of triumph over death.

Custom writing services

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out