AP ART HISTORY : Prehistoric, Oceania

AP ART HISTORY : Prehistoric, Oceania

1. Apollo 11 stones. Namibia. c. 25,500-25,300 B.C.E. Charcoal on stone. 4 ½” x 5″. State Museum of Namibia, Windhock.
-oldest evidence of human occupation/art in Africa
– blades, pointed flakes, and scraper found
-ritual significance,”human capacity” , modern symbolic thought and behavior
-informational ,descriptive art, profile view vs frontal (conceals body), convince it’s an animal
-paleolithic
2. Great Hall of the Bulls. Lascaux, France. Paleolithic Europe. 15,000-13,000 B.C.E. Rock painting, length of largest aurock (bull) 18′.
-composite view of bull: twisted, heads in profile BUT horns from the front!, Descriptive art
not optical
-natural rock contours => volume of animals
-purpose: hunters = get more control of animals, more lifelike = more magical the animals
3. Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine. Tequixquiac, central Mexico. 14,000-7000 B.C.E. Bone. Museo Nacional de Antropologia, Mexico City, Mexico.
-Purpose: ceremonial, religious mask, house spirit of hunted animal
-pelvis = fertility, holds up spine
-subtractive tech., used bone features (holes= eyes)
-canine dogs= contrast fertility, hunters ⇒ must be the predators in order to survive like dogs
4. Running horned woman. Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria. 6000-4000 B.C.E. Pigment on rock.
horned deity, supernatural, hierarchy of scale
purpose- document event, rain’s importance, ritual
atm= verdant savanna, featureless face, raffia (palm tree) skirt,
twisted composite view of horns
5. Bushel with ibex motifs. Susa, Iran. 4200-3500 B.C.E. Painted terra cotta, approx. height 11 2/5″, diameter 6 2/5″. Musee du Louvre, Paris, France.
-balance b/t geometric, circular
-animals, stylized not naturalistic
-vertalicity of elongated bird necks= shape of vessel, circularity of ibex’s horns = opening
-contrast bt spin direction of dog’s tail and horns
-stalk of wheat =fertility, water ???
-Neolithic
-storage, found near gravesite, bury valuables (like Egypt) for Afterlife?
6. Anthropomorphic stele. Arabian Peninsula. Fourth millennium B.C.E. Sandstone, approx. height 36″ x width 8″. National Museum, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
stele= headstone of tomb, grave marker
honor heroes, warriors ⇒ recognize individual not group
belted robe, sword
7. Jade cong. Liangzhu, China. 3300-2200 B.C.E. Carved jade, approx. 1 1/3″ high x 5″ wide. British Museum, London, England.
face patterns⇒ refer to spirits/ deities
purpose: monetary value for trade, deco., or reserved for nobles
cong = jade square, hollow tubes, found in graves
symbol = power, relationship to nature, spiritual world??
hollowness= sky, heavens; base = earth??
8. Stonehenge. Wiltshire, UK. Neolithic Europe. c. 2500-1600 B.C.E. Sandstone, tallest lintel 24′, average 13’6″ weighing 26 tons, diameter of all lintels 106′.
– circular ditch and bank together = henge
– originally filled with upright bluestones or upright wooden beams.
– Within the henge were dug 56 pits = Aubrey holes
-Aubrey holes later used for burial, emptied reused
-sarsen stones came from near to Marlborough, biggest of Stonehenge’s stones are up to 30 feet (9
meters) tall and weigh 25 tons (22.6 metric tons) on average, = sandstone
-smaller stones = blue stones= from Wales, various volcanic rocks
-solar calendar
-Outermost: capped sarsen stones, next: ring of bluestone, which encircle “horseshoe”
-Neolithic, ancient LEGOS
-no evidence of diff. social status
-elite buried ? adult males, aged 25-40 years, in good health and with little sign of hard labor or
disease
-sunrise of the midsummer solstice is exactly framed by the end of the horseshoe of trilithons at the
interior of the monument
-exactly opposite that point, at the center of the bend of the horseshoe, at the midwinter sunset, the sun is also aligned.
-longest, shortest days of the yr.
trilithons = 3stones
9. The Ambum Stone. Ambum Valley, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea. c. 1500 B.C.E. Greywacke, approx. height 7 9/10″ x width 3″ x depth 5 ½”. National Galley of Australia, Canberra, Australia.
-grey sandstone, pestle – a tool used to grind spices or drugs in a mortar, dif. to shape, hammer
-higher level of figurative qualities than other
-supernatural powers?, subtractive art
10. Tlatilco female figurine. Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco. 1200-900 B.C.E. Ceramic with traces of pigment, 3 ¾” x 1 7/8″ x 13/16″. Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, New Jersey.
duality, hips = fertility
found in burials, others figures engaged in daily routines, activities
11. Terra cotta fragment. Lapita. Solomon Islands, Reef Islands. 1000 B.C.E. Terra cotta (incised), height of human face motif approx. 1 ½”. Department of Anthropology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zeland
-Lapita= common ancestor of the contemporary cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and some areas of Melanesia
-best for ceramics, many used for cooking, serving, or storing food; large vessels
OCEANIA
213. Nan Madol. Pohnpei, Micronesia. Saudeleur Dynasty. c. 700-1600 C.E. Basalt boulders and prismatic columns, wall height up to 25′.
-. Small canals cut into the islets so sacred eels could enter from the sea and sea turtles were sacrificed to honor them.
-no artistic carvings
-way the site and form of Nan Madol communicates the status and power of the ruler/patron.
– specific ways that architecture communicates power and authority
-HEAVY basalt columns and logs quarried and transported
-Nan Madol eventually came to consist of ninety-two artificial islets that covered an area of 200 acres
-only ancient city = built atop coral reef
-ritual ceremonial center, population <1000 ppl; many Saudeleur chiefs, majority= commoners -log cabin, 92 islets -aka "Venice of the Pacific" -basalt = breaks naturally, forms blocks, ideal -rivals forced to live in city= easy to monitor -social hierarchy was reflected in the size of the residences built, beads/ornaments found= social status -inner courtyard, central tomb
214. Moai on platform (AHU). Rapa Nui (Easter Island). c. 1100-1600 C.E. Volcanic tuff figures on basalt base, average height approx. 36′.
Rapanui = Isla de Pascua
-commemorate ancestors, backs to sea = overlook island
eyes= red stone, coral from quarry, sculpture painted w red and white
deforestation, 14= basalt (hard, dense), but rest = softer, volcanic tuff
moai = statue, size & complexity increased over time
Christianity ===> moai toppled
commissioned by person of status
ceremonial carvings on the back
“walked” to “AHU” with “mana” (power), stone tool = “Tooki”
top knots placed on SOME heads “Pu kau” = show what Rapanui chiefs worn
Largest moai, 32ft = El Chikati” never finished, if eye sockets not opened = incomplete
generic faces ⇒ gods, chiefs ⇒ relationship
215. ‘Ahu ‘ula (feather cape). Hawaiian. Late 18th century C.E. Feathers and fiber, approx. length 55 ¾”. British Museum, London, England.
-ceremony, battles’ahu’ula, or “red garments, red = chief, gods, warriors
-each a UNIQUE pattern
-yellow feathers= scarce
-They consisted of olona (Touchardia latifolia) fibre netting made in straight rows, with pieces joined and cut to form the desired shape.
-red feather = i’iwi bird
-black, yellow = ‘o’o
-MANY= gifts to sea captains, crews, earliest Euro. visitors
>passed on to patrons, who paid for voyage
-feather work= process: netting bird feathers
216. Staff god. Rarotonga, Cook Islands, central Polynesia. Late 18th to early 19th century C.E. Wood, tapa, fiber, and feathers. [Atua rakau] , 12’11”. British Museum, London, England.
-staff= ironwood, paper mulberry bark= wrap, upper: carved head, lower= phallus → (which some
missionaries destroyed)
-conversion to Christainity in 19th century ⇒ decrease, loss of staff gods
-geometric patterns on wrap
-Tangaroa = creator God represented?
-explicit sexual, male/female prod/reprod. , women in childbirth
-cloth= protects “mana” of deity, contains it thru layers, made by women, wood = made by men
red feathers, pearls = spirit of the God
217. Female deity. Nukuoro, Micronesia. c. 18th to 19th century C.E. Wood, 16″. Musee Barbier-Mueller, Geneva, Switzerland.
-decorated w loom-woven bands, mats, feathers, paint, headdresses
-ROTTENED statues- REPLACED, deified ancestors’ spirit, OR resting place for the Gods
-depicts the Goddess Ko Kawe who is the patron goddess of the Sekawe clan.
218. Buk (mask). Torres Strait. Mid- to late 19th century C.E. Turtle shell, wood, fiber, feathers, and shell, 21 ½” x 25″ x 22 ¾”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
-reenactment of lives of cultural heroes
-displays composite human-like/animal
-turtle masks- usu. funeral ceremonies, increased rites
-ensured game, fish, senior men dances w grass customs, worn as helmet
-harvest rituals
219. Hiapo (tapa). Niue. c. 1850-1900 C.E. Tapa or bark cloth, freehand painting, approx. 8’6″ x 8′. Auckland War Memorial Museum, Auckland, New Zealand.
-ceremonial, motifs of plants
-made by potential wives
-tapa cloth conceals coffin from mourners, tapa also walked on (tapu- protection, mana – power)
-tapioca or arrow root used as glue, 3inch diameter- then spread out,thins out
-worth based on how many tapa cloths owned ea/ family
-highly prized- older the mat
-taboo= look into gravo of other person, bones of deceased dug up by relatives, then
-recement the grave for future use & scented coconut oil , bones wrapped in new tapa then reburied
-relief patterns, printed from below= coconut leaves patterns
220. Tamati Waka Nene. Gottfried Lindauer. 1890 C.E. Oil on canvas, 3’4″ x 2’8″. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand.
– holding a tewhatewha , club weapon, strike blows
-oil on canvas
baptized: “Thomas Walker”, naturalistic, bigger appearance thru black drapery, stoic expression, diamond eye on staff
commemorate businessman who lived in a trading society & helped (English) missionaries
⇒ ⇒ a Maorian chief : kindness shown thru soft brush strokes
221. Navigation chart. Marshall Islands, Micronesia. 19th to early 20th century C.E. Wood and fiber, 2’3″ x 3’3″ x 1″. British Museum, London, England.
-wave patterns = diagonal, curved; horizontal, vertical = supports
-cowrie, shells= islands
-info. memorized, usu. show SMALL AREA, “REBBELIB”= LARGE section
-made, used by ONE person, stylistic, geometric
222. Malagan display and mask. New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea. c. 20th century C.E. Wood, pigment, fiber, and shell. [Note: search for Tatanua when searching for the mask.] -Malagan mask. 16 ½” x 15 ¾” x 7 ½”. University Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
-Malagan display. Medina village, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. c. 1930. Height 6′ 10 5/8″, width 11′ 5 ¾”. Museum fur Volkerkunde, Basel, Switzerland.
-carvings created for use in ceremonies, typically burnt or placed in cave to rot after the ceremony
-large, complex , planning required
-faces of monsters or beasts
-honor, dismiss gods (can happen long after person dies)
-Once they are no longer needed they are often burned in fear of confusing other spirits trying to
find their way.
– celebrate the dead person’s characteristics
223. Presentation of Fijian mats and tapa clots to Queen Elizabeth II. Fiji, Polynesia. 1953 C.E. Multimedia performance (costume; cosmetics, including scent; chant; movement; and pandanus fiber/hibiscus fiber mats), photographic documentation.
– Queen Elizabeth II arriving in Tonga in 1954, noting use of tapa to signify honor and status.
banquet with over 2,000 guests.
symbolize: alliance, partnership w English
commemorate the war memorial
grand scale