AP art history

ID: Camelid scacrum in the shape of a canine. Tequixquiac, Mexico. Prehistoric Americas. 14,000-7,000 BCE. Medium: bone
Form: made from the sacrum(hipbone) of an extinct camelid(relative of a camel)
Function: ceremonial mass. Thought to be a portal
Content: carved to look like a canine skull, ceremonial mask
Context: found in 1870 during excavation, eastern Tequixquiac
ID: Camelid scacrum in the shape of a canine. Tequixquiac, Mexico. Prehistoric Americas. 14,000-7,000 BCE. Medium: bone
Form: made from the sacrum(hipbone) of an extinct camelid(relative of a camel)
Function: ceremonial mass. Thought to be a portal
Content: carved to look like a canine skull, ceremonial mask
Context: found in 1870 during excavation, eastern Tequixquiac
ID: Hall of Bulls. Lascaux, France. 16,000-14,000 BCE. Medium: rock painting
Form: charcoal + orchard
Function: depiction of time
Content: Theranthrope, animals important for there culture
Context: one of the oldest pieces of art
ID: Hall of Bulls. Lascaux, France. 16,000-14,000 BCE. Medium: rock painting
Form: charcoal + orchard
Function: depiction of time
Content: Theranthrope, animals important for there culture
Context: one of the oldest pieces of art
ID: Carved Jade
Form: carved out of jade to have a fubular center and squared-off corners, edges decorated with decorative paintings
Function: use is unclear, might have held a spiritual meaning
Content: important for their culture
Context: Chinese neolithic art
ID: Carved Jade
Form: carved out of jade to have a fubular center and squared-off corners, edges decorated with decorative paintings
Function: use is unclear, might have held a spiritual meaning
Content: important for their culture
Context: Chinese neolithic art
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ID: animal facing left. Apollo 11 cave. Namibia. C, 23,000 BCE. Medium: charcoal on stone
Form: hand painted. water and clay
Function:unknown
Content: unknown
Context: found between 1969 and 1972(named from Apollo 11 cave)
ID: animal facing left. Apollo 11 cave. Namibia. C, 23,000 BCE. Medium: charcoal on stone
Form: hand painted. water and clay
Function:unknown
Content: unknown
Context: found between 1969 and 1972(named from Apollo 11 cave)
ID: Bushel with ibex motifs from Susa, Iran. Prehistoric West Asia. 4,200-3,500 BCE. Medium: painted terracotta
Form: painted terra cotta
Function: to hold items when they move
Content: mountain goat in the middle, greyhound, birds
Context: N/A
ID: Bushel with ibex motifs from Susa, Iran. Prehistoric West Asia. 4,200-3,500 BCE. Medium: painted terracotta
Form: painted terra cotta
Function: to hold items when they move
Content: mountain goat in the middle, greyhound, birds
Context: N/A
ID: Running horned woman from rassili n'Ajjer, Alegeria. African Prehistory. 6,000-4,000 BCE. Medium: pigment on rock
Form: painted on wall
Function: tribute to god
Content: woman running or dancing with common folk around her
Context:Parietal art
ID: Running horned woman from rassili n’Ajjer, Alegeria. African Prehistory. 6,000-4,000 BCE. Medium: pigment on rock
Form: painted on wall
Function: tribute to god
Content: woman running or dancing with common folk around her
Context:Parietal art
ID: Terra cotta fragment. Global Prehsitory. Solomon Islands, Reef Islands. 1000 BCE. Medium: terra cotta(incised)
Form: Terra cotta(incised), geometric seperation, pattern, anthropomorphic, used tools for pattern
Function: helped with cooking, storing food
Content: face
Context: they traveled alot
ID: Terra cotta fragment. Global Prehsitory. Solomon Islands, Reef Islands. 1000 BCE. Medium: terra cotta(incised)
Form: Terra cotta(incised), geometric seperation, pattern, anthropomorphic, used tools for pattern
Function: helped with cooking, storing food
Content: face
Context: they traveled alot
ID: Ambum Stone. Ambum Valley, Eng Province, Papna New Guinea. 1500 BCE
Medium: Sandstone greywacke
Form: greywacke, small to hold in hand, Therionthrope
Function: Unknown. Maybe for rituals and supernatural
Content: dances and rituals
Context: N/A
ID: Ambum Stone. Ambum Valley, Eng Province, Papna New Guinea. 1500 BCE
Medium: Sandstone greywacke
Form: greywacke, small to hold in hand, Therionthrope
Function: Unknown. Maybe for rituals and supernatural
Content: dances and rituals
Context: N/A
ID: Stonehenge. Wiltshire, England. 2550-1600 BCE. Neolithic Europe
Form: 1 stage—3100 BCE great circular ditch with a bank of dirt->henge
2 stage—100-200 yrs later, setting up upright wooden posts, used for burial
3 stage— 400-500 yrs later, bluestone + linter stones
Function: would have been used for more sophisticated solar and lunar observations to predict solstices and eclipses.
Content: burial ground and for solar and lunar solstices
Context: higher quality and detail
ID: White Temple and its ziggurat. Ancient Mediterranean. Uruk(modern Warka, Iraq) Sumerian. c. 3500-3000 BCE. Medium: mud brick
Form: 2 large temples, platforms mud and brick
Function: platforms(channel) for these gods
Content: Ihanna
ID: White Temple and its ziggurat. Ancient Mediterranean. Uruk(modern Warka, Iraq) Sumerian. c. 3500-3000 BCE. Medium: mud brick
Form: 2 large temples, platforms mud and brick
Function: platforms(channel) for these gods
Content: Ihanna “god of war and love” and Anu “god of sky”
Context: each city is under protection of these gods
ID: Tlatilco female figurines. Global prehistory. Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco. 1200-1900 B.C.E. Ceramic.
Form: cermaic, female, no arms, wide hips, 2 face
Function: medical( first representation of birth deformity), hypothetical(duality of women, mankind, good, evil)
Content: double face, birth deformity
Context: medical, hypo, supernatural
ID: Tlatilco female figurines. Global prehistory. Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco. 1200-1900 B.C.E. Ceramic.
Form: cermaic, female, no arms, wide hips, 2 face
Function: medical( first representation of birth deformity), hypothetical(duality of women, mankind, good, evil)
Content: double face, birth deformity
Context: medical, hypo, supernatural
ID: Statues of votive figures. Ancient Mediterranean. Square temple at Eshnunna(modern Tell Asmar, Iraq). Sumerian 27000 BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone. 
Form: limestone, alabaster, gypsum 30
ID: Statues of votive figures. Ancient Mediterranean. Square temple at Eshnunna(modern Tell Asmar, Iraq). Sumerian 27000 BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone.
Form: limestone, alabaster, gypsum 30″
represents people in sumerian art
Function: dedicated to gods “one who offers prayers”
Content: wide, alert eyes. Holding small offerings. Diff between male and female
Context: 2700 BCE, unknown, largest dedicated to Ihanna “god of war and love”
ID: Seated Scribe. Saggara, Egypt. 2620-2500 BCE
Form: made of limestone painted with red and black oaker, naturalistic, fat might signify wealth. Iris made of rock crystal, eye surrounded by copper
Function: located in tomb to assist in afterlife, believed that old Egyptian people were alive
Context: made between 2620-2500 BCE 4 th dynasty, in old kingdom. Necropolis at Saggara
Content: scribes important to society, wearing a kilt, meant for afterlife
ID: Seated Scribe. Saggara, Egypt. 2620-2500 BCE
Form: made of limestone painted with red and black oaker, naturalistic, fat might signify wealth. Iris made of rock crystal, eye surrounded by copper
Function: located in tomb to assist in afterlife, believed that old Egyptian people were alive
Context: made between 2620-2500 BCE 4 th dynasty, in old kingdom. Necropolis at Saggara
Content: scribes important to society, wearing a kilt, meant for afterlife
ID: Palette of King Narmer. Ancient Mediterranean. Predynastic Egypt. 3000-2920. Greywacke.
Form: carved palette, smooth greyish-green siltstone, decorated both faces
Function: grinding and mixing cosmetics but also ritual object
Content: the king is represented as a symbol of power, seems as he is crushing his opponents. The crowns were believed to have divine power
Context:early egyptian art
ID: Palette of King Narmer. Ancient Mediterranean. Predynastic Egypt. 3000-2920. Greywacke.
Form: carved palette, smooth greyish-green siltstone, decorated both faces
Function: grinding and mixing cosmetics but also ritual object
Content: the king is represented as a symbol of power, seems as he is crushing his opponents. The crowns were believed to have divine power
Context:early egyptian art
ID: Anthropomorphic Stele. El-Maakir-Qaryat al-kaafa, near Hail, Saudi Arabia. 4th Millenium CE. Medium: Sandstone
ID: Anthropomorphic Stele. El-Maakir-Qaryat al-kaafa, near Hail, Saudi Arabia. 4th Millenium CE. Medium: Sandstone
ID: The Code of Hammurabi. Ancient Mediterranean. Babylon(Iran). Susian. 1792-1750 BCE. Basalt
Form: polished, 6ft, Basalt
Function: illustrate hammurabi code to public
Content: Hammurabi(left) and Shamash, sun god, (right)
Context: 282 laws of order and punishment
ID: The Code of Hammurabi. Ancient Mediterranean. Babylon(Iran). Susian. 1792-1750 BCE. Basalt
Form: polished, 6ft, Basalt
Function: illustrate hammurabi code to public
Content: Hammurabi(left) and Shamash, sun god, (right)
Context: 282 laws of order and punishment
ID: Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters. Ancient Mediterranean. New Kingdom(Amarna). 18 th Dynasty. 1353-1335 BCE. liemstone
Form: 2ft by 3ft slab of sandstone carved with some type of chisel, 2-3 men to make (one bodies, one background, one writing)
Function: depiction of Akhenaton and family worshipping the god Aten (sun) they are the reps of Aten
Content: akhenaton kissing one daughter, Daughter Nefertiti's lap pointing at Akhenaton, other daughter on Nef shoulder pointing at sun.
Context: akhenaton only ruler to worship Aten. Next ruler worshiped Ra-te OG sun god.
ID: Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters. Ancient Mediterranean. New Kingdom(Amarna). 18 th Dynasty. 1353-1335 BCE. liemstone
Form: 2ft by 3ft slab of sandstone carved with some type of chisel, 2-3 men to make (one bodies, one background, one writing)
Function: depiction of Akhenaton and family worshipping the god Aten (sun) they are the reps of Aten
Content: akhenaton kissing one daughter, Daughter Nefertiti’s lap pointing at Akhenaton, other daughter on Nef shoulder pointing at sun.
Context: akhenaton only ruler to worship Aten. Next ruler worshiped Ra-te OG sun god.
ID: Standard of Ur from the royal tombs at ur. Ancient Mediterranean,. Sumerian. 2600-2400 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone.
Form: Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone. 2 sides
Function N/A
Content: one side depicted a war other side a time of peace
Context: N/A
ID: Standard of Ur from the royal tombs at ur. Ancient Mediterranean,. Sumerian. 2600-2400 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone.
Form: Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone. 2 sides
Function N/A
Content: one side depicted a war other side a time of peace
Context: N/A
King Menkaura and queen. Ancient Mediterranean. Old Kingdom, fourth dynasty. 2490-2472 BCE. Medium:slate
Form: realistic, 8ft, slate
Function: to display Menkaura as royalty
Content: shows king menkaura (smaller pyramid) and a woman(wife, other wife, mother, Hathor)
Context: after or during his reign
King Menkaura and queen. Ancient Mediterranean. Old Kingdom, fourth dynasty. 2490-2472 BCE. Medium:slate
Form: realistic, 8ft, slate
Function: to display Menkaura as royalty
Content: shows king menkaura (smaller pyramid) and a woman(wife, other wife, mother, Hathor)
Context: after or during his reign
ID: Great Pyramid (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphynx. Ancient Mediterrean. Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. 2550-2490 BCE. Cut limestone
Form: 4 sides, 2.3 mill blocks to build;weigh 2.5 tons
Function: all pyramids reflected the sun god, Egyptian kings reborn into afterlife
Content: higher to reach sun god, were not meant to be reentered
Context: built in a period of 75 yrs, not in the middle of nowhere
ID: Great Pyramid (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphynx. Ancient Mediterrean. Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. 2550-2490 BCE. Cut limestone
Form: 4 sides, 2.3 mill blocks to build;weigh 2.5 tons
Function: all pyramids reflected the sun god, Egyptian kings reborn into afterlife
Content: higher to reach sun god, were not meant to be reentered
Context: built in a period of 75 yrs, not in the middle of nowhere
ID: Temple of Amun-re and Hypostyle Hall. Ancient Mediterrean. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th and 19th Dynasties Temple. c. 1550 BCE.; hall:c. 1250 BCE. Cut sandstone and mud brick.
Form: sandstone and mud brick
Function: dedicated to the god of daily ritual
Content: mentions of the god, a media to tell people something
Context: timeline stories of Egypt
ID: Temple of Amun-re and Hypostyle Hall. Ancient Mediterrean. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th and 19th Dynasties Temple. c. 1550 BCE.; hall:c. 1250 BCE. Cut sandstone and mud brick.
Form: sandstone and mud brick
Function: dedicated to the god of daily ritual
Content: mentions of the god, a media to tell people something
Context: timeline stories of Egypt
Tutankhamun's tomb, innermost cofffin. Ancient Mediterrean. New Kingdom, 18th dynasty. c. 1323. Gold inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones.
Form: carved in wood, covered in gold has lapis lazuli on it. 3 coffins: crafted in wood and covered in gold with semiprecious stones(lapis lazuli and turquoise). inner cofin made out of gold
Function: coffin of the king
Content: showed the high skill level of ancient egypt
Context: ruled after his father Akhenaten, follower of Amun, only 9 years when he became king, a royal burial ground located on the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes
Tutankhamun’s tomb, innermost cofffin. Ancient Mediterrean. New Kingdom, 18th dynasty. c. 1323. Gold inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones.
Form: carved in wood, covered in gold has lapis lazuli on it. 3 coffins: crafted in wood and covered in gold with semiprecious stones(lapis lazuli and turquoise). inner cofin made out of gold
Function: coffin of the king
Content: showed the high skill level of ancient egypt
Context: ruled after his father Akhenaten, follower of Amun, only 9 years when he became king, a royal burial ground located on the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes
ID: mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. Ancient Mediterranean. Near luxor, egypt. New kingdom 18th dynasty. C 1473-1458 BCE. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite
Form: sandstone, carved into a rock cliff, red granite, stairs were straight up
Function: built for her father and worship gods
Content: a temple that contained numerous sculptures of Hatshepsut.
Context: emerged from middle and new kingdom, sister of thutmose, wanted to rule, dress liked a male
ID: mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. Ancient Mediterranean. Near luxor, egypt. New kingdom 18th dynasty. C 1473-1458 BCE. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite
Form: sandstone, carved into a rock cliff, red granite, stairs were straight up
Function: built for her father and worship gods
Content: a temple that contained numerous sculptures of Hatshepsut.
Context: emerged from middle and new kingdom, sister of thutmose, wanted to rule, dress liked a male
ID: Athenian Agora. Ancient Mediterranean. Archaic through Hellen is tic Greek. 600 BCE-150 CE plan.
Form: carved marble, agora contained around 20 different structures, made up of several columns, temple statues, gov buildings
Function: agora=
ID: Athenian Agora. Ancient Mediterranean. Archaic through Hellen is tic Greek. 600 BCE-150 CE plan.
Form: carved marble, agora contained around 20 different structures, made up of several columns, temple statues, gov buildings
Function: agora= “gathering place” heart of the gov and judiciary systems
Content: many private homes had to be destroyed. Culture significance of religious Greece. Agora to Acropolis.
Context: forum of Athens originally built by Peisistratos to show his authority
ID: temple of minerva. Ancient Mediterranean. Master sculptor Vulca. 510-500BCE. Original made of wood, mud brick, or tufa volcanic rock, terracotta.
Form: mad eof wood, mud, brick, tufa, 2 main parts large front porch and back area triple cella. Apollo made out of terracotta
Function: worship goddess, Minerva and celebrate victory. Narrative
Content: the worshipping of God's and goddesses takes place in nature placed peak of the temple
Context: enclosed religious boundary to worship gods and goddesses. Statue of Apollo
ID: temple of minerva. Ancient Mediterranean. Master sculptor Vulca. 510-500BCE. Original made of wood, mud brick, or tufa volcanic rock, terracotta.
Form: mad eof wood, mud, brick, tufa, 2 main parts large front porch and back area triple cella. Apollo made out of terracotta
Function: worship goddess, Minerva and celebrate victory. Narrative
Content: the worshipping of God’s and goddesses takes place in nature placed peak of the temple
Context: enclosed religious boundary to worship gods and goddesses. Statue of Apollo
ID: Sarcophagus of the Spouses. Ancient Mediterranean. Etruscan. C. 520 BCE. Terra cotta
Form: Terra cotta, raised, style shows beginning of ancient Rome
Function: represent them sitting in a table as if celebrating
Content: man and wife
Context: beginning of ancient Rome
ID: Sarcophagus of the Spouses. Ancient Mediterranean. Etruscan. C. 520 BCE. Terra cotta
Form: Terra cotta, raised, style shows beginning of ancient Rome
Function: represent them sitting in a table as if celebrating
Content: man and wife
Context: beginning of ancient Rome
ID: Anavysos Kouros. Ancient Mediterranean. Archaic Greek. C. 530 BCE. Marble with remnants of paint.
Form: marble with remnants of paint, nude, muscular, archaic, represents the people
Function: spiritual connection
Content: tall man who is muscular shows his strength
Context: Greek
ID: Anavysos Kouros. Ancient Mediterranean. Archaic Greek. C. 530 BCE. Marble with remnants of paint.
Form: marble with remnants of paint, nude, muscular, archaic, represents the people
Function: spiritual connection
Content: tall man who is muscular shows his strength
Context: Greek
ID: Peplos Kore from the Acropolis. Ancient Mediterranean. Archaic greek. C. 530 BCE. Marble, painted details.
Form: marble with colorful paint, archaic pose, greek hair, pose of homage/offering/emotionless
Function: believed to have been an offering to Athena, mightve been something on her hand
Content: archaic style, rigid, motionless, obedient pose, may represent the ideal women
Context: created in archaic Greece lasted form 7th to 5th centuries BCE. Came towards the end before classical style.
ID: Peplos Kore from the Acropolis. Ancient Mediterranean. Archaic greek. C. 530 BCE. Marble, painted details.
Form: marble with colorful paint, archaic pose, greek hair, pose of homage/offering/emotionless
Function: believed to have been an offering to Athena, mightve been something on her hand
Content: archaic style, rigid, motionless, obedient pose, may represent the ideal women
Context: created in archaic Greece lasted form 7th to 5th centuries BCE. Came towards the end before classical style.
ID: Tomb of the Triclinium. Ancient Mediterranean. Tarquinia, Italy. Etruscan. C 480-470 BCE. Tufa and fresco.
Form: single chamber, fresco
Function: celebrate the dead, reinforce socio-economic
Content: shows wealthy people celebrating the dead
Context: transition of culture, celebration of the dead
ID: Tomb of the Triclinium. Ancient Mediterranean. Tarquinia, Italy. Etruscan. C 480-470 BCE. Tufa and fresco.
Form: single chamber, fresco
Function: celebrate the dead, reinforce socio-economic
Content: shows wealthy people celebrating the dead
Context: transition of culture, celebration of the dead
ID: Doryphoros(spear bearer). Ancient Mediterranean. Polykleitos. 450-440 BCE. Roman copy marble of Greek original bronze
Form: OG made out of bronze, but was lost and made out of marble
Function: Roman palaestras where individuals exercised an inspiration 
Content: used to hold a spear, ex. of
ID: Doryphoros(spear bearer). Ancient Mediterranean. Polykleitos. 450-440 BCE. Roman copy marble of Greek original bronze
Form: OG made out of bronze, but was lost and made out of marble
Function: Roman palaestras where individuals exercised an inspiration
Content: used to hold a spear, ex. of “contrapposto” Doryphoros rep. Idea of symmetry
Context:
ID: Grave stele of Hegeso. Ancient Mediterranean. Attributed to Kallimachos. c. 410 BCE. Marble and paint
Form: marble and paint, important women was made
ID: Grave stele of Hegeso. Ancient Mediterranean. Attributed to Kallimachos. c. 410 BCE. Marble and paint
Form: marble and paint, important women was made “bigger”
Function: to show how important this individual was
Content: a servant showing jewelry to women sitting down
Context: simple domestic life
ID: Niobides Krater. Ancient Mediterranean. Anonymous vase painter of Classical Greece known as the Niobid Painter. c. 460-450 BCE. Red figure technique(white highlights)
Form: 54 cm vase made out of clay, red figure technique popular after 5300 BC (red on black background)
Function: Used for the storage and shipment of grains and wines and other goods. To mix wine and water. also used in an all male drinking party known as symposium
Content: Front; Apollo and Artemis came to revenge their mother Lido. Niobis talked about how her children are much beautiful than Lidos. A&A are killing Niobis children
Back; greek soldiers came to honor Herakles and ask for protection
Context: archaic is becoming classical
ID: Niobides Krater. Ancient Mediterranean. Anonymous vase painter of Classical Greece known as the Niobid Painter. c. 460-450 BCE. Red figure technique(white highlights)
Form: 54 cm vase made out of clay, red figure technique popular after 5300 BC (red on black background)
Function: Used for the storage and shipment of grains and wines and other goods. To mix wine and water. also used in an all male drinking party known as symposium
Content: Front; Apollo and Artemis came to revenge their mother Lido. Niobis talked about how her children are much beautiful than Lidos. A&A are killing Niobis children
Back; greek soldiers came to honor Herakles and ask for protection
Context: archaic is becoming classical
ID: Winged Victory of Samothrace. Ancient Mediterranean. Hellenistic Greek. c. 190 BCE. Marble
Form: marble, the nike stands 9ft tall, hellenistic traits, clothing shows movement
Function: created for the Cabeiri gods of fertility and who protected seafarers and granted victory in war.
Content: shows Nike touching down on the bow of a ship
Context: in honor of the battle of Myonnisos of the Rhodian victory at side in 190 BCE
ID: Winged Victory of Samothrace. Ancient Mediterranean. Hellenistic Greek. c. 190 BCE. Marble
Form: marble, the nike stands 9ft tall, hellenistic traits, clothing shows movement
Function: created for the Cabeiri gods of fertility and who protected seafarers and granted victory in war.
Content: shows Nike touching down on the bow of a ship
Context: in honor of the battle of Myonnisos of the Rhodian victory at side in 190 BCE
ID: Seated Boxer. Hellenistic Greek. c. 100 BCE. bronze
Form: greek hellenistic sculpture, bronze, lost wax casting, hollow, inalid parts of copper in face
Function: interest in pathos made from traditional noble strong figures, wounds made people connect
Content: traditional, ideal, beautiful, nude, young, torso collapsing
Context: strong powerful old man yet defeated, sense of humility and humality not seen before
ID: Seated Boxer. Hellenistic Greek. c. 100 BCE. bronze
Form: greek hellenistic sculpture, bronze, lost wax casting, hollow, inalid parts of copper in face
Function: interest in pathos made from traditional noble strong figures, wounds made people connect
Content: traditional, ideal, beautiful, nude, young, torso collapsing
Context: strong powerful old man yet defeated, sense of humility and humality not seen before
ID: Forum of Trajan. Ancient Mediterranean. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets: 106-112 CE column completed 113 CE. Brick and concrete; marble columns
Form: made out of brick and concrete column made out of marble, piazza was 200x120cm, exidrae, statue of Trajan middle, frieze=155 scenes, you can go inside column
Function: served as the center of commerce and politics for the Roman empire. also for military propaganda
Content: Trajans ashes buried at the foot of the column, frieze tells his story. Used to remind Romans of Trajand emperor and warrior skills
Context: expanded rome by his conquests, victory over the Dacians, funded the building with war spoils. Romans had a lot of losses
ID: Forum of Trajan. Ancient Mediterranean. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets: 106-112 CE column completed 113 CE. Brick and concrete; marble columns
Form: made out of brick and concrete column made out of marble, piazza was 200x120cm, exidrae, statue of Trajan middle, frieze=155 scenes, you can go inside column
Function: served as the center of commerce and politics for the Roman empire. also for military propaganda
Content: Trajans ashes buried at the foot of the column, frieze tells his story. Used to remind Romans of Trajand emperor and warrior skills
Context: expanded rome by his conquests, victory over the Dacians, funded the building with war spoils. Romans had a lot of losses
ID: Parthenon(acropolis). Ancient Mediterranean. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. c.447-424 BCE. marble
Form: made out of marble, doric structure outside and ionic on the inside, columns=flutes
Function: designed to worship the goddess Athena
Content: Athena was placed in the middle; symbol of power
Context: it was reconstructed
ID: Parthenon(acropolis). Ancient Mediterranean. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. c.447-424 BCE. marble
Form: made out of marble, doric structure outside and ionic on the inside, columns=flutes
Function: designed to worship the goddess Athena
Content: Athena was placed in the middle; symbol of power
Context: it was reconstructed
ID: Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun. Ancient Mediterrean. Pompeii, Republican Roman. c. 100 BCE. Mosaic
Form: roman copy of Greek, new art form, highly detailed, light source, realistic depth, dramatic and violent images, one level, facial expressions
function: to honor Alexander the Great
Content: its a battle between persians and romans
Context: Romans beat the Persians, Alexander was obsessed with conquest
ID: Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun. Ancient Mediterrean. Pompeii, Republican Roman. c. 100 BCE. Mosaic
Form: roman copy of Greek, new art form, highly detailed, light source, realistic depth, dramatic and violent images, one level, facial expressions
function: to honor Alexander the Great
Content: its a battle between persians and romans
Context: Romans beat the Persians, Alexander was obsessed with conquest
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon. Ancient Mediterranean. Asia Minor (present Turkey). Hellenistic Greek. c. 175 BCE. Marble 
Form: narrative, movement, exaggerated forms and poses, hellenistic baroque
Function: important people would come here to talk about money and power
Content: greek power over gaul(barbarians). Frieze shows hellenisitc portrayal of action, dramatic, struggle
Context: hellenistic period, greek art influenced rome, Attalid kings patterned their city after Athens and slected Athena as their Patroness. Built after Alexander the Greats accomplisments
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon. Ancient Mediterranean. Asia Minor (present Turkey). Hellenistic Greek. c. 175 BCE. Marble
Form: narrative, movement, exaggerated forms and poses, hellenistic baroque
Function: important people would come here to talk about money and power
Content: greek power over gaul(barbarians). Frieze shows hellenisitc portrayal of action, dramatic, struggle
Context: hellenistic period, greek art influenced rome, Attalid kings patterned their city after Athens and slected Athena as their Patroness. Built after Alexander the Greats accomplisments
Colosseum(Flavian Amphitheater). Ancient Mediterranean. Rome, Italy. Imperial Roman. 70-80 C.E. Stone and concrete
Form:marble, limestone, motar, tufa, cement, wood, hypogum, arches, 3 styles of columns, stadium like seating 3 sections, oval, scaffold seating 
Function: games; naval battles, animal fights, gladiator fights. Sacrifices, executions, entertainment, speeches, announcements, power, wealth, social stability, control, gathring for all ranks, emphasixe social status
Content: see function
Context: pompeii, flavian dynasty, gov trying to keep people at peace, Tidus finished the colosseum, center of rome
Colosseum(Flavian Amphitheater). Ancient Mediterranean. Rome, Italy. Imperial Roman. 70-80 C.E. Stone and concrete
Form:marble, limestone, motar, tufa, cement, wood, hypogum, arches, 3 styles of columns, stadium like seating 3 sections, oval, scaffold seating
Function: games; naval battles, animal fights, gladiator fights. Sacrifices, executions, entertainment, speeches, announcements, power, wealth, social stability, control, gathring for all ranks, emphasixe social status
Content: see function
Context: pompeii, flavian dynasty, gov trying to keep people at peace, Tidus finished the colosseum, center of rome
Panthenon. Ancient Mediterranean. Imperial Roman. 118-125 CE. Concrete with stone facing
Form: concrete with stone facing, constructed between other buildings, inner side of the dome covered with bronze, outsidde looks like a regular rectangular temple until you go inside and see the dome, repetition of circles and squares, frieze windows, the hole on the dome is called Oculus
Function: dedicated to the seven planetary gods
Content: gods do not only belong in our universe 
Context: street level is higher now, Hadrians love and power
Panthenon. Ancient Mediterranean. Imperial Roman. 118-125 CE. Concrete with stone facing
Form: concrete with stone facing, constructed between other buildings, inner side of the dome covered with bronze, outsidde looks like a regular rectangular temple until you go inside and see the dome, repetition of circles and squares, frieze windows, the hole on the dome is called Oculus
Function: dedicated to the seven planetary gods
Content: gods do not only belong in our universe
Context: street level is higher now, Hadrians love and power
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus. Ancient Mediterranean. Late imperial roman. c. 250CE. marble.
Form: marble, movement, different levels, tumult
Function: to display a battle in which romans beat barbarians
Content: Supposedly son of Decius
Context: believed in soul
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus. Ancient Mediterranean. Late imperial roman. c. 250CE. marble.
Form: marble, movement, different levels, tumult
Function: to display a battle in which romans beat barbarians
Content: Supposedly son of Decius
Context: believed in soul
Catacomb of Prsicilla. Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 200-400CE. Excavated tufa and fresco
Form: tufa, bodies:covered in shroud, rooms cubiculum
Function: lots of people buried here, frescos for the dead and living
Content: depiction of miracles, four seasons, symmetrical between earth and heaven, first images of madonna and child, god looking over dead and living
Context: priscilla donated land, Constantine leaglizes Christianity, seperate from paganism
Catacomb of Prsicilla. Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 200-400CE. Excavated tufa and fresco
Form: tufa, bodies:covered in shroud, rooms cubiculum
Function: lots of people buried here, frescos for the dead and living
Content: depiction of miracles, four seasons, symmetrical between earth and heaven, first images of madonna and child, god looking over dead and living
Context: priscilla donated land, Constantine leaglizes Christianity, seperate from paganism
Treasury and Great temple(petra). West and Central Asia. Petra, Jordan. Nabataen Ptolemaic and Roman. c. 400BCE-100CE. cut rock. 2nd century
Form: cut rock and fresco and corinthian columns, tholos, obelisk
Function: tomb and temple
Content: people buried in sandstone cliffs, statues of greek gods,
Context: it used to be sealed, Nabataean the people who used to live here, Betavens invaded and took treasure, believed to be a tomb for a past king
Treasury and Great temple(petra). West and Central Asia. Petra, Jordan. Nabataen Ptolemaic and Roman. c. 400BCE-100CE. cut rock. 2nd century
Form: cut rock and fresco and corinthian columns, tholos, obelisk
Function: tomb and temple
Content: people buried in sandstone cliffs, statues of greek gods,
Context: it used to be sealed, Nabataean the people who used to live here, Betavens invaded and took treasure, believed to be a tomb for a past king
Santa Sabina. Early Europe a d Colonial Americas. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 422-432 CE. Brick and stone, wooden roof
Form: brick and stone, wooden roof, lit by clerestory (upper wall) windows, lots of marble veneer, located top of Aventine Hill in Rome, 24 fluted columns corinthians
Function: early christian church, Basilica: site of law courts
Content: central axis leading from the entrance to the apse, walls are simple thought to contain mosaics, apse holds mosaic
Context: constructed by Peter of Illyria, churches were built after religious totalitarian, looks like St. peters basilica, Constantine legalized christianity, temple of portomus(comparison)
Santa Sabina. Early Europe a d Colonial Americas. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 422-432 CE. Brick and stone, wooden roof
Form: brick and stone, wooden roof, lit by clerestory (upper wall) windows, lots of marble veneer, located top of Aventine Hill in Rome, 24 fluted columns corinthians
Function: early christian church, Basilica: site of law courts
Content: central axis leading from the entrance to the apse, walls are simple thought to contain mosaics, apse holds mosaic
Context: constructed by Peter of Illyria, churches were built after religious totalitarian, looks like St. peters basilica, Constantine legalized christianity, temple of portomus(comparison)
San Vitale. Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526-547. Brick, marble, and stone veneer;mosaic
Form: formed by several octagons, 6th century, completed during the reign of emperor Justinian, masterpiece of byzantine art
Function: christian church and a court of emperor Justinian
Content: designer wanted to show the authority of emperor(christianity) 
Context: built by bishop Ecclesius in 526 CE, power: church +military+power
San Vitale. Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526-547. Brick, marble, and stone veneer;mosaic
Form: formed by several octagons, 6th century, completed during the reign of emperor Justinian, masterpiece of byzantine art
Function: christian church and a court of emperor Justinian
Content: designer wanted to show the authority of emperor(christianity)
Context: built by bishop Ecclesius in 526 CE, power: church +military+power
Merovingian looped fibula. Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Early medieval europe. mid sixth century CE. silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones
Form: silver gilt worked in filigree(fine gold or silver wire), decorated with garnets, amethyst, and colored glass, body, a pin, and a catch, 4 inches
Function: hold clothing(such as cloaks) for higher class and military; decoration.
Content: artists favore flat and abstract rep of people and animals, religious
Context: 6th century, frankish kingdom experienced various internal and external struggles use of military, found in a visigothic grave site in spain
Merovingian looped fibula. Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Early medieval europe. mid sixth century CE. silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones
Form: silver gilt worked in filigree(fine gold or silver wire), decorated with garnets, amethyst, and colored glass, body, a pin, and a catch, 4 inches
Function: hold clothing(such as cloaks) for higher class and military; decoration.
Content: artists favore flat and abstract rep of people and animals, religious
Context: 6th century, frankish kingdom experienced various internal and external struggles use of military, found in a visigothic grave site in spain
Bayeux tapestry. Romanesque Europe(english or norman). c. 1066-1080 CE. Embroidery on linen
Form: not a true tapestry. embroidery using wool yarn sewn onto linen cloth, 20 in high and nearly 230ft in length, has writing and inscription in latin
Function: commemorates William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, the Earl of Wessex, chronicle historical movement
Content: lead up to battle of hastings in 1066, missing coronation of William king of England, divided into 3 horizontal zones, images of dining, battle prep, and battling
Context: 1066, William conquered England first Norman King of England, made in Canterbury, Kent. displayed at bayeux cathedral
Bayeux tapestry. Romanesque Europe(english or norman). c. 1066-1080 CE. Embroidery on linen
Form: not a true tapestry. embroidery using wool yarn sewn onto linen cloth, 20 in high and nearly 230ft in length, has writing and inscription in latin
Function: commemorates William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, the Earl of Wessex, chronicle historical movement
Content: lead up to battle of hastings in 1066, missing coronation of William king of England, divided into 3 horizontal zones, images of dining, battle prep, and battling
Context: 1066, William conquered England first Norman King of England, made in Canterbury, Kent. displayed at bayeux cathedral
Lindisfarne gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page and incipit page. Early medieval (hiberno saxon) Europe. c. 700 CE. Illuminated manuscript(ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Form: illuminated manuscript- the Bible books Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
Lindisfarne gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page and incipit page. Early medieval (hiberno saxon) Europe. c. 700 CE. Illuminated manuscript(ink, pigments, and gold on vellum)
Form: illuminated manuscript- the Bible books Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John “the Gospels” carefully copied over in Latin, decorated pages with abstract birds and snakes, consist of 269 pages, pigment on parchment
Function: read by monks at the Lindisfarne early christian community, unfinished due to Eadfrith death in 721
Content: created by Eadfrith to honor god and St, Cuthbert, island honored Saint, vernacular translation between latin lines, in english.
Context: perfect example of insular art produced in the British Isles around 500-900 CE, made during time of many invasions and great turmoil
Rottgen Pieta. Late medieval europe. c. 1300-1325CE. Painted wood.
Form: painted wood, Christ skin is taut, Mary Holding Jesus, sharp crown, Marys head disproportionate
Function: Mary Queen of heaven, human emotion, pathos
Content: shows the Lamentation, Marys face shows her humanity
Context: late gothic, emotional appeal, located on an altar perhaps, surrounded by frescoes, german nunneries
Rottgen Pieta. Late medieval europe. c. 1300-1325CE. Painted wood.
Form: painted wood, Christ skin is taut, Mary Holding Jesus, sharp crown, Marys head disproportionate
Function: Mary Queen of heaven, human emotion, pathos
Content: shows the Lamentation, Marys face shows her humanity
Context: late gothic, emotional appeal, located on an altar perhaps, surrounded by frescoes, german nunneries
Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis. Early Byzantine. early 6th century CE. illuminated manuscript(pigments on vellum)
Form: tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum, codex(imagery and written text), ancestor of modern book; sheets(purple for divinity) of parchment and of sturdy vellum, miniature city,
Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis. Early Byzantine. early 6th century CE. illuminated manuscript(pigments on vellum)
Form: tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum, codex(imagery and written text), ancestor of modern book; sheets(purple for divinity) of parchment and of sturdy vellum, miniature city, “similar to making leather”
Function: religious stories, first book of bible
Content: Rebecca at the Well(genesis 24), Rebecca heroine of the story, carrying a large jug of water, encounters a man-Abraham’s servant Eliezer in search for a wife for Abraham’s son, Isaac,
In other story Jacob leads family and people across a river, wrestles a man whose and angel and then is blessed
Context: oldest surviving well preserved illustrated biblical book, produced by or a Constantinople(syrian) workshop
Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145-1155 CE.; reconstructed c. 1194-1220CE. limestone, stained glass.
Form: remains of a roman church, limestone, 112ft high 427 feet long, renovations 16th and 19th century, pointed arches, geometricalgothic
Function: cathedral, sculptures to preach and instruct, dedicated to the virgin Mary(her shroud is supposedly there)
Content: gothic french architecture, sculptures, stained glass, old and new testament scenes, high nave, reused materials from previous Roman Church (spolia).
Context: association with the Virgin Mary pilgrimage to there, multiple fires remodel cathedral, relates to constantinople, 186 windows
Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France. Gothic Europe. Original construction c. 1145-1155 CE.; reconstructed c. 1194-1220CE. limestone, stained glass.
Form: remains of a roman church, limestone, 112ft high 427 feet long, renovations 16th and 19th century, pointed arches, geometricalgothic
Function: cathedral, sculptures to preach and instruct, dedicated to the virgin Mary(her shroud is supposedly there)
Content: gothic french architecture, sculptures, stained glass, old and new testament scenes, high nave, reused materials from previous Roman Church (spolia).
Context: association with the Virgin Mary pilgrimage to there, multiple fires remodel cathedral, relates to constantinople, 186 windows
Arena Scrovegni Chapel including Lamentation. Padua, Italy. unknown architect; Giotto di Bondone c. 1303CE.; fresco:c.1305.
Form: brick and frexo, lapis lazuli, 3 registers, artist Giotto di Bondone->story of christ and his parents through pictures, read horizontally(Mary, Christ, and Passion)
Function: commissioned by Enrico Scrovegni wash his sins
Content: you know
Virgin(Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George. Early Byzantine. Sixth or early seventh century.
Form: encaustic wood, mosaic(gold,rich,blues), wax painting
Function: to show Virgin Mary as holy
Content: Virgin Mary, Theodore, George, hand of god
Context: Saint Catherine
Virgin(Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George. Early Byzantine. Sixth or early seventh century.
Form: encaustic wood, mosaic(gold,rich,blues), wax painting
Function: to show Virgin Mary as holy
Content: Virgin Mary, Theodore, George, hand of god
Context: Saint Catherine
Golden Haggadah(The Plagues of Egypt, scenes of Liberation, and Preparation for Passover). Late medieval. c. 1320 CE. 
Form: read top right counter clockwise(except for the passover which is read from bottom left in a clockwise manner). Illuminated manuscript on vellum. variety of pigment colors.
Function: used in Jewish households to commemorate Israelites exodus from Egypt. The passover was the night Mosses lead the people
Content: Moses initiates multiple plagues upon the Pharaoh and his kingdom. Mosses cause all livestock to die. Last plague was the death of every first born child. Pharaoh freed Jews from slavery.
Context: made near or in Barca, the use of a wealthy Jewish family. Written text on vellum pages in Hebrew script. Illustrate stories from Exodus and Genesis
Golden Haggadah(The Plagues of Egypt, scenes of Liberation, and Preparation for Passover). Late medieval. c. 1320 CE.
Form: read top right counter clockwise(except for the passover which is read from bottom left in a clockwise manner). Illuminated manuscript on vellum. variety of pigment colors.
Function: used in Jewish households to commemorate Israelites exodus from Egypt. The passover was the night Mosses lead the people
Content: Moses initiates multiple plagues upon the Pharaoh and his kingdom. Mosses cause all livestock to die. Last plague was the death of every first born child. Pharaoh freed Jews from slavery.
Context: made near or in Barca, the use of a wealthy Jewish family. Written text on vellum pages in Hebrew script. Illustrate stories from Exodus and Genesis
Great Mosque. Cordoba, Spain. Umayyad. c. 785-786CE. 8th century
Form: stone masonry, elaborate ceiling inside, star shape pointed arches ribs, geometric star(Ramadan), repetition of columns, spolia of roman columns, movements, pattern, symmetrical arches, combination of stone.
Function:
Content:
Context: roman temple devoted fro protection during war, later it was converted into a church when invaded by Goths, then it was turned into a mosque, Cordoba become new capital
Alhambra Palace(red fort). Granada, Spain. Nasrid(last muslim dynasty to rule Spain)Dynasty. 1354-1391 CE.
Form: whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gliding, ornate inside, simple outside, 3 temples
Function: 1. residence for royal family
2. guards protect complex
3. a medina->a city of the prophet
Content: INSIDE-> thin columns, geometric patterns, stucco->carved plaster
West->muqarnas chamber small faces of different people. Not sure of the spaces. No piece is left untouched. Focus on light and water,
Context:last muslim dynasty to rule spain
Annunciation Triptych(Merode Altarpiece). Workshop of Robert Campin. 1427-1432 CE. 
Form:flemish oil painting , wood panels, mobilitary art, attention light and texture, lots of reflection, religious symbolism, modern domestic scenery
Function: domestic altar piece, private art, allows an emotional connection, Virgin Mary is the focus
Content: rep in the middle panel. Angel Gabriel telling Mary she will be daughter of Christ. Joseph works in his carpenter shop.
Annunciation Triptych(Merode Altarpiece). Workshop of Robert Campin. 1427-1432 CE.
Form:flemish oil painting , wood panels, mobilitary art, attention light and texture, lots of reflection, religious symbolism, modern domestic scenery
Function: domestic altar piece, private art, allows an emotional connection, Virgin Mary is the focus
Content: rep in the middle panel. Angel Gabriel telling Mary she will be daughter of Christ. Joseph works in his carpenter shop.
Hagia Sophia. Image of Power.
Form: dome(reminds of Panthenon), heavy blue and yellow, arabic scripture inside of middle, covered in mosaics top to bottom but were taken down, columns (ionic), 3 focal points ;one APSE
Function: power of religion, gigantic theater for public
Content: last supper, clothes of christ, temple of Artemis, chains of St. Peter, remain largest church for 700 yrs, Judgement Day(John Baptist, Mary), minarets added 1740 for Islam, Haludan was here, divine guardian watches over Church
Context: changed history of architecture, Justinian Emperor, last emperor of Byzantine empire, christian church-> Islamic Mosque, remained a mosque till 1935, Sultan Mehmed II new Roman Emperor, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus ordered by Justinian to be made, “Solomon I have outdone you,” liturgy has been lost, greek->rome->Byzantine

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