Ap Bio Chapter 4 Course Learning Objectives

Chapter 4 CLO 1. A branch of chemistry dealing with compounds of Carbon. 2. Carbon’s has 4 valence electrons that can form covalent bonds with others atoms (Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon atoms mostly) to make large, complex and diverse organic molecules. 3. The carbon skeleton vary in 4 areas, 1. Length 2. Branching 3. Double Bond Position 4. Presence of Rings. Carbon skeletons can have double bonds in different locations and also different numbers of double bonds. . Hydrocarbons only have hydrogen and carbon molecules, hence the name. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic because they mostly consist of hydrogen and carbon bonds that have no charge, therefore don’t attract additional bonds. 5. Isomers are compounds made up of the same number of atoms and the same type of elements but configured differently, giving them different functions. There are 3 types of isomers, 1. Structural isomers differ in the arrangement of their bonds. 2.

Geometric isomers have different arrangement around a double bond due to the double bond’s inflexibility for atoms to rotate around it. 3. Enantiomers isomers are mirror images of each other due to the arrangement of atoms around an asymmetric carbon atom. 6. a. Hydroxyl group is a hydrogen atom and oxygen atom, which is bonded to a Carbon atom. Is polar because the electrons spend more time by the negative oygen atom. Helps dissolve organic compounds because of ability to form hydrogen bonds. b. Carbonyl group is a carbon atom that is double bonded to a oxygen atom.

The 2 types of Carbonyl group compounds (Ketones and Aldehydes) can be structural isomers, which would give them different properties. c. Carboxyl group is a oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom and bonded to a –OH group. Basically a combination of the Hydroxyl and Carbonyl groups. Acts as an acid. Has ability to give H+ atom due to polarity of the covalent bond of OH. Also has a charge of 1-, called carboxylate ion. d. Amino group is a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon atom.

Acts as a base and can take the H+ from other compound. Also has a charge of 1+. e. Sulfhydryl group is a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, shaped like hydroxyl group. Can stabilize protein structures by forming covalent bonds with another sulfhydryl group. f. Phosphate group is a phosphorus atom that is bonded to 4 oxygen atoms, two of which are negatively charged, one is bonded to the carbon atom and the last one is double bonded to the phosphorus. When at the end of a molecule the charge is 2-, when in a chain of phosphates the charge is 1-.

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Has potential to release energy by reacting with water. g. Methyl group is a carbon atom attached to 3 hydrogen atoms and to a carbon or different atom. Affects the expression of genes by addition to DNA or molecules bound to DNA. The methyl group’s arrangement affects the shape and function in male in female sex hormones. 7. The ATP functions as the primary energy transfer molecule by having a reaction with water. ATP reacts with water by having a phosphate atom split off. This reaction releases energy that the cell can use.

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