AP Euro Exam Review

Cosimo de Medici
supported education and the arts, made many business connections in Europe
Lorenzo Medici
gave power to the lower classes of Italy, but he let his family business decline.
Savonorola
bonfire of Vanities and Ruled Florence STRICTLY, later exectued by the Pope
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Petrarch
coined the term renaissance, , (1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Lorenzo Valla
Wrote “On Pleasure” defended the senses of good
Giovanni Bocaccio
Decameron, Federigo’s Falcon, timelessness and university, 1300s, Humanism
Castiglione
Wrote “The Courtier” describing all of the major things that a man must have in order to be a functioning societal person
Machiavellli
Wrote the Prince, a book about using politics as a science. “feared rather than loved” and “fox and lion”
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe, Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded, He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Jerome Bosch
He was a Flemish painter whose works display the confusion and anguish of the end of the Middle Ages. Jerome Bosch frequently used religious themes, colorful imagery, and grotesque fantasies in his works of art. (p.439)
New Monarchies
Historians’ term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits. (p. 414)
Thomas a’ Kempis
German ecclesiastic (1380-1471), author of “the imitation of christ”; early northern christian writer who challenged individuals to live a godly life rather than focus just on knowledge, summarized philosophy of Brothers of the Common Life in ‘Imitation of Life’, died in 1471, associated with Brethren of the Common Life, He was the leader of the mystic group known as Modern Devotion
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Martin Luther
Known by many as the creater or the reformation, he broke away from the Catholic Church and then later began to question the popes role in the church and the sale of indulgences.
Frederich the Wise of Saxony
Supporter of Marthin Luther, he hid him from the Catholic Church when he refused to repent.
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Anabaptists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Zwingli
Leader of Swiss Reformation. Agreed to disagree with Luther about communion. He thought it was only a symbol, and that it wasn’t Christ’s body or blood untill it touched your mouth, only symbolic. Found on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War wounded and the Lutherans found him, cut him up into little pieces, then burn them and scattered the ashes over the land. Luther said Zwingli got what he deserved.
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Henry VIII
Creator of the Church of England, he married 6 wives and divorced or had them killed since none could produce a male heir.
Thomas Cromwell
(1485-1540) Became King Henry VII’s close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey’s dismissal. He and his contemporary THomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant., (1485-1540) King Henry III’s Chief Minister; he confiscated the wealth of the Catholic church and divided administration according to its functions by creating seperate departments of state
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603, This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Teresa of Avilla
-symbolized renewal of intense faith
-spanish
-founded her own order of nuns that live in isolation, eat/sleep very little, dedicated life to prayer and meditation
-canonized: recognized as saint
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father’s rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome’s Day Massacre.
Henry IV
the first Lancastrian king of England from 1399 to 1413
Philip II
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
William of Orange
King of England and Scotland and Ireland
Montaigne
French writer regarded as the originator of the modern essay (1533-1592)
Rubens
prolific Flemish baroque painter
Henry IV
the first Lancastrian king of England from 1399 to 1413
Cardinal Richelieu
minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities, military provinces France was divided into
Versailles
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Frederick William
the Elector of Brandenburg who rebuilt his domain after its destruction during the Thirty Years’ War (1620-1688), placed very strong emphasis on the army
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe.
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
James I
The first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
Charles I
son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator
Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
Locke
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
Hobbes
English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan (1651), in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Kepler
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
Newton
English mathematician and physicist
Bacon
English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the importance of experimentation
Descartes
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Diderot
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
Voltaire
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy’s political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe’s most powerful nations
Pugachev Revolt
(1774): He won the support of many peasants when he issued a manifest, which freed all peasants from oppressive taxes and military service. The peasants, encouraged by him to seize their landlords’ estate, killed more than 1500 estate owners. Pugachev was captured, tortured, and executed.
Jethro Tull
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
Lady Montagu
Lady who was sympathetic of Islamic women and wrote “Turkish Embassy Letters “on Islamic Women
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Louis XV
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War (1710-1774)
Louis XVI
king of France from 1774 to 1792
Three Estates
The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land
Bourgeoisie
the social class between the lower and upper classes
Emmanuel Sieyes
A liberal member of the clergy, supporter of the Third Estate, and author of the fiery 1789 pamphlet “What Is the Third Estate?” Sieyès was one of the primary leaders of the Third Estate’s effort at political and economic reform in France.
Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
Robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. (See also Robespierre, Maximilien.) (p. 588)
Girondists
These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
The Mountain
This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. The Mountain worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, the Mountain eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people. The mountains believed in equal outcome.
Sans- culottes
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.
The Directory
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Tsar Alexander I
Ruled Russia during Napoleonic Wars and wanted peace after Napoleon’s armied continued winning victories. The young tsar and Napoleon negotiated and he ended up accepting Napoleon’s reorganization of Western and Central Europe and promised to enforce Napoleon’s economic blockade against British goods.
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Alexander I
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
Holy Alliance
This was the alliance between Austria Prussia and Russia on the crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution.
Mazzini
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)
Louis Blanc
A Paris journalist, editor of Revue de Progres and author of Organization of Work. Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization(recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie).
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Walter Scott
born in Edinburgh; personified romantic movement’s fascination with history-raised on grandfather’s farm, fell under spell of old ballads and tales of Scottish border-influenced by German romanticism-esp. Johann Wolfgang con Goethe-translated Gotz von Berlichingen: play about a 16th century knight who revolted against centralized authority and championed individual freedom-storyteller, composed long narrative poems and series of historical novels-recreated spirit of bygone ages and great historical events
Dumas
French writer remembered for his swashbuckling historical tales (1802-1870) Three Musketeers
Victor Hugo
French poet and novelist and dramatist
Franz List
a Hungarian[3][4][5] composer, virtuoso pianist and teacher. He was also the father-in-law of Richard Wagner. In 1865 he became an abbot in the Roman Catholic Church.
Ludwig Van Beethoven
This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music
Wagner
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused (1813-1883)
Whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay’s American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Louis XVIII
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon’s Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Charles X
set out to restore the absolute monarchy with the help of the ultraroyalists. Tried to repay nobles for lands lost during the revolution, but the liberals in teh legislative assemly opposed him. Eventually, he issued the July Ordinances.
July Revolution
overthrow of King Charles X (sought to impose absolutism by rolling back the constitutional monarchy)-radical revolt in Paris forced Charles to abdicate
Louis- Philippe
King of France following Charles X. Abdicated the throne against threat of republican revolution (smelled his popularity was diminishing)
2nd Republic
the result of another revolution in France with which the emergence of universal male suffrage came about, also much conflict between middle and lower classes
Louis Blanc
A Paris journalist, editor of Revue de Progres and author of Organization of Work. Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization(recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie).
June Days
A revolt during the month of June as a result of the abolishment of national workshops. This event ended the liberal capitalist and the radical socialists tension ending in victory for liberalism and Capitalism.-Also with the June Days it led to having a new constitution demanding a strong executive, which led to the rise of Louis Napoleon.
Louis- Napoleon
Was not only the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), but was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Frankfurt Assembly
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.
Benthamite
It is a term used to describe a follower of Jeremy Bentham, a radical philosopher that taught that public problems could be solved using a rational, scientific basis. (p.792)
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
Robert Koch
German bacteriologist who isolated the anthrax bacillus and the tubercle bacillus and the cholera bacillus (1843-1910)
Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn’t repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln’s request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
Haussmann
Napoleon placed in charge of Paris. With other urban planners, he destroyed old buildings to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through both the center of the city, as well as on the outskirts. This allowed for easier traffic flow, better housing, and sewers.
Freud
Personality; Concepts: Defense mechanisms, ego, displacement, sublimation, projection, repression, regression, etc.; Study Basics: “The ego and the mechanisms of defense.”
Mendeleev
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)
August Comte
coined phrase “sociology”; believed in the scientific improvement of society and human condition
Charles Lyell
effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth’s surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth’s surface over an immensely long time
Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics (1744-1829)
Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Cavour
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmonteste king.
Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Zollverein
Prussian economic union, removed tariff barriers between German states, in step toward political unity
Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule. Delivers “blood and iron” speech.
Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
Zemstvos
elected local rural governments allow some democracy without weakening the central government
Duma
Russian national legislature
William II
the second son of William the Conqueror who succeeded him as King of England (1056-1100)
Dreyfus Affair
A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemetic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.
David Llyod George
Prime minister of Great Britain, had won a decisive victory in elections in December of 1918. His platform was simple: make the Germans pay for this dreadful war.
Dual Monarchy
The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns
Karl Lueger
Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
Socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
U.S. Commodore Perry
took four ships to the Tokyo Harbor- the massive black wooden ships powered by steam astounded the Japanese, the ships’ cannons also shocked them. The Tokugawa shogun realized he had no choice but to receive HIM and the letter HE had brought from U.S. president Fillmore
Muhammed ALi
Turkish ruler of Egypt who one effective independence of Egypt from the Ottomans in early 1800s
Boers
Dutch settlers in South Africa
Cecil Rhodes
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British troops
Sepoy Rebellion
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny. (p. 661)
Qing Dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during the Qing dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
Schlieffen plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Franz- Ferdinand
archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I
Clemenceau
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
Lenin
founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world’s first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Bolsheviks
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Leon Trotsky
Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution
Wilson
28th President of the United States
League Of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
Nietzsche
influential German philosopher remembered for his concept of the superman and for his rejection of Christian values (1844-1900)
Sartre
French writer and existentialist philosopher (1905-1980)
Aldous Huxley
Brave New World
Currie
discovered radium
Einstein
someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality
Rutherford
British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom (1871-1937)
Picasso
prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France (1881-1973)
Kandinsky
Russian painter who was a pioneer of abstract art (1866-1944)
Stravinsky
composer who was born in Russia but lived in the United States after 1939 (1882-1971)
Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Leon Blum
Leon Blum, who began as a literary critic, became active in politics as a result of the Dreyfuss Affair. In 1919, he was elected to the French Chamber of Deputies. In 1925, he became the head of the Socialist Party and, in May 1936, he became France’s first socialist Prime Minister since 1870. During his one year in office, he instituted a number of important social reforms, including the 40-hour work week. He used the Popular Front very successfully and it was used the workers and lower middle class. Revolutions by conservatives and inflation ruined the Popular Front and because of this Blum was forced to resign in June 1937.
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Mussolini
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
Grand Alliance
An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Christian Democrats
Powerful center to center-right political parties that evolved in the late 1940s in Europe from former Catholic parties of the pre-WWII period. Christian parties gained increasing support in the postwar era, winning elections in par because of their participation in wartime resistance. A vital component of postwar politics, these groups shifted from their decades-old emphasis on advocating church interests to welcoming non-Catholics among their ranks and focusing on democracy, anti-communism, and social reform.
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Brezhnev
Soviet Dictator from 1964 to 1982; brought an end to the Dethawing of the Cold War, instituted his doctrine of intervention in Eastern Europe; invaded Afghanistan in 1979
Dubcek
leader of Czechoslovakia during the Prague of Spring, he expanded freedom of discussion and other intellectual rights at a time when they were being repressed in the Soviet
Margaret Thatcher
leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.
Boris Yeltsin
Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. The Yeltsin era was a traumatic period in Russian history—a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. In June 1991 Yeltsin came to power on a wave of high expectations. On June 12 Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after endorsing radical economic reforms in early 1992 which were widely blamed for devastating the living standards of most of the Russian population. By the time he left office, Yeltsin was a deeply unpopular figure in Russia, with an approval rating as low as two percent by some estimates.
Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
Lech Walsea
The leader of the Polish anti-soviet resistance, and in 1990 he won the presidency in Poland’s first free election in half a century. As an organizer of shipyard strikes in the mid-1970s, he lost his job in 1976 over his anti-communist political views, along with many others who dared to resist the Soviet influence. (http://www.answers.com)
Pope John Paul II
Assumed Papacy 1979, Conservative Pope, against strengthening women’s position in church, more staunch on birth control
Vaclav Havel
Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992 and president of the Czech Republic since 1993 (born in 1936)
1492
Jews got kicked out of Spain, and COlumbus sails the ocean blue
1517
Martin Luther- 95 Theses on granting indulgences
1555
Peace of Augsburg
1598
Edict of Nantes
1618- 1648
30 years war, austrian stasge, swedish intervened, Battle of White Mountain
1648
Peace of Westphalia
1688
Glorious REvolution in England
1713
End of Spanish Civil war, peace of utrecht, pragmatic sanction
1756- 63
7 years war
1776
Adam Smith “Welath of Nations” American Revolution
1789
French Revolution
1800
Napoleon era begins
1815
Waterloo defeat and Congress of Vienna
1848
Marx and Engles, communist manifesto, France, Austria and Prussian revolution (all failed) Louis Napoleon Elected.
1871
Franco Prussian War, German Empire declared at Versailles, Modernization of Paris begins
1914
Beginning of WWI
1917
Us enters the war, Russian Revolution and civil war
1918
End of WWI with treaty of versailles.
1929
Great Depression
1933
Hitler elected, and new deal, enabling act in germany
1939
WWII begins, non agression pact between soviets and germans
1945
Atomic bomb dropped on Japan, WWII ends.
1968
Cold War. Prague Spring, ussr grows into other counrties, beginning of 5th republic in spain. With paris revolts beginning it. Space race begins
1989- 91
Velvet Revolution, revolts in Eastern Europe, Berlin Wall goes down in 89′. Ussr destoryed in 91
2001
War in Afghanistan, 9’11. US war on terrotism
Renaissance Art
An art of line and edges, figures from the bible,classical history, and mythology, commisioned portraits, use of perspective, chiarascuro (light and dark) to achieve rounded effect, secular backgrounds and material splendor. Values: secularism, individualism, virtu, balance, order, passivity and calm.
Barouque
Art that is florid, more colorful, richer in texture and decoration, more light and shade- apparently less control. Scenes embody mystery and drama, violence and spectacle, suggesting a deliberate striving after effect. The Catholic church commissions artists to stir religious emotions and win back defectors. Values: sensualsim, dynaism, emotion.
Northern Realism
Genre or everday scenes exhibit mathematical and geometric values of seventeenth centruy science. Middle class Dutch patrons commissioned secular works, portaits, still lives, landscapes, and genre paintings. Values: Quiet opulence, +comfortable domesticity, and relaism.
Rococo
Art of the french aristocracy portraying nobility in sylcan settings or ornate interiros, venusues and cupids above ladies in sillk along with finely dressed cavaliers. Values: ornamentation, elegance, sweetness.
Neoclassicm
Return to classical antiquity for inspiration, scenes are hisotircal and mythological, figures appear to be sculptued, appeal is to intellect, not heaty. emotions are restrained, and balance is achieved. Values: reason, order, balance, reverence for antiquity.
Romanticism
A reaction against the “cold and unfeeling”: reasons for the enlightenment, and against the destruction of nature resulting from the industrial revolution. Stress is on liht, color and self expression, in opposition to the emphasis on lne and firm modeling typical of neoclassical art. Values: emotion, feeling, morbidity, exocitism, mystery.
Impressionism
An attempt to portray the fleeting and stransitory world of sense impressions based on scientific stuides of light, forms are bathed in light and atmosphere. colors are juxtaposed for the eye to fuse form a distance, short, choppy brush strokesto catch the vibrating quality of the light.
Values: immediate, accidental, and transitory.
Expresionaism
Indebted to Freud, art tries to penetrate the facade of bourgeoise superficilaity and probe the psyche, that which lurks benath an individuals calm and artificial posture. Values: subliminal anxiety, dissonance in color and perspective, pictorial violence- manifest and latent.
Surrelaism
indebted to Freud, explores the dream world, life without logic, reason or meaning, fasicnation or mystery, the strance necounters betwen objects, and incongruity, subjects are often indecipherable in their strangeness, the beautiful is the quality of chance association. Values: the dream sequence, fantasy.
Cubism
No one single point of view, no continuity or simulaniety of image contour, all possible views of the subject are compressed into one synthesizes view of top, sides, front and back. Picture becomes multifaceted view of objects with angular, interlocking planes. Value: a new way of seeing, a view of the world as a mosaic of multiple relationships, reality as interaction.
Abstract Expressionism
Nonrepresantational art, no climazes, flattened- out planes and values, the real appearance of forms in nature os subordinated to an aesthetic concept of from composed of shapes, lines and colors. Value: personal and subjective interpretation.
During the great witchcraft persecutions who were often tried as witches?
older women
During the industrial revolution the leading industry was
Textiles
Aryan women
Treated more favorably than in later India. Widows could remarry and weren’t given in child-marriage. In epics (Ramayana) women portrayed as forceful and able to achieve goals. (Aryan Society)
After Franz Ferdinands death what unfolded?
Austria invaded Serbia as ordered by the german kaiser.
The decision made at Yalta was:
The division of Germany into the post war occupations
The Princes main purpose
was to unite Italy under one ruler

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