AP European History Exam

AP European History Exam

Absolutism
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally
Abstract Expressionism
No identifiable subject matter. Expresses feelings of artists. Emphasized spontaneous personal expression, freedom from accepted artistic values. Pollack
Act of Union
1701 act of Parliament uniting England and Scotland into one kingdom: Great Britain. Intended to strengthen England against France. Abolished the Scottish Parliament.
Konrad Adenauer
The first chancellor of West Germany; he was able to establish a stable democratic government (1876-1967)
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish Lutheran king who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years’ War and lost his life in one of the battles (1594-1632)
Agatir
Moroccan Crisis: The site of the landing of the German gunboat in Morocco in 1911. William II tried to force the French to make concessions to Germany in Africa. Like the first crisis, this one drew Britain and France closer together
Age of Absolutism
1650-1789, a purposeful attempt by European rulers to attend their royal or dynastic control over all aspects of life in the lands they ruled
Age of Anxiety
time between 1918 and 1950 when the meaning of lifewas being questioned around the world because of the harsh brutality of World War I, impersonal attitudes, pessimism for future
Age of Metternich
period of time in Europe in which reactionaries ruled. During which there was a lot ot opposition and revolt from countries trying to establish their own freedom such as Poland and Greece
Age of Montesquieu
first phase of the french revolution-tennis court oath, national assembly, etc
Age of Rousseau
second phase of the French Revolution-Republic, execution of Louis, Committee of Public Safety, Reign of Terror, Thermidorian Rebellion, Directory
Agricultural Revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled
Alexander II
Reforming czar who emancipated the serfs and introduced some measure of representative local government (1855-1881)
Alexander III
Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia (1881-1894)
Algecira
Moroccan Crisis: The site of the 1906 conference in Spain at which German involvement in Morocco was rebuffed by Britain and France acting in unison
Algerian Liberation Movement
An eight-year struggle by Algeria to secure independence from French colonial control; the goal was finally achieved in 1962
American Revolution
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Ancien Regime (Old Regime)
France prior to the French Revolution
Anschluss
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938
Appeasement
The making of concessions to an adversary in the hope of avoiding conflict. The term is most often used in reference to the meeting between Hitler and British prime minister Chamberlain in Munich, where agreement was made, in September 1938, to cede the Sudetenland (the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia) to Germany
Saint Thomas Aquinas
He believed that Christianity’s premises and date came from divine revelation rather than from empirical observation. Theology was considered a science, and he was a scholastic. Wrote Summa Theologica
Aristotelian-Ptolemaic Cosmology
The geocentric view of the universe that prevailed from the fourth century B.C. to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and accorded with the church teachings and Scriptures
Armada
Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II’s invasion of England (1588)
Army Order Number 1
An order issued to the Russian military when the provisional government was armed. It deprived officers of their authority and placed power in elected committees of common soldiers. This led to the collapse of army discipline
Article 231
Provision of the Versailles Treaty that blamed Germany for World War I
Arkwright
Invented the water frame and steam engine
Atlantic Alliance
Alliance between Thatcher, Kohl, and Reagan over the control of the Atlantic
Atlantic Charter
The joint declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world; self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament
Sir Francis Bacon
He gave science a progressionist bias. Science has as a practical purpose the goal of human improvement. His greatest achievement was persuading others that scientific thought must conform to empirical experience. Wrote Novum Organum
Michael Bakunin
Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. He believed that revolutionary movements should be led by secret societies who would seize power, destroy the state, and create a new social order (1814-1876)
Vasco de Balboa
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean
Banalites
Fees that French peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop, and winepress
Baroque
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter-Reformation. Characterized by violent movement, strong emotion and dramatic lighting and color. Rembrant, Caravaggio
Bastille
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king’s concentration of the troops at Versailles
Bayle
Wrote Dictionary. A religous skeptic who attacked superstition, religous attitudes, and dogmatism.
Simone de Beauvoir
Existentialist and feminist who has written on the psychology and social position of women (1908-1986)
Cesare Beccaria
Author of Of Crime and Punishment. He attacked both torture and capital punishment. He believed criminal justice should ensure speedy trial and sure punishment which was intended to deter further crime. Law was to secure the greatest good for the greatest number of human beings
Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler’s attempt, in 1923, to overthrow the Weimar Republic when he fired his pistol in the ceiling of a Munich beer hall
Beethoven
(1770-1827) French, purely Romantic composer, transformed the art of music. Used music to convey his feelings of what was going on in the world around him, such as the many French revolutions of that time; Third Symphony, also called the Eroica (originally written for Napoleon) and Ninth Symphony, composed when he was completely deaf
Jeremy Bentham
British theorist and philosopher known for his work, Principles of Morals and Legislation, proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number (1748-1832)
Berlin Wall
Concrete barrier constructed by the Soviets in August 1961 between West Berlin and East Berlin to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West (In 1990, the wall was torn down.)
Eduard Bernstein
Revisionist German Social Democrat who favored socialist revolution by the ballot rather than the bullet- i.e., by cooperating with the bourgeois members of Parliament and securing electoral victories for his party (the SDP) (1850-1932)
Henry Bessemer
Englishman who developed the first efficient method for the mass production of steel
Bill of Rights
Document declaring that sovereignty resided with the Parliament (1689)
Otto von Bismarck
Prussian chancellor who engineered a series of wars to unify Germany under his authoritarian rule (1815-1898)
Black Death
The bubonic plague that struck Europe in the mid-fourteenth century and killed from one third to one half of the population before it ran its course after 1600
Black Hand
The Serbian secret society alleged to be responsible for assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Princeps)
Black Shirts
The private army of Mussolini
Louis Blanc
Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the first step toward a future socialist society. Advocated the principle of “from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.”
Blank Check
Reference to the full support provided by William II to Austria-Hungary in its conflict with Serbia. Also refers to the promise of support given by Russia to Serbia to develop of Slavic state
Blitzkreig
A lightning war using planes, tanks, artillery, and mechanized infantry to knock out the opponent swiftly
Giovanni Boccaccio
His works portrayed lecherous friars, ambitious merchants, and a frankly acquisitive, sensual and secular society. Wrote Decameron
Bolshevik
Left-wing, revolutionary Marxists headed by Lenin (majority men)
Jacques Boussuet
He held fast to the Old Testament belief that rulers were divinely appointed by and answerable only to God. Wrote Politics Drawn of Holy Scripture
Boyar
Russian noble
Willy Brandt
Chancellor of West Germany in the late 1960s; he sought to improve relations with the states of Eastern Europe (1913-)
Brethren of the Common Life
Pious laypeople in sixteenth-century Holland who initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living
Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet leader who helped oust and then replace Khrushchev (1907-1982)
Brezhnev Doctrine
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need
Brown Shirts
Hitler’s private army of supporters, also known as the SA (Sturm Abteilung)
Bundesrat
The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature)
Edmund Burke
Member of the British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought (1729-1797)
Burschenschaften
Politically active students around 1815 in the German States proposing unification and democratic principles
Cahier de Doleances
List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789
John Calvin
A French theologian who established a theocracy in the Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination. Bible is the sole word of God. Helped create the protestant work ethic. Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion (1509-1564)
Albert Camus
French existentialist who stated that in spite of the general absurdity of human life, individuals could make rational sense out of their own existence through meaningful personal decision making (1913-1960)
Carbonari
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815
Carlsbad Decrees
Repressive laws in the German States limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities (1819)
Castiglione
He knew that the ideal man was many talented, including artistic, intellectual and physical skills. Wrote regarding manners. Wrote Book of the Courtier
“Cat and Mouse Act”
Law that released suffragettes on hunger strikes from jail and then rearrested and jailed them again (1913)
Catherine de Medicis
The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons (1547-1589)
Catherine the Great
An “enlightened despot” of Russia whose political policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs (1762-1796)
Catholic Counter Reformation
The Catholic Church’s response to the Protestant Reformation in which it tried to reform itself. (1545-1563)
Catholic Emancipation Bill
Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time (1829)
Benvenuto Cellini
A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise (1500-1571)
Charles I
Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was consequently executed (1625-1649)
Charles II
Stuart king during the Restoration, following Cromwell’s Interregnum (1660-1685)
Charles V
Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands. He was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation (1519-1556)
Cheka
The secret police under Lenin and his Communist Party
Church Statute of 1721
A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members (lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to the czar
Classic Liberalism
Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its political goals were self government; a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire
Code Napoleon
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France
Colbert
The financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies (1619-1683)
Cold War
An intense conflict between the superpowers using all means short of a military might to achieve their respective ends
Christopher Columbus
First European to sail to the West Indies, 1492 (1446-1506)
Commercial Revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795
Common Market
Another name for the European Economic Community, which created a free-trade area among the Western European countries
Communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
August Comte
History is divided into three stages: theological, works by God’s will; metaphysical, works by natural law; scientific, forget generalizations and stick to facts. Wrote The Course of Positive Philosophy
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon’s arrangement with Pope Pius VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the government
Concordat of Bologna
Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right for the government to nominate all French bishops and abbots (1516)
Condorcet
Author of Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind
Condottiere
A mercenary soldier of a political ruler
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Conservative Party
Formerly the Tory Party, headed by Disraeli in the nineteenth century
Constitutional Democrats
Also known as the Cadets, the party of the liberal bourgeoisie in Russia
Constitutionalism
The theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects, and the state governed according to laws
Continental System
Napoleon’s efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding importation of British goods into Europe
Nicholaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe (1473-1543)
Corn Laws
Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristocratic landholdings
Hernando Cortez
Conquerer of the Aztecs, 1519-1521
Corvees
Road work; obligation of French peasants to landowners
Council for Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon)
An economic alliance, founded in 1949, to coordinate the economic affairs of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries.
Council of People’s Commissars
The new government set up by Lenin following the Red Guard seizure of government buildings on November 6, 1917
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545-1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with Protestants
Count Cavour
Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve the unification of Italy (1810-1861)
Count of Saint-Simon
Government should be directed by scientists, not politicians, who understood the operation of the modern industrial economy. Government should serve interests of the people. Wrote The New Christianity
Coup d’état
Overthrow of those in power
Courbet
French painter noted for his realistic depiction of everyday scenes (1819-1877)
Crimean War
Conflict ostensibly waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfeited Russia’s right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (1853-1856)
Oliver Cromwell
The principal leader and a gentry member of the Puritans in Parliament (1559-1658)
Crystal Night (Krystallnacht)
The November 1938 destruction, by Hitler’s brown Shirts and mobs, of Jewish shops, homes, and synagogues
Cubism
Employs an analytical vision based on fragmentation and multiple viewpoints. Attempts to break down nature into basic geometric forms (cubes, rectangles, triangles, etc.) Braque, Picasso
Dadaism
Horrified by WWI, artists rebelled against Western Civilization art. Rejects accepted aesthetic standards. Creates anti-art, often employing a sense of the absurd. Irrational, nonsensical, outrageous. Duchamp
Charles Darwin
British scientist whose Origin of Species (1859) proposed the theory of evolution based on his biological research. He argued that chance differences among members of a species help some to survive while others die (1809-1882)
Dawes Plan
The provision of U.S. loans to Germany to help meet reparation payments, which were also reduced (1924)
Francis Deak
Magyar, who forced Franz Joseph to agree to the Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich) which created the Dual Monarchy of Austria- Hungary (1803-1876)
Decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence
Decemberist
Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early nineteenth century
Decembrist Revolt
The 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up a constitutional monarchy or a republic. The plot failed, but the ideals remained
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Document that embodied the liberal revolutionary ideals and general principles of the philosophes’ writings (August 27, 1789)
Decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947-1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence
Defenestration of Prague
The hurtling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years’ War
Deism
The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny
Delacroix
This French painter was important to French Romantic art. He often used his painting to convey a political message, and he is best known for his painting depicting the socialist revolution of 1830: Liberty Leading the People.
Rene Descartes
Deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”) challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures
Destalinization
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
Detente
Reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations between the superpowers during Khrushchev’s rule in the Soviet Union
Dialectical Materialism
The idea, according to Karl Marx, that change and development in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways
Bartholemew Diaz
First European to reach the southern tip of Africa, 1487-1488
Charles Dickens
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
Denis Diderot
One of the authors of the Encyclopedia
Diggers and Levellers
Radical groups in England in the 1650s who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise
Directory
The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre’s execution and prior to Napoleon’s coming to power (1795-1799)
Benjamin Disraeli
Leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class. Added the Suez Canal to English overseas holdings (1804-1881)
Divine-Right Monarchy
The belief that the monarch’s power derives from God and represents Him on Earth
Domestic System
The manufacture of goods in the household setting, a production system that gave way to the factory system
Dostoevsky
Russian novelist who wrote of human suffering with humor and psychological insight (1821-1881)
Dreadnought
A battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals. Carried 10 300mm guns mounted in 5 turrets
Alfred Dreyfus
French Jewish army captain unfairly convicted of espionage in a case that lasted from 1894 to 1906 (1859-1935)
Dual Monarchy
An 1867 compromise between the Germans of Austria-Bohemia and the Magyars of Germany to resolve the nationalities problem by creating the empire of Austria and the kingdom of Hungary, with a common ministry for finance, foreign affairs, and war
Duke of Alva
Military leader sent by Philip II to pacify the Low Countries
Duma
Russian national legislature
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company organized in 1602 that controlled the spice trades in the East Indies
Edict of Nantes
The edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France (1598)
Edward V
King of England who was crowned at the age of 13 on the death of his father Edward IV but was immediately confined to the Tower of London where he and his younger brother were murdered (1470-1483)
Edward VI
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII’s only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn’t capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
Edward VII
King of England from 1901 to 1910; son of Victoria and Prince Albert; famous for his elegant sporting ways (1841-1910)
Edward VIII
1936 Served in the First World War and wanted to marry an American and was forced to abdicate the throne to do so. 325 day rule was one of the shortest and he was never crowned king. He was accused of pro Nazi feelings and was forced to the Bahamas as governor.
Elizabeth I
Protestant ruler of England who helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations (1558-1603)
Elizabeth II
daughter of George VI who became the Queen of England and Northern Ireland in 1952 on the death of her father (1926-)
Emancipation Edict
The imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia and, on paper, freed the peasants. In actuality they were collectively responsible for redemption payments to the government for a number of years (1861)
Ems Telegram
The carefully edited dispatch by Bismarck to the French ambassador Benedetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor
Enabling Act
Article 48 of the Weimar constitution, which enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying the force of law
Encirclement
Before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to acquire it “living room” (Lebensraum)
Friedrich Engels
Collaborator with Karl Marx. He was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably Das Kapttal (1867) (1820-1895)
Enlightenment
The intellectual revolution of eighteenth century in which the philosophies stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices
Entente Cordiale
The 1904 “gentlemen’s agreement” between France and Britain establishing a close understanding
Desiderius Erasmus
Although a Catholic he believed that many priests had distorted the simple teaching of Christ. He admired clear honest thinking and disliked intolerance and persecution. Wrote In Praise of Folly
Estates-General
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime
European Coal and Steel Community
Organized by Jean Monnet (1888-1979) it called for an integration of the coal and steel industries of France and West Germany. It finally added Italy and the Benelux states
European Economic Community (Common Market
Organization, begun on January 1, 1958, including France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations. By 1966 it would eliminate all customs barriers between countries, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of workers and capital
European Free Trade Association
An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven- i.e., outside the Common Market; formed in 1959
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Existentialism
A label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy, stressing choice, freedom, decision, and anguish, and emerging strongly during and after the World War II years
Expressionism
Uses emphasis and distortion to communicate emotion. Bold, shocking, unrealistic color. Depressing tone usually
Fabian Society
Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change
Factory Act
Limited children’s and adolescents work week in textile factories in England (1833)
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
Muslim armies conquered Constantinople in 1453 and invaded Eastern Europe and brought the end to Christian dominance in the East. (1453)
Fall of Soviet Union
the soviet union’s weakening economy along with great discrepancies between worker’s wages and the privileges their leaders enjoyed, led the the breakup of the soviet union.
Fascism
The political and economic methods of Mussolini in Italy. The name comes from the fasces or bundle of rods tied around an axe, the symbol of authority in ancient Rome
Father Gapon
Leader of the factory workers who assembled before the czar’s palace to petition him on January 1905 (Bloody Sunday)
Fauvism
Means “wild beast”. Bold, shocking color. Joyous tone, usually. Matisse
Roger Fenton
Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War
Feudalism
A decentralized political system in which lords and their vassals, both members of the aristocracy, allied to fight wars and defend territorial gains
J. G. Fichte
German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples (1762-1814)
Fifth Republic
Government established in France in October 1958, made after a new French consitution gave more power to the president. Charles De Gaulle was the first president of the Fifth French Republic. De Gaulle soon started a long retreat from Algeria
Final Solution
Hitler’s policy of virulent anti-Semitism, culminating in the Holocaust, the genocide of six million Jews and other peoples
First Reich
Name given to the Holy Roman Empire from 963-1806
First Republic
Government established in France from 1793-1804, French republic springing from Jacobin party and the Convention. more rights to women than ever before (does execute Olympe Gouges).
Flaubert
French Novelist, Realism, stories of middleclass france struggle against society, Madame Bovary
Charles Fourier
A leading utopian socialist known for his work, Theory of Four Movements, who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing the private property and monogamous marriage as well (1772-1837)
Fourteen Points
Wilson’s peace plans calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, and the right of self-determination for ethnic groups
Fourth Republic
Government established in France from 1946-1958, The French government set up after World War II; Had a weak president, strong legislature, and too many parties
Frederick the Great Elector
This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Frederick William
The “Soldier’s King”, who built a strong Prussian army and infused military values into Prussian society (160-1688)
Frederick William IV
King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848 (1840-1861)
Free French
Supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in 1940. In 1944, de Gaulle’s Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional government
Free Trade
An economic theory or policy of the absence of restrictions or tariffs on goods imported into a country. There is no “protection” in the form of tariffs against foreign competition
French Academy of Sciences
Organized body for scientific study. founded in the 1600s
French Civil Wars
after Henry II died there was a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown. Many nobles who had converted to Calvinism wanted to gain independence from the crown, resulting in feudal disorder. At least nine wars occured in the late 1500s as a result. (1562-1594)
French Classicism
The style in seventeenth-century art and literature stressing discipline, balance, and restraint and thus resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance- e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine
French Revolution
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon’s overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Sigmund Freud
Viennese psychoanalyst known for his work, Interpretation of Dreams, who postulated that much of human behavior is motivated by unconscious emotional needs. He (1856-1939)
Fronde
The last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch, specifically nobility-led riots against the monarchy between 1648-1660
Galileo Galilee
Italian scientist who formulated terrestrial laws and the modern law of inertia; he also provided evidence for the Copernican hypothesis (1564-1642)
Guiseppe Garibaldi
Soldier of fortune who amassed his “Red Shirt” army to bring Naples and Sicily into a unified Italy (1807-1882)
Alcide de Gasperi
The leader of the Christian Democrats in Italy, he was committed to democracy and moderate social reform (1881-1954)
Charles de Gaulle
First president of the French Fifth Republic and former head of the Free French movement in World War II (1890-1970)
George I
1700’s was a German Protestant prince who spoke no English, therefore completely let Parliament have control and started the Cabinet, which was a handful of Parliament advisers
George II
A king of Britain who knew little of the workings of the British government and relied on Walpole and Pitt the Elder
George III
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
George IV
(1820-1830) This son of George III succeeded his father after ruling as regent for the last years of his insane father’s life. For most of his regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as prime minister. He was deemed selfish, unreliable, irresponsible and a spendthrift and not terribly respected by the British people.
George V
1910-1936 Served in the Royal Navy and was King during WWI. Changed the name of the house Saxe Coburg to Windsor as a result of anti German feelings.
George VI
King of Great Britain and Ireland and emperor of India from 1936 to 1947
William Gladstone
British Liberal Party leader and prime minister, a chief rival of Disraeli. Gladstone’s ministry included reforms in public education, civil service exams, and secret balloting (1809-1898)
Glasnost
Gorbachev used the term to explain his new policy of “openness” in allowing Russians more freedom to dissent
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689 when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange
Johann Goethe
His work demonstrated the deep spiritual problems that Europeans would encounter as the traditional moral and religious values of Christianity were abandoned. Wrote Dr. Faustus
Golden Age of the Netherlands
was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
Golden Age of Spain
1500 – 1600. Newfound wealth from American explorations bring in high point of Spanish military might, art and culture.
Gorbachev
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Wanting reform, he renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, pulled troops out of Afghanastan, supported Glasnost, and urged perestroika; but all this failed.
Great Depression
The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Great Fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives
Hugo Grotius
He tried to prove that such a thing as a natural law existed and that states were bound by it, first to propose the concept of a “united nations” and believed war should be outlawed. Wrote Law of War and Peace
Hundred Years’ War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (1337-1453)
Francois Guizot
Chief minister under Louis Philippe. His repression led to the revolution of 1848 (1787-1874)
Gulag
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political dissidents
Habeus Corpus
The legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause
Hapsburg
a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806
George Hegel
Believed that Thesis vs. Antithesis leads to synthesis. Wrote Philosophy of Right
Hegelian Dialectic
The idea, according to G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831). a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by the antithesis, resulting in a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis. The process is evolutionary. marx turned Hegel “upside down” and made class conflict, not ideas, the force driving history forward
Prince Henry the Navigator
Sponsor of voyages along West African coasts 1418
Henry IV (of Navarre)
Ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism “Paris is worth the mass!” (1589-1610)
Henry V
king of England during the Hundred Years’ War who forced Charles VI to sign away his kingdom and took his daughter, Katherine, in marriage
Henry VI
weak king of England who could not control the local lords, was defeated in a civil war
Henry VII (Henry Tudor)
Takes throne from Yorks (Richard III) in Battle of Bosworth Fields. Has a weak claim to the throne. Creates the Court of Star Chamber and takes power away from the nobles by taking away their armies. does not want to participate in wars. marries Richard III’s sister, Elizabeth
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England’s break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
J. G. Herder
Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist (1774-1803)
Paul von Hindenburg
President of the Weimar Germany, who appointed Hitler chancellor in 1933; formerly a general in World War I (1847-1934)
Hiroshima
Japanese city on which the United States dropped an atomic bomb on August 6, 1945
Adolf Hitler
The Nazi leader who came to power legally in Germnay in 1933. he set up a totalitarian dictatorship and led Germany into World War II (1889-1945)
Thomas Hobbes
Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature (1588-1679)
Holy Alliance
An alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian Principles
House of Savoy
The Italian dynasty ruling the independent state of Piedmont-Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II
Huguenots
French Calvanists
Humanism
The recovery and study of classical authors and writings
David Hume
Author of An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Hungarian Revolt
Attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break off military alliance with the Soviet Union (1956)
John Huss
Czech priest who was burned at the stake for rejecting and questioning certain church doctrines, such as transubstantiation (1369-1415)
Imperialism
The acquisition and administration of colonial areas, usually in the interests of the administering country (The Second Age of Exploration)
Impressionism
Focuses on transitory visual impressionism, Often painted directly from nature, emphasizing the changing effects of light and color. Renoir
Indemnities
Financial demands placed on loser nations
Indemnity Bill
The bill passed by the German Reichstag that legitimated Bismarck’s unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize the army in 1863 (1867)
Index
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read
Individualism
The emphasis on the unique and creative personality
Inductive Reasoning
Emphasis on experimentation and scientific method
Indulgence
Papal pardon for remission of sins that is bought
Inquisition
A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution
Interregnum
The period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1660) between the Stuart rules of Charles I and Charles II
Italian Renaissance Art
Stressed forms of classical antiquity and a realistic representation of space based on scientific perspective and secular subjects. Da Vinci
Ivan the Great
The Slavic Grand Duke of Moscow, he ended nearly 200 years of Mongol domination of his dukedom. From then on he worked at extending his territories, subduing the nobles, and attaining absolute power (1462-1505)
Ivan the Terrible
Earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia (1533-1584)
Jacobins
The dominant group in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondins. It was headed by Robespierre
James I
Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings (1603-1625)
James II
Final Stuart ruler; he was forced to abdicate in favor of William and Mary, who agreed to the Bill of Rights, guaranteeing parliamentary supremacy (1685-1688)
Karl Jaspers
German existentialist seeing all people as equally co-responsible for the terrors and injustices of the world (1883-1969)
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Jean Juares
French revisionist socialist who was assassinated for his pacifist ideals at the start of World War I (1859-1914)
Immanuel Kant
Greatest German philosopher of Enlightenment-separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge-science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality. Wrote Critique of Pure Reason
John Kay
Invented the flying shuttle
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Document, signed by fifteen countries, that “condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy.”
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet leader who denounced Stalin’s rule and brought a temporary thaw in the superpowers’ relations (1894-1971)
John Knox
Calvinist leader in the sixteenth-century Scotland (1505-1572)
Kulak
An independent and propertied Russian farmer
Kulturkampf
Bismarck’s anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with the Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies
Labor Party
The British party that replaced the Liberals in the early twentieth century and championed greater social equality for the working classes through the efforts of labor unions
Laissez-Faire
The economic concept of the Scottish philosophe Adam Smith (1723-1790). In opposition to mercantilism, the government’s role in the economy was one of non-interference
Ferdinand Lassalle
Leader of the revisionist socialists who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. They agreed to work within the framework of the existing government (1825-1864)
Lateran Agreement
Pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican and a large sum of money to the church as well (1929)
Law of the Maximum
The fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre’s rule
League of Nations
A proposal included in Wilson’s Fourteen Points to establish and international organization to settle disputes and avoid future wars
Legislative Assembly
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
V. I. Lenin
The Bolshevik leader who made the Marxist revolution in November 1917 and modified orthodox Marxism in doing so (1870-1924), Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.
Leo XIII
He condemned socialism and Marxism for its atheism and opposition to private property. Insisted on the moral obligation of employers to pay a living wage to workers. Wrote Rerum Novarum
Levee en Masse
The creation, under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare
Liberal Party
Formerly the Whig Party, headed by Gladstone in the nineteenth century
Locarno Treaty
Pact that secured the frontier between Germany and France and Germany and Belgium. It also provided for mutual assistance by France and Italy if Germany invaded its border countries (1925)
John Locke
Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to life, liberty, and property. His most important works are Two Treatises on Government and Essay on Human Understanding (1632-1704)
Louis XIV
Also known as the “Sun King”; the ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe (1643-1715)
Lusitania
British merchant liner carrying ammunition and passengers that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915. The loss of 139 American lives on board was a factor bringing the United States into World War I
Martin Luther
German theologist who challenged the church’s practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the unity of the Roman Catholic world (1483-1546)
Nicolo Machiavelli
The chief foundations of all states are good taws and good arms (synonymous with deception, unscrupulous and cunning) The ends justify the means. Wrote The Prince
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522
Alfred Mahan
He believed that the future of military power lay in the navy. Wrote Influence of Seapower on History
Thomas Malthus
English parson whose Essay on Population (1798) argued that population would always increase faster than the food supply
Manorialism
The economic base of feudalism; in brief, the economic system in which the serfs worked the fields of the manorial lord and provided the material wherewithal to support the noble class
Maria Theresa
Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary, who lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories (1740-1780)
Marshall Plan
Program that advanced more than $11 billion for European recovery to sixteen Western nations from 1947-1953; the final cost to the United States was $20 billion
Karl Marx
German philosopher and founder of Marxism, known for his work, Das Kapital, created the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development. He believed in the rise of the proletariat (1818-1883)
Mary I (Bloody Mary)
1553-1558 AD. Catholic queen of England married to Philip II of Spain. Daughter of Catherine of Aragorn. Executed hundred of Protestants when they refused to convert.
Guiseppe Mazzini
Idealistic patriot devoted to the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states (1852-1870)
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
Work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923; the book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non-Aryans
Menshevik
Right-wing or moderate Marxists willing to cooperate with the bourgeoisie (minority men)
Prince Clemens von Metternich
Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna (1773-1859)
John Stuart Mill
British philosopher who published On Liberty (1859), advocating individual rights against government intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women’s rights (1806-1873)
Mir
Village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the government
Pico della Mirandola
Man’s place within the universe lies somewhere between beasts and angels, but there are no limits to what he can accomplish. Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man
Montaigne
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Montesquieu
Author of Spirit of the Laws and Persian Letters. Geography and climate determine the form of government. Believed in separation of powers
Sir Thomas More
Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his refusal to acknowledge publicly his king as Supreme Head of the Church Clergy of England. He believed that the basic problems of society were caused by greed. Law should exalt mercy above justice. Citizens who live by reason will live a nearly perfect life. Wrote Utopia (1478-1535)
Aldo Moro
Former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978
Moroccan Crises
Confrontations in 1906 and 1911 between Germany and the nations of France and England over William II’s interest in colonial gains in Africa
Benito Mussolini
The founder and leader of the Italian Fascist Party (1883-1945)
Nagasaki
Japanese city on which the United States dropped an atomic bomb on August 9, 1945, bringing the Japanese surrender and an end to World War II
Imre Nagy
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt (1896-1958)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Consul and later emperor of France (1799-1815), who established several of the reforms (Code Napoleon) of the French Revolution during his dictatorial rule (1769-1821)
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte
Nephew of Napoleon I; he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848 (1808-1873)
Napoleon III
The former Louis Napoleon, who became president of united and republican Italy in a world of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d’etat, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire (1852-1870)
Napoleonic Era
the era in which Napoleon ruled as First Consul, then Emperor; organized French law; made trade easier; recognized French banks; encouraged industry and technology. Also known as “Age of Voltaire”
Napoleonic Wars
Wars between Napoleon and the rest of Europe, which helped spread the ideas of the French Revolution.
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
National Convention
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Nationalism
The shared belief among peoples of a common heritage, culture, and customs, and speaking a similar language (there may be dialectic differences)
National Socialists (Nazis)
The political party of Adolf Hitler
Natural Law
Laws that exist outside and above all people and are discovered by reason
Nazi-Soviet Pact
An agreement between Hitler and Stalin to remain neutral if the other went to war, also, German acknowledgment of Russia’s sphere of influence in the Baltics and a secret clause agreeing to the division and takeover of Poland
Neo-Classicism
Elegant, balanced works imitated the order and harmony of ancient Greek and Roman art. David
Nepotism
The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a tactical retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulate agrarian production
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil War
New Monarchs
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority, often by Machiavellian means
Sir Isaac Newton
English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited a universe operating in accord with natural law (1642-1727)
Nicholas II
The last czar of the Romanov dynasty, whose government collapsed under the pressure of World War I (1894-1917)
Friedrich Nietzeche
German philosopher and forerunner of the modern existentialist movement known for his work, The Will to Power; he stressed the role of the Ubermensch or Superman, who would rise above the common herd of mediocrity, the will to power, transvaluation of values, God is dead (1844-1900)
Night of August 4, 1789
Date of the declaration by the more liberal aristocrats and bourgeoisie of the National Assembly at a secret meeting to abolish feudal regime in France
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Military alliance founded in 1949, between the United States and Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy; later, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined
Northern Renaissance Art
Similar to Italian Renaissance Art, but less secular. Brughel
Caroline Norton
British feminist whose legal persistence resulted in the Married Women’s Property Act (1883), which gave married women the same property rights as unmarried women (1808-1877)
Nuremberg Laws
Measures that excluded Jews from white-collar professions and from marriage and habitation with non-Jews (1935)
Nuremburg War Crimes Trials
Proceedings held after 1945 to convict German military and civilian leaders of “crimes against humanity” for their role in the extermination of the Jews and other peoples
Daniel O’Connell
Irish advocate for the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to have repealed the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. His election to Parliament for the passage of the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for Public Office (1775-1847)
Old Imperialism
Characterized by establishing posts and forts on coastal regions but not penetrating inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations.
Robert Owen
Utopian socialist who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased worker’s wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most notable was New Harmony (1826) which failed (1771-1858)
Emmeline Pankhurst
British suffragette and founder of the Women’s Social and Political Union (1858-1928)
Pan-Slavism
The movement to unite Slavs in the Balkans
Paris Commune
The revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war (March-May 1871) with the National Assembly of the newly established Third Republic, set up after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters (realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords)
Parlement
French law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king’s edict in Old Regime France
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters
Charles Stewart Parnell
Elected to Parliament in 1875 he came to prominence by obstructing other legislation to gain a hearing for home rule for Ireland. In 1885 his party won 86 seats, exactly the number of votes separating the Liberals (335) from the Conservatives (249). This forced Gladstone to announce his support for a Home Rule Bill
Blaise Pascal
He believed that the gap between Christianity and natural science was great. Man was not the physical center of the world, but his mind had penetrated the world’s laws. he said man was merely a reed, but a thinking reed. Wrote Pensees (Thoughts)
Boris Pasternak
Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era (1890-1960)
Peaceful Coexistence
The thaw in cold war tensions between the superpowers
“Peace, land, and bread”
The promise Lenin made to his supporters on his arrival in April 1917 in Russia after his exile abroad (in Germany)
Peace of Augsburg
Document in which Charles V officially recognized Lutheranism as a religion in the Holy Roman Empire that a ruler or free city had the liberty to choose for all subjects in the region (1555)
Peace of Utrecht
The pact concluding the War of Spanish Succession forbidding the union of France, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England (1713)
Peace of Westphalia
The treaty ending the Thirty Years’ War in Germany; it allowed each prince- whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist- to choose the established creed of his territory (1648)
Peaceful Coexistence
The thaw in cold war tensions between the superpowers
Peninsular War
Napoleon’s long-drawn-out war with Spain (1808-1813)
Peter the Great
The Romanov czar who initiated the westernization of Russian society by traveling to the West and incorporating techniques of manufacturing as well as manners and dress(1682-1725)
Petition of Rights
Parliamentary document that restricted the king’s power. Most notably, it called for recognition of the writ of habeus corpus and held that only Parliament could impose taxes (1628)
Petrarch
He believed in reviving an interest in the classics, he wrote sonnets expressing a romantic love, and an appreciation of nature. Wrote A Letter to Boccaccio: Literary Humanism
Petrograd Soviet
The St. Petersburg, or Petrograd, council of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals who shared power with the provisional government
Perestroika
Gorbachev’s policy of “restructuring” which included reducing the direct involvement of the Communist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It was a decentralization of economic planning and controls
Sofia Perovskiai
The first woman to be executed for a political crime in Russia. She was a member of a militant movement that assassinated Czar Alexander II in 1881
Philip II
Son and successor to Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries (1556-1598)
Philosophes
Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason and critical analysis
Physiocrats
Early advocates of laissez-faire economics
Francisco Pizarro
Conquerer of Peru, 1532-1533
Pluralism
The holding of several benefices, or church offices
Edgar Allen Poe
wrote The Raven, had a morbid sensibility, questioned human goodness and died at an early age from alcoholism
Poor Law of 1834
British legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid
Pop Art
Imagery from popular culture. Uses images and techniques of mass media, advertising- often in an ironic way. Warhol, Hockney
Postdam Conference
The July-August 1945 meeting of Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee of Great Britain, at which disagreements arose over the permanent borders of Germany and free elections in the East European countries. Stalin refused to hold free elections, in fear of anti-Soviet governments
PostImpressionism
Nineteenth century painters, who were dissatisfied with the limits of impressionism. Uses bold colors; some distortion of shapes. Munch, Van Gough
Prague Spring
The liberal reforms introduced by Alexander Dubeck, the Czechoslovak Communist Party secretary. On August 20, 1968, twenty thousand troops from the Soviet Union and its satellite countries occupied Prague to undo the reforms
Provisional Government
The temporary government established after the abdication of Nicholas II (1881-1970), from March until Lenin’s takeover in November 1917
Pugachev
Head of the bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convinced Catherine the Great to throw her support to the nobles and cease internal reforms (1726-1775)
Puritan Revolution
A reference to the English Civil War (1642-1646), waged to determine whether sovereignty would reside in the monarch or in Parliament
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to “purify” the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization
Putsch
Forcible and illegitimate attempt to seize power
Quadruple Alliance
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818
Quesnay
Leader of the Physiocrats who thought that land was the source of all wealth and supported laissez-faire economies.
Rabelais
A satirical fantasy in which he considers the questions of philosophy, education, and politics, expressing his faith in individuals and their ability to lead good lives. Wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel
Radicalism
Total reconstruction of laws, courts; abolish royalty. Very democratic
Leopold Ranke
The purpose of the historian is not to judge the past, in order to instruct the present, but only to show what actually occurred. One should not praise nor condemn an epoch. “Every age is immediate to God.” Wrote Criticism of New Historians
Rasputin
An uneducated Siberian preacher who claimed to have mysterious healing powers. He could stop the bleeding of Czarina Alexandra’s son- possibly through hypnosis- and was thus able to gain influence in the czar’s court, much to the dismay of top ministers and aristocrats, who finally arranged for his murder. The czarina’s relationship with him did much to discredit Czar Nicholas’s rule
Rationalism
The application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events
Realism
Objective representation of a scene. Rejected idealized academic styles in favor of everyday subjects. Millet
Realpolitik
The “politics of reality” i.e., the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismarck was a practitioner
Red Brigade
Terrorist group committed to radical political and social change that claimed responsibility for the assassination of former Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978
Red Guards
The Bolshevik armed forces
“Red Shirt”
Volunteers in Garibaldi’s army
Referendum
A plebiscite: the referring of a matter to the people for a decision
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches (1517)
Reform Bill of 1832
Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs
Reichstag
The lower house of the German Diet, or legislature
Religious Wars
Countries in Europe fought for decades trying to decide what religion to follow.
Treaty of Westphalia- allowed rulers to determine whether their countries would be catholic or Protestant.
Renaissance
The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed the birth and transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones in Northern Italy, and that spread to the rest of Europe
Repeal of Test Act
Allowed Protestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office (1828)
Rerum Novarum
Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of a private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism (1891)
Restoration
The return of the Stuart monarchy (1660) after the period of republican government under Cromwell which was, in fact, a military dictatorship
Revanche
The French desire for revenge against Germany for the loss of Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War (1870)
Revisionists
Marxists who believed that workers empowered to vote could obtain their ends through democratic means without revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, known as revisionism
Revolutions of 1989
fall/collapse of communism, revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communist states in the Eastern-Bloc.
David Ricardo
English economist known for his work, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, who formulated the “iron law of wages,” according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth (1772-1823)
Richard III
He was the last king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses
Risorgimento
Italian drive and desire for unity
Rococo
Reacts to the grandeur and massiveness of the baroque. It employs refined, elegant, highly decorative forms. Boucher
Michael Romanov
In 1613 an assembly of nobles chose him as the new czar. For the next 300 years his family ruled in Russia (1613-1633)
Romanticism
A reaction to neo-classicism that focuses on emotion over reason and spontaneous expression. Subject matter was invested with drama and painted in brilliant colors. Goya
Rotton Boroughs
Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Author of The Social Contract and Emile. Believed that individual’s natural liberty to one another, fusing their wills into a General Will which would be the true sovereign power. The majority is always right
Royal Society of London
Organized body for scientific study, founded in the 1600s
William Russell
British journalist who reported the events of the Crimean War first hand for the people at home
Russian Revolution
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
SALT I
1972 treaty between American and the Soviet Union which limited the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) at their existing levels for five years
SALT II
Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on long-range missiles, bombers and nuclear warheads
Sans-Coulottes
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men
Sarajevo
The Balkan town in the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia where Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne
Jean-Paul Sartre
French existentialist most famous for his statement that “existence precedes existence”- i.e., first we exist and then our decisions and choices shape up our character or essence (1905-1980)
Schleswig-Holstein
Two duchies located south of Denmark. In 1863 Schleswig was annexed by Denmark prompting Bismarck’s Danish War
Schlieffen Plan
Top-secret German strategy to fight a two-front war against Russia and France. The idea was to invade neutral Belgium for a quick victory against France, and then direct German forces against a more slowly mobilizing Russia
Schuman Plan
An international organization set up in 1952 to control and integrate all European coal and steel production; also known as the European Coal and Steel Community
Scientific Revolution
the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
SDP
The Social Democratic Party in Germany, based on Marx’s Ideology
Second Industrial Revolution
(1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. It saw the popularization of cinema and radio. Provided widespread employment and increased production.
Second Reich
Name given to the reigns of William I and William II from 1871 to 1917
Second Republic
Government established in France from 1848-1852, After the 1848 revolution in France, which caused Louis-Philippe to flee, this government system was put in place by revolutionists and guaranteed universal male suffrage. Louis-Napoleon (later known as Napoleon III), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was overwhelmingly elected president, and France enjoyed a period of stability and prosperity. This government was later overthrown in yet another coup d’etat.
Secularism
The emphasis on the here-and-now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly
Self-Determination
The ability of an ethnic group to decide how it wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as a part of another country
Seven Years’ War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Siege of Paris
The four-month Prussian assault on the French capital after Napoleon III’s surrender in 1870
Simony
The selling of church offices
Abbe Sieyes
He believed that the nobility was useless, his motto became: “confidence from below, authority from above.” Wrote What is the Third Estate?
Skepticism
Relative nature of social institutions. All beliefs are relative, varying with time and place
Slavery
Abolished in the British Empire (1833)
Adam Smith
Author of Wealth of Nations
Social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle
Socialism
Questioned provate enterprise; believed in communal ownership of assets, that the existing economic system was aimless and unjust, that it was improper for owners of wealth to have so much economic power
Solidarity
Polish political party (anti-communism) lead by Lech Walesa; wanted free elections for Poles
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Russian author of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, a novel detailing life in a Stalinist concentration camp (1918-)
Spartacists
Left-wing Marxists in Germany who hoped to bring about a proletarian revolution in 1919
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher known for his work, Social Statics: Liberal Philosophy, argued that in the difficult economic struggle for existence, only the “fittest” would survive (1820-1903)
Baruch Spinzoa
“In the light of eternity”; all determination is negation (metaphysics). Wrote Ethics
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) (August 24, 1572)
Peter Stolypin
Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants (1862-1911)
Sudetenland
German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, ceded to Germany in the Hitler-Chamberlain Munich meeting (September 1938)
Surrealism
Tries to capture the reality of our dreams. Influenced by Freud’s ideas of psychoanalysis. Explores unconscious. Spontaneous techniques and unexpected juxtapositions or objects (cauliflower, stapler, clock). Cagall, Magritte
Syllabus of Errors
Doctrine of Pope Pius IX (1864-1878) that denounced belief in reason and science and attacked “progress, liberalism, and modern civilization.” (1864)
Syndicalism
The French trade-unionist belief that workers would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society
Syndicats
French trade unions
Tabula Rasa
John Locke’s concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas
Taille
A direct tax from which most French nobles were exempt
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789)
Test Act
British law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters from holding political office (1673)
Margaret Thatcher
Conservative British Prime Minister and first women to head a major European government (1925-)
Theocracy
A community, such as Calvin’s Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church
Third Reich
Name given to Germany during the Nazi regime, between 1933 and 1945
Third Republic
Government established in France from 1875-1945, French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
Thirty Years’ War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg’s, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Three Emperors’ League
The 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Russia
Marshal Tito (Josip Broz)
Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence of his country from Soviet influence (1892-1980)
Tolstoy
Russian writer, very nationalistic and his most famous book is “War and Peace” He also wrote ” at the ball” about russian government and the problems before/during the revolution
Totalitarianism
An attempt by government to control a society totally through a dictatorship that employs the modern methods of communication- press, radio, TV- to glorify the state over the individual. Its varieties are Fascism, Nazism, and communism
Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Pact by which Lenin pulled Russia out of the war with Germany and gave up one third of the Russian population in the western territories (March 1918)
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany
Treaty of Maastricht
1992; European nations agree to make an economic and political integration with a common currency, passport, and banking system; Established structure and cooperation in immigration and law enforcement
Treaty of Paris
a 1763 agreement between britain and france that ended the french and indian war
Treaty of Rome
Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (also known as the Common Market)
Treaty of Tilsit
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elba as well as the Polish provinces (1807)
Triple Alliance
The 1882 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy
Triple Entente
After 1907, the alliance between England, France, and Russia
Flora Tristan
Socialist and feminist who called for working women’s social and political rights (1803-1844)
Leon Trotsky
Lenin’s ally who organized and led to Bolshevik military takeover of the provisional government headed by Kerensky, in November 1917 (1879-1940)
Truman Doctrine
Policy providing military aid to Greece and Turkey in an effort to contain communism (1947-1948)
“Two Tactics for Social Democracy”
The 1905 essay in which Lenin argued that the agrarian and industrial revolutions could be telescoped. It was unnecessary for Russia to become an industrialized nation before the Marxist revolution
Unification of Germany
started by Otto von Bismarck and the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 that expelled Austria from German politics and resulted in North German Confederation and legalization of Bismarck’s previous spending; concluded with war with France
Unification of Italy
1860, ally of Mazzini, recruited volunteers and won control of Sicily. Next, Garibaldi turned Naples and Sicily over to Victor Emmanuel. Last, Italy becomes a united nation, which it hadn’t been since the fall of the Roman Empire.
Usury
The practice of lending money for interest
Lorenzo Valla
A humanist who used historical criticism to discredit an eighth-century document giving the papacy jurisdiction over Western lands (1407-1457)
Vatican
Independent sovereign state of the pope and the Catholic church, established in Rome in 1929
Vatican II
Pope John XXIII called the conference which met in four sessions between 1962-1965. The purpose was to bring the church up to date (aggiornamento)
Vatican Council of 1870
Gathering of Catholic church leaders that proclaimed the doctrine of papal infallibility
Versailles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally (1900~1946)
Victoria
Queen of England from 1837 to 1901. SHe and her husband were models of morality, symbols of British stability and middle class virtues.
Virtu
The striving for personal excellence
Voltaire
Author of Philosophical Letters and Candide. He believed that the best one could hope for in government was an enlightened monarch since human beings are very rarely worthy to govern themselves
War Communism
The application of total war by the Bolsheviks to the civil war (1918-1920) at home- i.e., requisitioning grain, nationalizing banks and industries, and introducing rationing
War of Austrian Succession
This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
War of the League of Augsburg
an aggressive war waged by Louis XIV against Spain and the Empire and England and Holland and other states (1689-1697)
War of the Spanish Succession
The last of Louis XIV’s wars involving the issue of succession to the Spanish throne and culminating in the Peace of Utrecht (1701-1713)
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations
Washington Conference
Conference of the major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States
Weimar
A reference to the republic of Germany that lasted from 1919-1933
Weltpolitik
The policy of making Germany a major global power through an expanding navy and the acquisition of colonies, the dream of William II (“world politics”)
Westernization
Encouraging the adoption of culture of western Europe 1600-1700
“What Is to Be Done?”
Essay written by Lenin in 1902 that outlined his plan for an elite revolutionary cadre to engineer the communist revolution in agrarian Russia
William IV
Succeeded George IV as king of England. His ascension initiated Parliamentary election and reform.
William of Orange
Dutch prince and foe of Louis XIV who became king of England in 1689 (1672-1702)
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States and key figure in the peace conferences following World War I; he intended to make the world “safe for democracy” (1856-1924)
World War I
The “Great War” (1914-1918), in essence a European civil war with global implications that was marked by massive casualties, the expansion of offensive military technology beyond tactics and means of defense, and a great deal of disillusionment with the whole idea of “progress.”
World War II
War fought Between Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) and Allied Powers (U.S., France, U.S.S.R., and U.K.); Single largest war in the history of U.S.; Introduced Age of Nuclear Weapons; New system of international diplomacy developed as a result; 1939 to 1945, but U.S. involved from 1941-1945
Sergei Witte
Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder of the Transiberian Railroad (1849-1915)
Mary Wollstonecraft
Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. She believed that a woman’s mind is as good as a man’s
John Wycliffe
English theologian who wrote that Scriptures alone, not papal claims, should be the standard of Christian belief and practice (c. 1320-1384)
Yalta
The wartime meeting of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin in February 1945 to discuss military strategy and postwar plans
Young Italy
An association under the leadership of Mazzini that urged the unification of the country
Young Plan
Schedule that sets limits to Germany’s reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr
Zemstvo
A type of local government with powers to tax and make new laws; essentially, a training ground for democracy, dominated by the property-owning class when established in 1864
Clara Zetkin
German Marxist who focused on women’s issues in the Communist Party (1857-1933)
Zimmermann Telegram
A secret German message to Mexico supporting the Mexican Government in regaining Arizona and Texas if the Mexicans declared war on the United States, a factor propelling the United States into World War I in April 1917
Zionism
Founded by Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) it sought the creation of a national homeland for the Jews in Palestine. It was supported by the British Balfour Declaration during WWI but did not become a reality until 1948
Zollverein
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844