AP Gov chap 13

1) The principal reason that presidents have trouble getting things done is that
A) most are weak and indecisive and do not try to do much.
B) they are often upstaged or undermined by their own vice presidents.
C) other policymakers with whom they deal have their own agendas, interests, and sources of power.
D) they are frequently overruled by the Supreme Court.
E) the presidency is mostly a ceremonial job and the president is not expected to do much.
2) As Richard Neustadt has argued, presidential power is probably best understood as the power to A) persuade.
B) command. C) control. D) harass. E) veto.
3) Richard Neustadt has argued that presidential power is the power to A) instruct. B) command. C) educate. D) control. E) persuade.
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4) Americans want a strong president, A) but do not like a concentration of power. B) and do not care whether the strength is used for good or for ill. C) and would like to abolish all checks on presidential power. D) but do not expect much from any president. E) but want an even stronger Congress.
5) Americans tend to A) have low expectations for the president. B) prefer a concentration of power in the presidency. C) have a high degree of trust in strong leadership and political authority. D) look back longingly on the great, powerful presidents.
6) According to the Constitution, a president must be at least ________ years of age. A) 35 B) 30 C) 40 D) 25 E) 21
7) All presidents but one have been A) Protestant. B) Catholic. C) Hare Krishna. D) atheist. E) Evangelical Christian.
8) According to the original Constitution, the president must be A) at least 35 years old. B) a resident of the United States for at least five years. C) a citizen of the United States for at least ten years. D) a white man. E) all of the above except D
9) How many presidents were political scientists? A) about half of them B) one C) all but one of them D) two E) all of them
10) Which president was a political scientist? A) Ronald Reagan B) James Madison C) Richard Nixon D) Bill Clinton E) Woodrow Wilson
11) ________ was widely regarded to be the worst and most ineffective president. A) Warren Harding B) Richard Nixon C) Ronald Reagan D) Bill Clinton E) Andrew Johnson
12) Since World War II, United States presidents have A) except for Bill Clinton, first served as vice president. B) had very similar career backgrounds. C) all previously served as governors. D) come from a diversity of career experiences. E) all served as United States senators.
13) The Twenty-second Amendment, passed in 1951, A) provided for the presidential and vice presidential candidates to run as a team. B) gave impeachment powers to Congress. C) limited presidents to two terms of office. D) provided for the direct election of the president by the people. E) granted 18-year-olds the right to vote.
14) The two-term limit was placed on the presidency by A) an act of Congress passed after Franklin D. Roosevelt ‘s death. B) the Twenty-second Amendment. C) the Presidential Powers Act of 1951. D) the Twenty-fifth Amendment. E) Article II of the original Constitution.
15) ________ took over as president upon the death of Franklin Roosevelt in 1945, and eventually ordered the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japanese cities. A) Theodore Roosevelt B) Dwight Eisenhower C) Harry Truman D) Lyndon Johnson E) John F. Kennedy
16) As president, ________ launched the “Great Society” at home while escalating the Vietnam War abroad. A) Lyndon Johnson B) Harry Truman C) Richard Nixon D) Gerald Ford E) Dwight Eisenhower
17) Appointed to the vice presidency in 1973 due to a vacancy, he was the only one to become president having run for neither the presidency or vice presidency in the preceding election. A) Lyndon Johnson B) Nelson Rockefeller C) Ronald Reagan D) Gerald Ford E) Jimmy Carter
18) Which of the following presidents was a Republican? A) Harry Truman B) John Kennedy C) Lyndon Johnson D) Jimmy Carter E) Richard Nixon
19) The only president to resign his office was A) Warren Harding. B) Jimmy Carter. C) Lyndon Johnson. D) Spiro Agnew. E) Richard Nixon.
20) Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) For over 10 percent of American history, the presidency has been occupied by an individual not elected to the office.
B) In the twentieth century, almost one-third of our presidents were “accidental Presidents. ”
C) About one in five presidents got the job because they were vice president when the incumbent president died or resigned.
D) Most presidents have served two or more full terms.
E) Most presidential elections are decided by Congress.
21) Prior to his election as president, ________ had been a well-known actor and served for two terms as governor of California. A) George Bush B) Ronald Reagan C) Jimmy Carter D) Richard Nixon E) Earl Warren
22) Impeachment is roughly the political equivalent of a(n) A) exoneration. B) admission of guilt. C) indictment in criminal law. D) guilty verdict. E) firing.
23) In order to impeach a president, it takes A) a unanimous vote of the Supreme Court. B) a two-thirds vote in the Senate. C) a majority vote in the House of Representatives. D) a two-thirds vote in the House of Representatives. E) a majority vote in the Senate.
24) Impeachment of a president means that the president is A) convicted of a crime. B) indicted by the House. C) removed from office. D) tried by the Senate. E) all of the above
25) In order to convict and remove an impeached president, it takes A) a two-thirds vote in the Senate. B) a majority vote in the Senate. C) a majority vote in the House of Representatives. D) a two-thirds vote in the House of Representatives. E) both B and D
26) Once the House votes for impeachment, the president A) must leave office. B) is fined or sentenced to prison. C) is tried by the Supreme Court. D) is tried by the Senate. E) must be indicted by a Grand Jury before being removed from office.
27) The scandal surrounding Richard Nixon ‘s administration that led to impeachment hearings was known as A) Iran-Contra. B) the Camp David Affair. C) Watergate. D) Checkers. E) Teapot Dome.
28) The order of succession to the presidency, should the president be unable to fulfill his or her duties is
A) Vice President, President Pro Tem of the Senate, Speaker of the House, cabinet members in order that their department was created.
B) Vice President, Speaker of the House, President Pro Tem of the Senate, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Cabinet members in order that their department was created.
C) Vice President, Speaker of the House, President Pro Tem of the Senate, Cabinet members in the order that their department was created.
D) Vice President, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, President Pro tem of the Senate, Speaker of the House.
E) Vice President, Speaker of the House, President Pro Tem, Cabinet members in the order that their department was created.
29) The Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, A) created a means for selecting a new vice president when the office became vacant. B) granted 18-year-olds the right to vote. C) limited the president to two terms in office.
D) specifically forced Richard Nixon from office. E) provided for the direct election of the president by the people.
30) Under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, while the vice president is serving as acting president,
A) a new election must be held within six months.
B) the electoral college determines when the incapacitated president can reclaim the presidency.
C) the recuperated president can not reclaim his former job.
D) the recuperated president can reclaim the Oval Office through a set procedure.
E) the Senate and the House must vote in a secret ballot on whether or not to reinstate the recuperated president.
31) According to the Twenty-fifth Amendment, in the event of a vacancy in the vice presidency,
A) the electoral college elects a new vice president.
B) the Speaker of the House is automatically the new vice president.
C) the office remains vacant until a subsequent national election takes place.
D) the Congress picks a new vice president from a list of five names submitted by the president.
E) the president nominates a replacement, who must be confirmed by both houses of Congress.
32) The Constitution framers A) were unanimous in wanting a single president to lead the country. B) were united in wanting a strong chief executive. C) were united in wanting a chief executive similar to the prime minister of Great Britain. D) generally wanted a president with limited authority and responsibilities. E) hoped to create a monarchy in the United States.
33) The president ‘s power can best be understood as
A) very limited and largely ceremonial.
B) always the dominant figure in the American political system.
C) shared with other branches of government as part of the Madisonian system of checks and balances.
D) unlimited and absolute.
E) originally intended to be unlimited and absolute, but gradually weakened over time.
34) The Constitution A) provides a list of specific powers and implied powers reserved for the president. B) places the power of the presidency above the other branches of government. C) requires Congress to delegate specific areas of presidential power. D) says remarkably little about presidential power. E) B, C, and D are all correct.
35) In order to preserve the balance of power in government without jeopardizing the independence of the presidency, the framers A) refused to give the president powers in the area of national security. B) created a weak executive. C) checked those powers that they believed to be most dangerous. D) limited the president to administrative powers. E) limited presidents to two terms of office so they could not become “elected monarchs.”
36) Which of the following is NOT a constitutional power of the president? A) serve as Commander in Chief of the armed forces B) sign or veto legislation passed by Congress C) appoint federal judges with the advice and consent of a majority of the Senate D) enact legislation by issuing decrees E) All of these are the president ‘s constitutional powers.
37) The president has the constitutional authority to make treaties with other nations, subject to the agreement of A) a majority of both the House and the Senate. B) a majority of the Senate. C) two-thirds of the Senate. D) two-thirds of the House. E) a majority of the House.
38) The founding fathers envisioned a presidency that would A) be better organized than today ‘s presidency. B) have fewer responsibilities than today ‘s presidency. C) have greater control over the Congress than today ‘s presidency. D) have greater powers than today ‘s presidency. E) clearly be the dominant branch of government.
39) Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson
A) were the first presidents to exercise power beyond the specific powers granted to the president in the Constitution.
B) developed the role of the president as manager of the economy.
C) set a precedent for presidents to serve as world leaders.
D) were the only two presidents to ever have their actions declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
E) were among the least effective presidents.
40) A primary resource available to presidents for controlling the bureaucracy is A) control of the federal budget. B) their unlimited power to offer patronage positions in the bureaucracy. C) the power to appoint top-level administrators. D) their ability to dismiss or fire most members of the bureaucracy. E) all of the above
41) In recent years,
A) presidents have been less concerned about their appointment power.
B) presidents have paid closer attention to appointing officials who will be responsive to the president ‘s policies.
C) presidents have paid less attention to agency rules and regulations.
D) there has been a trend toward decentralized decision making in the White House.
E) there has been a trend toward centralized decision making in the White House.
42) A constitutional duty of the vice president is to A) preside over the Senate and cast the deciding vote in the event of a tie. B) attend the funerals of foreign leaders on behalf of the president. C) preside over the House and cast the deciding vote in the event of a tie. D) raise funds for party candidates. E) all of the above
43) Traditionally, a vice president A) has no formal constitutional powers. B) later becomes president. C) is an important advisor to the president. D) has little responsibility. E) both C and D
44) The president ‘s cabinet
A) was provided for and elaborated upon by the Constitution.
B) has changed very little since 1960.
C) tends to serve as a collective board of directors.
D) consists of executive branch leaders who advise the president on policy and administer government departments.
E) all of the above
45) The presidential cabinet
A) is the electronically locked vault where the president keeps his top secret papers.
B) is given tremendous power under the Constitution.
C) includes, by law, a minimum of two sitting members of Congress at all times.
D) consists of the head of each executive department, plus any additional government officials the president designates.
E) can veto actions by the president.
46) Which of the following is a member of the cabinet? A) director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation B) Speaker of the House C) secretary of the navy D) White House Chief of Staff E) none of the above
47) Cabinet-level executive departments are created by A) Congress. B) the Constitution. C) the president. D) rarely held national referendums. E) all of the above
48) The head of each cabinet-level executive department is appointed by the president and A) must be confirmed by a majority of the House. B) is not subject to House or Senate approval. C) must be confirmed by a majority of the Senate. D) must be confirmed by a majority of both the House and the Senate. E) must be confirmed by two-thirds of the Senate.
49) The cabinet department responsible for making foreign policy and handling treaty negotiations is A) interior. B) justice. C) foreign affairs. D) defense. E) state.
50) The two oldest cabinet departments are A) state and defense. B) interior and justice. C) treasury and justice. D) state and treasury. E) education and state.
51) The newest cabinet department is A) commerce. B) agriculture. C) interior. D) homeland security. E) transportation.
52) The National Security Council
A) links the president ‘s key foreign and military policy advisors.
B) is composed of the heads of the three branches of the armed services and makes recommendations to the president on combat strategy.
C) was established by President Roosevelt to manage foreign and domestic intelligence operations.
D) was created by legislation to keep the president informed on foreign affairs.
E) helps the president make policy on such matters as inflation and unemployment.
53) The Office of Management and Budget is comprised of A) political appointees and career officials. B) political appointees, career officials, and congressional staffers. C) all political appointees. D) all career officials. E) economists.
54) The Office of Management and Budget, the National Security Council, and the Council of Economic Advisors are A) members of the White House staff. B) advisory bodies of the Department of State. C) policymaking bodies of the Executive Office of the President. D) part of the president ‘s cabinet. E) the key liaison agencies between the president and Congress.
55) The budgetary implications of the president ‘s budget are provided to the president by A) Executive Budget Office. B) Department of the Treasury. C) Council of Economic Advisors. D) Internal Revenue Service. E) Office of Management and Budget.
56) The agency that reviews legislative proposals for the president is the A) Council of Economic Advisors. B) National Security Council. C) Office of Management and Budget. D) Legislative Executive Agency. E) Executive Legislative Agency.
57) The part of the executive branch of government that the president sees daily and relies heavily on for information, policy options, and analysis is the A) vice president. B) president ‘s cabinet. C) White House staff. D) Executive Office of the President. E) Council of Economic Advisors.
58) The system of White House management employed by President John Kennedy was
A) to disperse his authority to numerous aides, each of who had powerful decision-making power.
B) unusually closed, with only the president and his two closest aides involved in most major decisions.
C) to personally take charge of even the minor details of decision making.
D) a chain of command with a chief of staff who controlled almost all access to the president.
E) such that many aides equally participated in the decision-making process.
59) John F. Kennedy’s “wheel-and-spokes” system of management was characterized by
A) a hierarchical organization with a chief of staff at the top.
B) many aides with equal status balanced against one another in the decision-making process.
C) the president ‘s involvement in every administrative detail.
D) a closed, small network of computers that directly linked the president to his closest advisors through e-mail messages.
E) a streamlined, fast-paced, and efficient decision-making style.
60) The organization and importance of the White House staff depend on A) the president ‘s Chief of Staff. B) agenda schedules and formal rules of debate. C) the personal style of the president in office. D) the legal authority granted it by Congress. E) a hierarchy of access to the president.
61) President Clinton ‘s decision making style was
A) to immerse himself in the details of policy and run an open White House, soliciting the advice of a large number of aides.
B) to set up a chain of command in which all advice was sent upward to his Chief of Staff who then presented Clinton with the decision-making options.
C) highly organized and decisive, with the president actually flipping a coin to decide issues where his advisors are evenly divided.
D) to delegate so much decision making authority to his aides that the media often call them his “handlers.”
E) to remain highly isolated and make most decisions in consultation only with his two closest advisors.
62) The president who was known as the “consummate delegator” because he dispersed authority to his advisors was A) John F. Kennedy. B) George Bush. C) Ronald Reagan. D) Jimmy Carter. E) Lyndon Johnson.
63) George W. Bush ‘s management style is A) wheel and spokes. B) chaotic. C) hierarchical. D) transitional. E) to delegate.
64) A presidential veto of legislation passed by Congress
A) can be overturned only by majority vote of the Supreme Court.
B) cannot be overturned.
C) can be overturned by a majority vote of both the House and the Senate to override the veto.
D) can be overturned by a two-thirds vote of either the House or the Senate to override the veto.
E) can be overturned by a two-thirds vote of both the House and the Senate to override the veto.
65) The pocket veto can only be used A) when a new president is about to take office. B) during a presidential election year. C) when Congress is in session. D) on appropriations bills. E) when Congress is adjourned.
66) The Constitution gives the president the power to influence the legislative process through his responsibility to A) make laws by decree without the consent of Congress in some situations. B) direct the business of Congress and initiate impeachment. C) report on the state of the union and veto acts of Congress. D) recommend legislation and make appointments. E) manage the economy, lead the party, and deal with national crises.
67) When a president vetoes congressional legislation, A) Congress must form a joint committee to address the president ‘s complaints. B) the Supreme Court determines whether the law will take effect. C) Congress can override the veto by a two-thirds vote in both houses. D) there is nothing Congress can do about it. E) one house of Congress can override the veto if it votes to do so with a two-thirds vote.
68) A pocket veto is the situation in which the president A) vetoes particular items in a spending bill. B) lets a bill die by neither signing nor vetoing it after Congress has adjourned. C) rejects a Congressional override. D) lets a bill become law by neither vetoing nor signing it. E) sends a law back to Congress with the reasons for rejecting it.
69) Which of the following statements about the presidential veto is FALSE?
A) Almost half of all vetoed bills have been overridden by Congress.
B) Presidents can not veto only parts of a bill.
C) Even the threat of a presidential veto can be an effective tool for persuading Congress to give more weight to presidents ‘ views.
D) The presidential veto is an inherently negative resource.
E) The president, unlike most governors, cannot use a line-item veto.
70) In 1998, the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v. City of New York that
A) a 1996 law granting the president the authority to propose rescinding funds in appropriation bills was unconstitutional.
B) the pocket veto was unconstitutional.
C) that the Clinton impeachment vote was unconstitutional.
D) that the president could not line-item veto grant monies to urban areas.
E) none of the above
71) In 1996, Congress passed a law giving the president the authority to propose rescinding funds in appropriations bills. Later, A) Congress overturned the law. B) President Clinton chose not to use such authority. C) President Clinton used it successfully. D) the Supreme Court voided the decision. E) President Bush voided the decision.
72) The primary obstacle to party unity in Congress is the A) multiplicity of parties represented. B) lack of presidential leadership. C) separation of powers. D) bicameral legislature. E) lack of consensus on policy issues among party members.
73) When constituency opinion and the president ‘s proposals conflict, members of Congress are more likely to A) vote with the president. B) vote with their constituents. C) seek an electronic vote rather than a voice vote. D) not vote. E) vote according to their own ideology.
74) Presidential coattails refers to
A) presidential favors to those who support the president ‘s policies.
B) the formal constitutional powers of the president.
C) the ability of members of Congress to hide behind the president on tough issues.
D) voters casting their ballots for congressional candidates of the president ‘s party who will support the president.
E) withholding of presidential favors from those who oppose the president ‘s policies.
75) Presidential coattails refers to
A) voters who support the president casting their ballots for congressional candidates of the president ‘s party.
B) the tendency for the president ‘s party to lose congressional seats in midterm elections.
C) fund-raising parties the president hosts to raise money for congressional candidates.
D) the president ‘s power to appoint members of his own political party to cabinet posts and as personal advisors.
E) members of Congress voting according to the wishes of the president.
76) Recent election studies show
A) the president ‘s party usually gains seats in Congress in mid-term elections.
B) a diminishing connection between voters ‘ presidential and congressional voting.
C) that the party of the winning presidential candidate has been gaining an increasing number of seats in congress.
D) that presidential coattails no longer exist.
E) that many congressional races are determined by presidential coattails.
77) A mid-term election is A) one in which the incumbent is running for reelection. B) a congressional election that is not accompanied by a presidential election. C) held every two years. D) a special election that may remove an official from office in the middle of the term. E) a presidential election that occurs during a session of Congress.
78) In mid-term elections, the A) president ‘s coattails are the strongest. B) president ‘s party typically gains seats. C) president almost always wins reelection; a president who does not is the exception. D) president usually does not become involved. E) president ‘s party typically loses seats.
79) Most studies show that A) presidential coattails are increasing in certain regions. B) presidential coattails rarely affect elections. C) presidential coattails are stronger in midterm elections. D) presidential coattails are stronger than ever. E) presidential coattails affect Republicans more than Democrats.
80) The impact of public approval or disapproval of the president on the support that the president receives in Congress is A) irrelevant. B) not too important, though it occasionally has a minor effect. C) represented in the text by the equation s ‘3D px ‘2D1. D) extremely important, and sways nearly all members of Congress on every vote. E) important, but usually at the margins on most policies.
81) The political resource that has the most potential to turn a situation of stalemate between the president and Congress into one supportive of the president ‘s legislative proposals is A) presidential leadership. B) the president ‘s party leadership. C) presidential rewards and sanctions. D) public approval. E) the threat of veto.
82) High public approval of the president
A) has no effect on congressional elections.
B) gives the president less control over Congress.
C) once achieved is usually sustained for the remainder of his/her presidency.
D) provides a cover for members of Congress to cast votes to which their constituents might otherwise object.
E) allows members of Congress the freedom to vote according to their ideology rather than party.
83) An electoral mandate ________ the president ‘s level of support in Congress. A) does severe harm to B) usually has a positive effect on C) increases by a factor of 2.5 D) has no effect on E) guarantees a sharp increase in
84) Electoral mandates
A) are the procedures used by the electoral college to tally the presidential electoral votes.
B) occur most often in mid-term elections.
C) consist of the perception that the voters strongly support the winner ‘s positions.
D) are the constitutional requirements that federal elections be held on the second Tuesday of November of even numbered years.
E) have no real effect on how Congress supports the president.
85) Which of the following statements about presidential bargaining is FALSE?
A) The presidential bargaining takes a variety of forms.
B) The president needs to bargain only with enough people to provide a majority.
C) Bargaining in the form of providing specific benefits for members of Congress is critical to creating presidential coalitions.
D) The president does not have to bargain with every member of Congress to receive support.
E) Presidents ‘ bargaining ability is enhanced by strong public approval.
86) According to the text, two strategies used successfully by President Reagan in achieving his objectives were A) moving slowly and letting Congress set the priorities. B) moving slowly and setting priorities. C) lying and forgetting. D) moving fast and setting priorities. E) moving fast and letting Congress set the priorities.
87) The primary goal of the president ‘s legislative strategy is usually A) to win on all final votes. B) to set the agenda. C) to win the support of all fellow partisans. D) block legislation he opposes. E) none of the above
88) The president ‘s role in the legislative process A) is especially important in influencing Congress ‘s agenda. B) usually puts her/him in conflict with Congress. C) is usually minor because Congress operates independently from the president. D) is most effective in domestic policy. E) at least until 1995, has been to react to and modify congressional initiatives.
89) Studies have shown that once one takes into account the status of their party in Congress and their standing with the public, presidents renowned for their legislative skills are
A) twice as successful in winning congressional support than other presidents.
B) most likely to reshape the contours of the political landscape.
C) most likely to be able to create opportunities for political change.
D) no more successful in obtaining congressional support than those considered less adept at dealing with Congress.
E) much more successful in gaining support for their domestic policies than for their foreign policies.
90) The president ‘s legislative skills compete with other factors influencing congressional voting, including all of the following EXCEPT A) ideology. B) constituency news. C) PAC spending. D) partisanship. E) none of the above
91) Among the president ‘s constitutional powers as a maker of foreign policy is the power to A) ratify peace treaties. B) appropriate foreign-aid funds. C) extend diplomatic recognition to foreign governments. D) declare war. E) all of the above
92) Which of the following is NOT one of the president ‘s powers as the nation ‘s chief diplomat? A) negotiating executive agreements which do not require congressional approval B) mediating disputes between nations other than the United States C) declaring war against an adversary D) extending diplomatic recognition to a nation E) negotiating treaties with other nations
93) Which of the following statements about the role of the president as chief diplomat is FALSE?
A) Presidential diplomacy can involve negotiating conflicts between other nations and not the United States.
B) Senate approval of treaties negotiated by the president is almost automatic.
C) The president has the sole power to negotiate treaties with other nations.
D) In domestic policymaking, as chief diplomat, the president must rely principally on persuasion to lead.
E) All of these are false.
94) Some believe the War Powers Resolution could be successfully overturned by the Supreme Court because it A) was vetoed by President Nixon. B) was not ratified within the constitutionally mandated seven-year period. C) uses a legislative veto, which may violate the separation of powers. D) interferes with the president ‘s power to declare war. E) was really aimed at the Vietnam War only.
95) The War Powers Resolution
A) prohibited the president power from committing American troops without congressional approval.
B) established the chain of command of the armed forces in the event the president is incapacitated.
C) gave the president the formal power to declare war in the case of nuclear attack.
D) mandated the withdrawal of forces after sixty days unless Congress declared war or granted an extension.
E) established the code protocols that launch nuclear missiles in order to prevent accidental or unauthorized missile launches.
96) The War Powers Resolution may be considered unconstitutional because
A) its use of the legislative veto may be considered a violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.
B) it violates the president ‘s power to declare war.
C) it violates the presidents power as Commander in Chief.
D) it was struck down by the Supreme Court.
E) it violates the congressional power to appropriate funds for the military.
97) During the 1991 Gulf War, A) the War Powers Resolution was ignored. B) Congress cut off funding after sixty days. C) President Bush did not seek congressional support for the operation. D) Congress passed a resolution authorizing the president to use force against Iraq. E) Congress adopted a formal declaration of war against Iraq.
98) In the United States showdown with Saddam Hussein in January 1991,
A) Congress declared war on Iraq.
B) Congress voted against using force against Iraq, but President Bush used force anyway.
C) Congress passed a resolution authorizing the president to use military force against Iraq.
D) after granting President Bush a thirty-day extension, Congress invoked the War Powers Resolution and effectively placed a ninety-day limit on combat.
E) Congress did not vote on declaring war or authorizing military force, preferring to let the president act alone.
99) Which of the following statements about crises is FALSE?
A) There were more immediate crises early in American history than there are today.
B) Most crises occur in the realm of foreign policy.
C) Crises are rarely the president ‘s doing.
D) The president has become more prominent in handling crises than other branches of government.
E) It is easier for an individual president to manage crises than it is for congressional leaders to do so.
100) Congress ‘s role in national security policy has typically included all of the following EXCEPT A) support or criticism of the president. B) initiation of policy. C) oversight of the executive branch. D) to pass authorizations and appropriations for presidential actions. E) monitoring constituent opinions on national security.
101) The typical member of Congress supports the president on national security roll-call votes A) very rarely. B) about 75 percent of the time. C) almost always. D) only 38 percent of the time. E) slightly more than half the time.
102) References by commentators on the presidency to there being “two presidencies” refer to
A) the president as candidate and the president as elected leader.
B) the first term and the second term of a president.
C) what the president originally proposes to accomplish and what the president actually does accomplish.
D) the differences between public and private presidential actions.
E) national security and domestic policy.
103) Which of the following statements about presidents going public is FALSE?
A) Presidents are not passive followers of public opinion.
B) Presidents ‘ appearances are often staged purely to obtain the public ‘s attention.
C) In recent years, presidents have averaged more than one public appearance every weekday of the year.
D) Dwight Eisenhower was the first president to use presidential speeches to gain policy support.
E) John F. Kennedy was the first “television president.”
104) How did the White House Communications Office choreograph George W. Bush ‘s address from the Abraham Lincoln announcing the end of major combat operations in Iraq? A) They placed a “Mission Accomplished” banner over the president ‘s head. B) They positioned the Abraham Lincoln so that the shoreline was not visible. C) They timed the even so that the sun would cast a favorable light on the president. D) The coordinated the shirts of the crewmembers. E) all of the above
105) The higher the president stands in the polls, A) the less support he needs in Congress. B) the shorter the president ‘s coattails. C) the less need there is for presidential public appearances. D) the easier it is to persuade others to support presidential initiatives. E) the less likely he will initiate new policy ventures.
106) Among recent presidents, the average approval ratings in the public opinion polls have been A) higher at the end of the president ‘s term than at the beginning. B) over 75 percent. C) higher at the beginning of the president ‘s term than at the end. D) below 40 percent. E) slowly rising over the course of a president ‘s term(s).
107) On average, those who identify with the president ‘s party give approval more than ________ percentage points higher than do those who identify with the opposition party. A) 10 B) 20 C) 40 D) 30 E) 50
108) The primary factor influencing whether or not a person approves or disapproves of a president ‘s job performance is A) age. B) geographic location. C) gender. D) political party identification. E) presidential personality.
109) At the base of presidential evaluations is the A) public ‘s longstanding suspicion of excessive presidential power. B) lack of well-defined opinions among most people. C) predisposition of many people to be critical of government and politics in general. D) public ‘s indifference to the president. E) predisposition of many people to support the president.
110) The basic underpinning of approval or disapproval of a president is A) the president ‘s ability to get her/his program passed by Congress. B) personality characteristics. C) political party identification. D) the state of the economy. E) the behavior of the media.
111) According to public opinion polls, presidents seem to be most popular A) just before they leave office. B) after they have introduced their first legislative package to Congress. C) when they first enter office. D) after they leave office. E) during mid-term elections.
112) Changes in presidential approval levels appear to be due primarily to A) the president ‘s personality. B) how the media treat the president. C) the financial elites ‘ responses to presidential policies. D) the public ‘s evaluation of how the president is handling policy areas. E) how the president ‘s policies affect people individually.
113) “Rally events”
A) are specific and dramatic events that relate to international relations, directly involving the United States and the president.
B) have an enduring impact on a president ‘s public approval.
C) involve economic upsurges that dramatically increase presidential popularity.
D) have no effect on presidential popularity even though presidents use them for that purpose.
E) occur frequently during a president ‘s administration.
114) The surge in President George Bush ‘s approval ratings during and immediately following the Gulf War in 1991 was an example of A) the bandwagon effect. B) a rally event. C) the bully pulpit. D) presidential coattails. E) a pocket veto.
115) The ultimate weapon in the president ‘s arsenal of resources to influence Congress is probably A) media support. B) interest group support. C) her/his fundraising ability. D) mobilization of the public. E) the support of Wall Street and the Federal Reserve Board.
116) Presidential press conferences A) give the president a chance to be spontaneous. B) have not been used since the Nixon administration. C) are not very useful means of eliciting information. D) are required by the Constitution without saying how often. E) are small, intimate meetings with the president.
117) The president ‘s ________ serves as the principal conduit of information from the White House to the press on a daily basis.
A) press secretary
B) vice president
C) Chief of Staff
D) Secretary of Information
E) Domestic Policy Advisor
118) The individual who conducts daily press briefings and serves as a conduit of information from the White House is the
A) National Security Advisor.
B) Minister of Information.
C) president ‘s secretary.
D) Chief of Staff.
E) press secretary.
119) Most of the news coverage of the White House
A) is class analysis that seeks to explain which socio-economic groups are benefiting from or being injured by the latest policies.
B) focuses on the most visible layer of presidents ‘ personal and official activities.
C) focuses on the fundamental processes operating in the executive branch.
D) is concerned with the substance of policies.
E) is concerned with foreign policy issues.
120) A large number of studies have concluded that the news media are
A) moderately biased toward liberal ideology.
B) not biased on any systematic basis, and the news is typically characterized by neutrality.
C) slightly biased toward the Democrats.
D) strongly biased toward the Democrats.
E) slightly biased toward the Republicans.
121) News coverage of presidents and their activities
A) usually focuses on the personality of the president.
B) is not systematically biased in any direction.
C) tends to focus on the substance of presidential policies.
D) has a heavy liberal bias.
E) is typically unfavorable toward the White House.
122) Which of the following statements about the presidency and democracy is FALSE?
A) There is little prospect of the presidency being a threat to democracy.
B) From the time the Constitution was written there has been a fear that the presidency would degenerate into a monarchy.
C) Concerns over presidential power are generally closely related to policy views.
D) Concerns about a tyrannical presidency were prevalent in the Reagan administration due to his ability to impose his will on Congress.
E) none of the above

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