AP Gov Chapter 8

What sort of realignment has occurred in the current party era over the past generation?

a. A cultural realignment
b. A rural/urban realignment
c. An age-based realignment
d. A southern realignment
e. An entire realignment

A southern realignment.
Linkage institutions

a. translate inputs from the public into outputs from the policymakers.
b. help link the three branches of government together to achieve coherent policies.
c. link the president to members of his or her party in Congress so they can coordinate their policies in government.
d. link political parties to the government.
e. are used to implement public policies.

translate inputs from the public into outputs from the policymakers.
Which of the following is NOT a typical ingredient of a critical election?

a. New issues appear and divide the electorate in new ways.
b. Parties form new, enduring coalitions.
c. Voter turnout declines precipitously.
d. National crises
e. Existing fissures in political parties cause coalitions to begin to fracture.

Voter turnout declines precipitously.
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The party’s national committee

a. writes and approves the party’s platform.
b. is composed of each party’s members of Congress.
c. meets once every four years.
d. keeps the party operating between conventions.
e. selects the party’s presidential candidate.

keeps the party operating between conventions
Which of the following is TRUE of Americans’ political party identifications?

a. The number of people identifying as Democrats has declined since 1952.
b. The number of people identifying as Republicans has declined since 1952.
c. The number of people identifying as Republicans has consistently outnumbered the number of people identifying as Democrats since 1952.
d. There has been little change in Americans’ party identification since 1952.
e. The number of people identifying as Independents has declined since 1952.

The number of people identifying as Democrats has declined since 1952
The dominant political party in America’s first party system was the

a. Federalists.
b. Democratic-Republicans.
c. Democrats.
d. Republicans.
e. Whigs.

Democratic-Republicans.
Which is primarily responsible for crafting the political party’s platform and for nominating its candidates for president and vice president?

a. National convention
b. National committee
c. Primary committee
d. Party in the electorate
e. Party in government

National convention.
The responsible party model requires parties to meet which of the following conditions?

a. The majority party must implement its programs, and the minority party must state what it would do if it were in power.
b. Parties must present distinct, comprehensive programs for governing the nation.
c. All of the above are true.
d. The majority party must accept responsibility for the performance of the government.
e. Each party’s candidates must be committed to its program and have internal cohesion and discipline to carry out its program.

All of the above are true.
Patronage is

a. an inducement of jobs and financial rewards given for political reasons by party machines.
b. an incentive given by national party offices.
c. commonly used by political parties today.
d. the deference that elected officials give to their campaign contributors in making policy decisions.
e. based on merit and competence.

an inducement of jobs and financial rewards given for political reasons by party machines.
The first party system (1796-1824) was characterized by

a. the dominance of the Republican Party.
b. the dominance of the northern capitalist states.
c. professional politicians running for office.
d. the dominance of the Democratic-Republican Party.
e. the dominance of the presidency by the Federalist Party.

the dominance of the Democratic-Republican Party.
What are patronage jobs?

a. Jobs that manage volunteers
b. A description of anyone who worked in the Daley administration in Chicago
c. Jobs given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence
d. Jobs in the national convention
e. Jobs given on the basis of merit rather than for political reasons

Jobs given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence.
Each party holds a national convention every

a. year.
b. two years.
c. four years.
d. five years.
e. six years.

four years
_____ was once the main political party organization in America.

a. Patronage
b. The coalition
c. The urban political party
d. The national convention
e. The critical election

The urban political party.
Keeping the party operating between conventions is the job of the

a. elected officials.
b. congressional leadership.
c. regional offices.
d. national committee.
e. majority or minority whip.

national committee.
An electoral system that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election is called

a. responsible party government.
b. first-past-the-post representation.
c. coalition government.
d. winner-take-all representation.
e. proportional representation.

proportional representation
During the second party system in United States history, Martin Van Buren argued that

a. the Republicans should be the sole party, as they were the only legitimate representatives of the people.
b. a governing party needed a loyal opposition party to represent parts of society that it could not.
c. political parties were harming the country because they promoted factionalism, petty bickering, and disunity.
d. the Whigs should be the sole party, as they were the only legitimate representatives of the people.
e. the Democrats should be the sole party, as they were the only legitimate representatives of the people.

a governing party needed a loyal opposition party to represent parts of society that it could not
Which of the following is TRUE?

a. All of the above are true.
b. Progressive reforms that placed jobs under the merit system weakened the discretion and power of political machines.
c. Urban party machines are no longer very active as a rule.
d. Ethnic integration weakened the relevancy of political machines.
e. Regulations concerning fair bidding on government contracts weakened the discretion and power of political machines.

All of the above are true
Almost all definitions of political parties have which of the following in common?

a. Parties have formal organizations.
b. Parties are run by elites.
c. Parties try to win elections.
d. Parties have a mass following.
e. Parties have limited policy agendas.

Parties try to win elections
From 1968 to 1992,

a. the Republicans dominated the federal government while the Democrats dominated state governments.
b. the Republicans dominated the presidency while the Democrats dominated Congress.
c. the Democrats experienced a slow, “creeping ascendance” that culminated in their gaining control of the entire government with the election of Bill Clinton.
d. a realignment occurred that destroyed the New Deal coalition.
e. the Republicans became the majority party.

the Republicans dominated the presidency while the Democrats dominated Congress
The theory that seeks to explain political processes and outcomes as consequences of purposive behavior is called the

a. goals theory.
b. behaviorism.
c. rational-choice theory.
d. cognitive theory.
e. means-ends theory.

rational-choice theory.
Who was described by the New York Tribune as “in league with the Devil”?

a. Abraham Lincoln
b. William Jennings Bryan
c. Dred Scott
d. William McKinley
e. Hannibal Hamlin

William Jennings Bryan.
Realignments are typically associated with

a. one party winning the presidency while the other controls Congress.
b. changes in election laws.
c. the creation of new states.
d. a major reorganization of the executive branch.
e. a major crisis or trauma in the nation.

a major crisis or trauma in the nation
The Republican Party began as the

a. party of the New Deal.
b. party of states’ rights and silver money.
c. principal proslavery party.
d. party of big business interests.
e. principal antislavery party.

principal antislavery party
There are ______ state party systems in the United States.

a. 435
b. 50
c. 100
d. 75
e. 25

50
Closed primaries

a. have fewer undercounts.
b. depress voter turnout.
c. discourage party loyalty.
d. cost less than open primaries.
e. encourage party loyalty.

encourage party loyalty
As ________, political parties serve the role of translating inputs from the public into outputs from policymakers.

a. machines
b. political converters
c. linkage institutions
d. coalitions
e. superdelegates

linkage institutions.
In the second party system in United States history, the election contests were between which two major parties?

a. Democrats and Whigs
b. Republicans and Whigs
c. Federalists and Anti-Federalists
d. Federalists and Whigs
e. Democrats and Republicans

Democrats and Whigs.
Who among the following was not a Democratic-Republican during our nation’s first party system?

a. None of the above; all were Democratic-Republicans.
b. Thomas Jefferson
c. James Monroe
d. James Madison
e. Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton.
What was the issue that brought the Democrats to power in 1932?

a. Vietnam
b. World War I
c. The Great Depression
d. Slavery
e. Silver coinage

The Great Depression.
People gradually moving away from both parties is referred to as a(n)

a. coalition politics.
b. realignment.
c. dealignment.
d. partisan drift.
e. alignment.

dealignment
Power in the major United States political parties is

a. centralized in national party organizations.
b. concentrated in party machines at the local level.
c. fragmented among local, state, and national party organizations.
d. concentrated in the state parties, with national and local organizations playing only minor roles.
e. hierarchically distributed from the national to local levels.

fragmented among local, state, and national party organizations
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the New Deal coalition?

a. The New Deal coalition did little to win the support of Jews and Catholics.
b. FDR was the first president to enthusiastically support unions, and, as a result, he earned their support.
c. Large cities, such as Philadelphia and Chicago, became bastions of Democratic support during the New Deal.
d. Poor voters overwhelmingly supported FDR.
e. A majority of African Americans supported FDR and the Democrats even though their loyalties historically had been with the Republicans.

The New Deal coalition did little to win the support of Jews and Catholics
Which of the following is NOT TRUE of the relationship between party identification and age?

a. More young Americans age 18 to 24 identify as Independents than identify as Democrats or Republicans.
b. As of 2008, older Americans over 65 were more likely to say they were Independents than were younger Americans.
c. As individuals get older, they are more likely to identify with either the Democrats or the Republicans.
d. More Americans age 65 and older identify as Democrats than identify as Independents or Republicans.
e. As of 2008, young Americans age 18 to 24 were more likely to say they were Independents than were older Americans.

As of 2008, older Americans over 65 were more likely to say they were Independents than were younger Americans
An electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies is called a ______________ system.

a. democratic
b. liberal
c. republican
d. proportional
e. winner-take-all

winner-take-all.
Which of these is NOT part of the responsible party model?

a. The majority party must accept responsibility for the performance of the government.
b. The parties must present distinct, comprehensive programs for governing the nation.
c. Each party’s candidate must be committed to its program and have the discipline to carry it out.
d. The minority party must promote the majority party’s platform.
e. The majority party must implement its programs.

The minority party must promote the majority party’s platform
Which of the following describes Americans’ self-reported ideological and partisan positions?

a. A majority of Americans place themselves in the middle, between extreme liberal or conservative views.
b. Most Americans are extremely conservative.
c. Most Americans are extremely liberal.
d. A majority of Americans consider themselves to be conservative-liberals.
e. None of these is true.

A majority of Americans place themselves in the middle, between extreme liberal or conservative views
The supreme power within each of the parties is the

a. national convention.
b. state party organizations.
c. national chairperson.
d. president.
e. national committee.

national convention.
The “party in government” refers to

a. winning candidates who become the main spokespersons for the party that nominated them.
b. party workers who hold patronage jobs in the government and can influence policy.
c. coalitions of interests and ideologies that support a party’s candidates.
d. registered party voters who hold civil service jobs in the government and are influencing policy.
e. party members who perpetuate the party, make its rules, and keep it running.

winning candidates who become the main spokespersons for the party that nominated them.
Ticket splitting refers to

a. voting for a party other than the one you identify with.
b. voting for one party for one office and another party for other offices.
c. the procedure used to conduct computerized, automated vote counting.
d. switching membership in political parties.
e. voting with one party in one presidential election and another party in the next presidential election.

voting for one party for one office and another party for other offices
Party realignments in the United States

a. are slight adjustments of political allegiance among voters in at least one region of the country.
b. occur when a party makes dramatic changes in its positions on issues.
c. are rare events in the United States, usually associated with a major national crisis or trauma, in which one party’s majority domination is replaced with another’s.
d. happen after most presidential elections and occasionally in between.
e. involve the death of one party and the birth of a brand-new one.

are rare events in the United States, usually associated with a major national crisis or trauma, in which one party’s majority domination is replaced with another’s
According to rational choice theory, American political parties tend to adopt middle-of-the-road positions because

a. most Americans are extremists, holding either extremely liberal or extremely conservative views.
b. most Americans are conservatives, pulling both parties toward the right.
c. party leaders have to negotiate what is in effect a cultural war in U.S. politics.
d. most Americans are centrist.
e. party leaders have little incentive to differentiate themselves from one another.

party leaders have to negotiate what is in effect a cultural war in U.S. politics
When asked about the most important challenge of running party organizations, the national party chairmen of both parties replied

a. “time.”
b. “money.”
c. “organization.”
d. “competent staff.”
e. “finding good candidates.”

“money.”
What is one of the reasons that urban party machines are no longer very active?

a. Ethic integration became less prevalent.
b. Progressive regulations were struck down by the Supreme Court.
c. Progressive reforms that placed jobs under the merit system weakened the machines’ power.
d. All of the party bosses died out.
e. Regulations concerning fair bidding on government contracts were struck down.

Progressive reforms that placed jobs under the merit system weakened the machines’ power
The chairperson of the party that controls the White House is normally selected by

a. None of the above is true.
b. a closed primary.
c. members of the party in Congress.
d. a committee of state chairpersons.
e. the presidential nominee.

the presidential nominee
A voter’s perception of what the Republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism, is called

a. party in the electorate.
b. party identification.
c. ideological position.
d. party in government.
e. party image.

party image.
The debate between the gold standard and free silver occurred during which time period?

a. 1932-1964
b. 1828-1856
c. 1860-1928
d. 1796-1824
e. 1968-present

1860-1928
The political “party in the electorate” is defined as people who

a. register as members of a party.
b. work for a party’s candidates.
c. identify with a party.
d. vote for the candidates from one party.
e. walk door-to-door to meet the voters and personally campaign for their party’s candidates.

identify with a party.
The last Federalist president was

a. Thomas Jefferson.
b. Abraham Lincoln.
c. Andrew Jackson.
d. Alexander Hamilton.
e. John Adams.

John Adams
The people who keep the party running between elections and make its rules are members of which “head” of the party?

a. Party in the electorate
b. Party in the White House
c. Party in the states
d. Party in government
e. Party in organization

Party in organization
The first party system in the United States consisted of the

a. Democrats and Whigs.
b. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.
c. Federalists and Whigs.
d. Democrats and Republicans.
e. Democratic-Republicans and Whigs.

Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Which of the following do you need to do to become a Republican or Democrat?

a. Simply believe that you belong to the party of your choice
b. Give money
c. Formally join the party
d. Add your name to a mailing list
e. Prove that you’ve voted for the party

Simply believe that you belong to the party of your choice.
The largest component of American political parties is the

a. party in the White House.
b. party in the Congress.
c. party as an organization.
d. party in government.
e. party in the electorate.

party in the electorate
In a winner-take-all system,

a. the party winning the majority of the votes wins all the seats up for election in the legislature.
b. legislative seats are allocated according to each party’s percentage of the nationwide vote.
c. coalition governments are common.
d. unless a party wins, there is no reward for the votes it gets.
e. if no single party gets a majority vote, a runoff election is held between the top two parties.

unless a party wins, there is no reward for the votes it gets.
Which group is most likely to engage in ticket splitting?

a. Independents
b. Southerners
c. Republicans
d. Northeasterners
e. Democrats

Independents
In 2000, Green Party candidate Ralph Nader forced more attention on ________ issues and drew away a small percentage of votes from Al Gore.

a. health
b. environmental
c. national security welfare
d. budgetary
e. None of the above is true.

environmental
What was the major factor that led to the Democrats’ loss of power in 1968?

a. The Civil Rights Movement
b. The end of World War II
c. The assassination of JFK
d. Johnson’s Vietnam policies
e. The beginning of the Cold War

Johnson’s Vietnam policies.
Where is the proportional method of representation most commonly used?

a. Asia
b. China
c. Europe
d. The United States
e. Africa

Europe
Andrew Jackson was the first president identified as a(n)

a. Democrat.
b. Independent.
c. Democratic-Republican.
d. Whig.
e. Republican.

Democrat
Which of the following is FALSE?

a. State parties are on the downswing throughout the country.
b. State parties are on the upswing throughout the country.
c. Today, almost all state parties have permanent physical headquarters and professional staff.
d. State parties primarily serve to supplement candidates’ personal campaign organizations.
e. State parties’ budgets have increased dramatically since the late 1970s.

State parties are on the downswing throughout the country.
A party’s endorsement to officially run for office as the candidate of that party is called a(n)

a. ballot.
b. ticket.
c. confirmation.
d. nomination.
e. appointment.

nomination
The Republicans lost the election of 1932 primarily due to

a. the nomination of a popular war hero by the Democrats.
b. Hitler’s election as chancellor of Germany and the Republicans’ failure to prevent it.
c. the failure of the Republicans to hold onto the support of urban industrialists.
d. rising political and economic instability in Europe.
e. President Herbert Hoover’s handling of the Depression.

President Herbert Hoover’s handling of the Depression
The election of 1828 that brought Andrew Jackson to the presidency was significant because it

a. marked the beginning of the dominance of northern industrialists.
b. marked the rise of the Whigs.
c. began the ascendancy of the New Deal coalition around the Democratic Party.
d. forged a new political coalition.
e. was the first time the Republican Party controlled Congress.

forged a new political coalition
The Republicans emerged as a powerful political party in the

a. 1790s.
b. 1890s.
c. 1850s.
d. 1820s.
e. 1930s.

1850s
Which of the following statements about the coalitions of the two major present-day political parties is FALSE?

a. A majority of young Americans with high income identify as Republicans.
b. Men are almost split in party identification.
c. A majority of women identify as Republicans.
d. A majority of Hispanic voters identify as Democrats.
e. A majority of older Americans with low income identify as Democrats.

A majority of women identify as Republicans.
Which of the following is TRUE about most third-party campaigns in American history?

a. They occasionally succeed.
b. They almost never win office.
c. They frequently are successful.
d. They have been most successful at promoting party dealignment.
e. They usually become major political parties over time.

They almost never win office.
A group of individuals with a common interest on which every political party depends are called a

a. party ballot.
b. party machine.
c. coalition.
d. party ticket.
e. national committee.

coalition
A party machine is a kind of local party organization that

a. specializes in computerized mass mailings both to raise funds and influence voters on behalf of its candidates.
b. threatens the efficiency of state and national party organizations.
c. remains strong in most large American cities.
d. has recently come to depend heavily on ethnic group support.
e. uses specific and material inducements to win party loyalty and power.

uses specific and material inducements to win party loyalty and power
Which of the following was NOT part of Nixon’s “Southern Strategy”?

a. Emphasizing a strong military posture
b. Breaking the Democrat’s long hold over southern conservatives
c. Overturning Brown v. Board of Education
d. Emphasizing states’ rights
e. Emphasizing law and order

Overturning Brown v. Board of Education
The Depression of the 1930s gave rise to what is called

a. the Era of Divided Government.
b. party competition.
c. the New Deal coalition.
d. econopolitics.
e. the Republican resurgence.

the New Deal coalition
Which of the following is FALSE?

a. A majority of Americans with high income identify with the Democratic Party.
b. African Americans identify overwhelmingly with the Democratic Party.
c. Jews identify overwhelmingly with the Republican Party.
d. A majority of Americans with low income identify with the Democratic Party.
e. Most white evangelicals identify with the Republican Party.

Jews identify overwhelmingly with the Republican Party.
Who among the following was NOT a national party chairperson?

a. Tim Kaine
b. Bill Clinton
c. Howard Dean
d. Bob Dole
e. George H. W. Bush

Bill Clinton.
Primaries that allow voters to decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests are called

a. political primaries.
b. blanket primaries.
c. open primaries.
d. closed primaries.
e. party machine primaries.

open primaries
Which of the following is FALSE about the Federalist Party?

a. It quickly faded following John Adam’s failed reelection bid in 1800.
b. It was created, in part, by Alexander Hamilton’s efforts to establish a national bank.
c. It was the nation’s most short-lived party.
d. It was comprised by a group of professional politicians.
e. It was crushed by the Democratic-Republicans.

It was comprised by a group of professional politicians.

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